The annelid community of a shallow Mediterranean lagoon (Gialova Lagoon, Ionian Sea) was studied on a seasonal basis. Out of the 39 species identified eight are reported for the first time from the central Mediterranean. The dominant species were the polychaetes Capitella capitata, Neodexiospira pseudocorrugata, Malacoceros fuliginosus, Perinereis cultrifera, Hediste diversicolor, Heteromastus filiformis and the oligochaete Limnodriloides maslinicensis. Uni- and multivariate methods were employed to study the community structure. The coenocline observed is strongly related to the degree of isolation; its main features (i.e. number of species, density, geometric abundance and size-classes) in space and time are presented and discussed in detail. The distribution pattern of the annelid community has been found to be governed by a different set of environmental factors in each season. Although this narrow lagoonal habitat suffers severe dystrophic episodes it manages to recover, demonstrating a seasonal community pattern.