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With still limited information on vitamin requirements and considering that many commercial practices adopt dietary vitamin levels above the values suggested by nutritional tables, this study aimed to assess the effect of administering vitamin supplementation to sows in gestation and lactation and to their litters on the reproductive performance and body condition of the sows and on the performance and immune profile of the litters until slaughter. The trial was split into two phases. The first phase used 104 sows, assigned to be randomized to blocks according to parity, submitted until 21 days of lactation to two treatments: control–standard (standard levels of vitamins) and test–elevated (elevated levels of vitamins). Each sow and its respective farrow were considered an experimental unit. The sows underwent evaluations of body condition score, back fat thickness and reproductive performance. In the second phase, 60 barrows and 60 gilts at 21 days of age and mean initial weight of 5.33 ± 1.5 kg until slaughter at 164 days of age. The piglets were assigned to randomized blocks according to the weight and sex of the animals in a 2 × 2 factorial model, with 10 replicates per treatment, where a pen with three animals represented the experimental unit. Following the same treatments of the first phase, the piglets were evaluated for daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate and humoral immune response. Vitamin supplementation had no positive effects on the reproductive parameters or body composition of sows. However, it positively impacted the performance of the litters in the early nursery stage, but did not lead to superior effects on the immune responses to vaccination against circovirus or mycoplasma.
An aurantiactinomyxon type is described from the marine naidid Tubificoides pseudogaster (Dahl, 1960), collected from the lower estuary of a Northern Portuguese River. This type constitutes the first of its collective group to be reported from Portugal, and only the fourth described from a marine oligochaete worldwide. Extensive morphological comparisons of new aurantiactinomyxon isolates to all known types without available molecular data are proposed to be unnecessary, given the artificiality of the usage of morphological criteria for actinosporean differentiation and the apparent strict host specificity of the group. Recognition of naidid oligochaetes as the hosts of choice for marine types of aurantiactinomyxon and other collective groups, suggests that the family Naididae played a preponderant role in the myxosporean colonization of estuarine communities. Molecular analyses of the type in study further infer its involvement in the life cycle of Paramyxidium giardi (Cépède, 1906) Freeman and Kristmundsson, 2018, a species that infects the kidney of European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) and that has been reported globally, including from Portuguese waters. The low intraspecific difference registered in relation to Icelandic isolates of P. giardi (0.6%) is hypothesized to result from the emergence of genotypically different subspecies due to geographic isolation.
Identifying the convective/absolute instability nature of a local base flow requires an analysis of its linear impulse response. One must find the appropriate singularity in the eigenvalue problem with complex frequencies and wavenumbers and prove causality. One way to do so is to show that the appropriate integration contour of this response, a steepest decent path through the relevant singularity, exists. Due to the inherent difficulties of such a proof, one often verifies instead whether this singularity satisfies the collision criterion. In other words, one must show that the branches involved in the formation of this singularity come from distinct halves of the complex wavenumber plane. However, this graphical search is computationally intensive in a single plane and essentially prohibitive in two planes. A significant computational cost reduction can be achieved when root finding procedures are applied instead of graphical ones to search for singularities. They focus on locating these points, with causality being verified graphically a posteriori for a small parametric sample size. The use of root-finding procedures require auxiliary equations, often derived by applying the zero group velocity conditions to the dispersion relation. This relation, in turn, is derived by applying matrix forming to the differential eigenvalue problem and taking the determinant of the resulting system of algebraic equations. Taking the derivative of the dispersion relation with respect to the wavenumbers generates the auxiliary equations. If the algebraic system is decoupled, this derivation is straightforward. However, its computational cost is often prohibitive when the algebraic system is coupled. Other methods exist, but often they can also be too costly and/or not reliable for two wavenumber plane searches. This paper describes an alternative methodology based on sensitivity analysis and adjoints that allow the zero group velocity conditions to be applied directly to the differential eigenvalue problem. In doing so, the direct and auxiliary differential eigenvalue problems can be solved simultaneously using standard shooting methods to directly locate singularities. Auxiliary dispersion relations no longer have to be derived, although it is shown that they are the algebraic equivalent of the auxiliary differential eigenvalue problems obtained by this alternative methodology. Using the latter dramatically reduces computational costs. The search for arbitrary singularities is then not only accelerated in single wavenumber planes but it also becomes viable in two wavenumber planes. Finally, the new method also allows group velocity calculations, greatly facilitating the verification of causality. Several test cases are presented to illustrate the capabilities of this new method.
The fraction of organic matter present affects the fragmentation behavior of sialoliths; thus, pretherapeutic information on the degree of mineralization is relevant for a correct selection of lithotripsy procedures. This work proposes a methodology for in vivo characterization of salivary calculi in the pretherapeutic context. Sialoliths were characterized in detail by X-ray computed microtomography (μCT) in combination with atomic emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Correlative analysis of the same specimens was performed by in vivo and ex vivo helical computed tomography (HCT) and ex vivo μCT. The mineral matter in the sialoliths consisted essentially of apatite (89 vol%) and whitlockite (11 vol%) with average density of 1.8 g/cm3. In hydrated conditions, the mineral mass prevailed with 53 ± 13 wt%, whereas the organic matter, with a density of 1.2 g/cm3, occupied 65 ± 10% of the sialoliths’ volume. A quantitative relation between sialoliths mineral density and X-ray attenuation is proposed for both HCT and μCT.
Mullets inhabit a wide range of habitats from tropical to temperate regions and play a critical role in their ecosystems. This commercially important fish group constitutes a significant source of food in several geographic regions, and the production of some species for consumption is an increasing trend. About 64 myxosporean species have been reported in mullets, some of which are cryptic, as is the case of Myxobolus exiguus, and M. muelleri. This paper provides, for the first time, a detailed and critical revision of the data available for myxobolids reported in mullets, determining the species that have bona fide mugiliform fish hosts, in accordance with the original species descriptions, the available molecular data and the currently accepted taxonomic and phylogenetic criteria. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference and maximum-likelihood methodologies suggest that the evolutionary history of myxobolids with bona fide mugiliform fish hosts reflects that of its vertebrate hosts, while reinforcing known evolutionary factors and old systematic issues of the clade of myxobolids. A comprehensive morphological, ultrastructural and molecular redescription is also provided for the cryptic species M. exiguus, from infections in the visceral peritoneum of the thinlip-grey mullet Chelon ramada in the River Minho, Portugal.
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Results showed a polarized Th1 response generated after vaccination, being based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); which were associated with lower production of specific IL-4, IL-10 and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies. Vaccinated mice presented significant reductions in the parasite load in the infected tissue and distinct organs, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we presented a strategy to identify new mimotopes able to induce Th1 response in PBMCs from TL patients and healthy subjects, and that were successfully used to protect against L. amazonensis infection.
The goal of this study was to analyse the spatial pattern of tuberculosis (TB) mortality using different approaches, namely: mortality rates (MR), spatial relative risks (RR) and Bayesian rates (Global and Local) and their association with human development index (HDI), Global and its three dimensions: education, longevity and income. An ecological study was developed in Curitiba, Brazil based on data from Mortality Information System (2008–2014). Spatial scan statistics were used to compute RR and identify high-risk clusters. Bivariate Local Indicator of Spatial Associations was used to assess associations. MR ranged between 0 and 25.24/100.000 with a mean (standard deviation) of 1.07 (2.66). Corresponding values for spatial RR were 0–27.46, 1.2 (2.99) and for Bayesian rates (Global and Local) were 0.49–1.66, 0.90 (0.19) and 0–6.59, 0.98 (0.80). High-risk clusters were identified for all variables, except for HDI-income and Global Bayesian rate. Significant negative spatial relations were found between MR and income; between RR and HDI global, longevity and income; and Bayesian rates with all variables. Some areas presented different patterns: low social development/low risk and high risk/high development. These results demonstrate that social development variables should be considered, in mortality due TB.
Leprosy still represents a serious health problem in a number of countries, including Brazil. Although leprosy has been associated with poverty for a long time, it is still difficult to accurately define this relationship. Here, we evaluated in an endemic municipality the progress from 1995 to 2015 of epidemiological indicators to establish if there were any strong associations between social indicators and the occurrence of leprosy. An ecological study was conducted using the SINAN database (Brazilian leprosy-national notifiable diseases information system) in combination with georeferencing of leprosy cases. The georeferencing used the ArcGis programme and occurrence of cases was evaluated in relation to the Health Vulnerability Index (HVI), an indicator that categorises socio-economic and sanitation factors. The data identified a marked decrease in the overall prevalence of leprosy, a reduction in the new case-detection rate and a reduction in the number of cases with grade 2 disabilities (albeit with transient peaks in 2007 and 2015). Logistic regression analysis showed association of detection rates with elevated HVI. Thus, while the epidemiological indicators point to the elimination of leprosy, there is evidence of hidden cases and an association between higher rates of leprosy detection and greater social vulnerability remain.
The usefulness of molecular genetic markers as a tool for the conservation, characterisation and differentiation of domestic animal populations are shown in the following text, that summarises diverse applications to Iberian pigs.
Concentrate mixtures fed ruminants generally are composed by cereals where phosphorus is present mainly in phytate form or phytin (Maga, 1982). Phytate phosphorus is thought to be completely available to ruminants due to the presence of phytase enzyme that hydrolyzes phytate phosphorus making it available for absorption. Researches have shown that this fact is not always true, depending on different conditions (Park et al., 2000). The aim of this paper was to study the influence of phytate phosphorus on calcium availability.
Meat from lambs finished with high-starch diets often contains low concentration of vaccenic (t11-18:1) and rumenic (c9,t11-18:2) acids and high concentration of t10-18:1. We hypothesized that replacing cereals by dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP) and the inclusion of tanniferous feed sources in oil supplemented diets might reduce the accumulation of t10-18:1 and increase the t11-18:1 and c9,t11-18:2 in lamb meat, without affecting the productive performance. In total, 32 lambs were assigned to four diets which combine two factors: basal diet (BD) (cereals v. DCP) and Cistus ladanifer (CL) (0 v. 150 g/kg dry matter). Feed intake, average daily weight gain and carcass traits were not affected by treatments, except for dressing percentage that was reduced with DCP (P=0.046). Both DCP and C. ladanifer reduced tenderness and juiciness of meat, and C. ladanifer also reduced (P<0.001) meat overall acceptability. Intramuscular fat and the concentration of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) were not affected (P>0.05) by diets. However, DCP increased the proportions of odd-chain FA (P=0.005) and several minor biohydrogenation (BH) intermediates in meat lipids. C. ladanifer had few effects on meat FA profile. The proportions of t11-18:1 and c9,t11-18:2 were high in all diets (5.4% and 1.5% of total FA, respectively) and were not influenced by the treatments. Basal diet and CL showed some significant interactions concerning FA composition of intramuscular fat. In diets without C. ladanifer, replacement of cereals by DCP increased the 18:0 (P<0.05) and decreased t10,c12-18:2 (P<0.05), t10-18:1 (P<0.10) and t10-/t11-18:1 ratio (P<0.10) with a large reduction of the individual variation for t10-18:1 and of t10-/t11-18:1 ratio. Combined with cereals, C. ladanifer increased 18:0 and reduced the BH intermediates in meat. Replacement of cereals by DCP seems to promote a more predictable FA profile in lamb meat, reducing the risk of t10-shifted BH pathways in the rumen.
In this study, we isolate and analyse a new set of microsatellite loci for Cattleya walkeriana. Twenty-two primer pairs were screened for C. walkeriana (n = 32) and assessed for their transferability to Cattleya loddigesii (n = 12) and Cattleya nobilior (n = 06). All loci amplified for C. walkeriana; however, for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior, four and five primers, respectively, did not present amplification. The polymorphic loci presented between 2 and 13 alleles per locus for both C. walkeriana and C. loddigesii, with respective averages of 5.1 and 4.2. For C. nobilior, we found between two and five alleles per locus, with an average of 2.6. For C. walkeriana, observed heterozygosity varied from 0.100 to 0.966, whereas expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.097 to 0.900. The observed and expected heterozygosity for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior were also estimated. We found no significant linkage disequilibrium between any pair of loci, and evidence of null alleles at four loci (Cw16, Cw24, Cw30 and Cw31) for C. walkeriana. The combined power to exclude the first parent and combined non-exclusion probability of identity were 0.999 and 2.3 × 10−20, respectively. These new loci can be used in studies of germplasm resources, and assessments of genotypic and genetic diversity and population structure, thus improving the accuracy of such analyses and their applicability in the conservation and protection of these endangered species.
We present a study of the turbulence cascade on the centreline of an inhomogeneous and anisotropic near-field turbulent wake generated by a square prism at a Reynolds number of
using the Kármán–Howarth–Monin–Hill equation. This is the fully generalised scale-by-scale energy balance which, unlike the Kármán–Howarth equation, does not require homogeneity or isotropy assumptions. Our data are obtained from a direct numerical simulation and therefore enable us to access all of the processes involved in this energy balance. A significant range of length scales exists where the orientation-averaged nonlinear interscale transfer rate is approximately constant and negative, indicating a forward turbulence cascade on average. This average cascade consists of coexisting forward and inverse cascade behaviours in different scale-space orientations. With increasing distance from the prism but within the near field of the wake, the orientation-averaged nonlinear interscale transfer rate tends to be approximately equal to minus the turbulence dissipation rate even though all of the inhomogeneity-related energy processes in the scale-by-scale energy balance are significant, if not equally important. We also find well-defined near
energy spectra in the streamwise direction, in particular at a centreline position where the inverse cascade behaviour occurs for streamwise oriented length scales.
The history and iconography of Swiss stained glass dating between the 16th and 18th centuries are well studied. However, the chemical and morphological characteristics of the glass and glass paints, particularly the nature of the raw materials, the provenance of the glass, and the technology used to produce it are less well understood. In this paper, we studied two sets of samples from stained-glass panels attributed to Switzerland, which date from the 16th to 17th centuries: the first set comes from Pena National Palace collection, the second from Vitrocentre Romont. The aims were to identify the materials used in the production of the glass, to find out more about their production origin and to characterize the glass paints. Both glass and the glass paints were analysed by particle-induced X-ray emission; the paints were additionally analysed by scanning electron microscopy–electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results show that the glass from both sets was probably produced in the same region and that wood ash was used as a fluxing agent. Different recipes have been used to make the blue enamels. However, the cobalt ore used as a coloring agent in all of the blue enamels came from the mining district in Schneeberg, Germany.
With the recent introductions of glyphosate- and dicamba-tolerant crops, such as soybean and cotton, there will be an increase in POST-applied tank-mixtures of these two herbicides. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate drift from dicamba applications. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dicamba with and without glyphosate sprayed through standard and air induction flat-fan nozzles on droplet spectrum and drift potential in a low-speed wind tunnel. Two standard (XR and TT) and two air induction (AIXR and TTI) 110015 nozzles were used. The applications were made at 276 kPa pressure in a 2.2 ms−1 wind speed. Herbicide treatments evaluated included dicamba alone at 560 gaeha−1 and dicamba+glyphosate at 560+1,260 gaeha−1. The droplet spectrum was measured using a laser diffraction system. Artificial targets were used as drift collectors, positioned in a wind tunnel from 2 to 12 m downwind from the nozzle. Drift potential was determined using a fluorescent tracer added to solutions, quantified by fluorimetry. Dicamba droplet spectrum and drift depended on the association between herbicide solution and nozzle type. Dicamba alone produced coarser droplets than dicamba+glyphosate when sprayed through air induction nozzles. Drift decreased exponentially as downwind distance increased and it was reduced using air induction nozzles for both herbicide solutions.
Lithotripsy methods show relatively low efficiency in the fragmentation of sialoliths compared with the success rates achieved in the destruction of renal calculi. However, the information available on the mechanical behavior of sialoliths is limited and their apparently tougher response is not fully understood. This work evaluates the hardness and Young’s modulus of sialoliths at different scales and analyzes specific damage patterns induced in these calcified structures by ultrasonic vibrations, pneumoballistic impacts, shock waves, and laser ablation. A clear correlation between local mechanical properties and ultrastructure/chemistry has been established: sialoliths are composite materials consisting of hard and soft components of mineralized and organic nature, respectively. Ultrasonic and pneumoballistic reverberations damage preferentially highly mineralized regions, leaving relatively unaffected the surrounding organic matter. In contrast, shock waves leach the organic component and lead to erosion of the overall structure. Laser ablation destroys homogeneously the irradiated zones regardless of the mineralized/organic nature of the underlying ultrastructure; however, damage is less extensive than with mechanical methods. Overall, the present results show that composition and internal structure are key features behind sialoliths’ comminution behavior and that the organic matter contributes to reduce the therapeutic efficiency of lithotripsy methods.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the compatibility between the Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) curves proposed for the Brazilian littoral and mangrove dynamics along a fluvial valley in the state of southern Bahia. This was done integrating geomorphological, sedimentological, palynological, and stable isotopic data from two cores collected at the mouth of the Jucuruçu River and at a site 23 km inland, near the city of Prado, northeastern Brazil. Core PR07, sampled from a fluvial plain at about 4.5±1 m above the RSL, reveals mangrove pollen (5–20%) and estuarine/terrestrial organic matter (δ13C=~–25‰, C/N=7.3–67) between 4.5 m (~7400 cal yr BP) and 1.75 m depth (~5350 cal yr BP). Core PR11, sampled from a mangrove tidal flat, also revealed mangrove pollen taxa (5-28%) since 660 cal yr BP. Core PR07 indicated absence of mangrove pollen and increase of sedimentary organic matter sourced from terrestrial C3 plants (δ13C=~–27‰, C/N=22–159) during the last 5350 cal yr BP. Probably, the changes in vegetation and sedimentary organic matter identified in core PR07 were caused by the combined effects of the RSL fluctuations, with a highstand at about 5350 cal yr BP of 2.7±1.35 m, and changes in fluvial discharge.
The Laboratory for Intense Lasers (L2I) is a research centre in optics and lasers dedicated to experimental research in high intensity laser science and technology and laser plasma interaction. Currently the laboratory is undergoing an upgrade with the goal of increasing the versatility of the laser systems available to the users, as well as increasing the pulse repetition rate. In this paper we review the current status of the laser research and development programme of this facility, namely the upgraded capability and the recent progress towards the installation of an ultrashort, diode-pumped OPCPA laser system.
We conducted a survival analysis with competing risks to estimate the mortality rate and predictive factors for immunodeficiency-related death in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in northeast Brazil. A cohort with 2372 PLWH was enrolled between July 2007 and June 2010 and monitored until 31 December 2012 at two healthcare centres. The event of interest was immunodeficiency-related death, which was defined based on the Coding Causes of Death in HIV Protocol (CoDe). The predictor variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, illicit drugs, tobacco, alcohol, nutritional status, antiretroviral therapy, anaemia and CD4 cell count at baseline; and treatment or chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis (TB) during follow-up. We used Fine & Gray's model for the survival analyses with competing risks, since we had regarded immunodeficiency-unrelated deaths as a competing event, and we estimated the adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratios (SHRs). In 10 012·6 person-years of observation there were 3·1 deaths/100 person-years (2·3 immunodeficiency-related and 0·8 immunodeficiency-unrelated). TB (SHR 4·01), anaemia (SHR 3·58), CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (SHR 3·33) and being unemployed (SHR 1·56) were risk factors for immunodeficiency-related death. This study discloses a 13% coverage by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in our state and adds that anaemia at baseline or the incidence of TB may increase the specific risk of dying from HIV-immunodeficiency, regardless of HAART and CD4.