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This chapter presents an overview of the mental status examination, its core elements, and its most commonly used methods. The mental status examination focuses on cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and related sensorimotor functions and their disturbances - i.e., neuropsychiatric symptoms, signs, and syndromes. Through observation, interview, and testing, the mental status examination identifies the symptoms and signs of structural and/or functional disturbances of the brain. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs are sometimes categorized as positive or negative. Atypical clinical presentations sometimes are neurological condition-specific variants of typical neuropsychiatric syndromes. The observational components of the mental status examination are undertaken at the first moment of any form of contact with a patient and continue throughout the entire clinical encounter. Observation continues throughout the clinical interview, during which the examiner attends to the patient's appearance, behavior, statements, manner of communicating, and interpersonal interactions with examiner.
The merger of behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry into a single medical subspecialty, Behavioral Neurology & Neuropsychiatry, requires an understanding of brain-behavior relationships and a clinical approach that transcends the traditional perspectives of neurology and psychiatry. Designed as a primer of concepts and principles, and authored by a multidisciplinary group of internationally known clinical neuroscientists, this book divides into three sections:Structural and Functional Neuroanatomy (Section I) addresses the neuroanatomy and phenomenology of cognition, emotion, and behaviorClinical Assessment (Section II) describes neuropsychiatric history taking, neurological and mental status examinations, neuropsychological assessment, and neuroimaging, electrophysiologic, and laboratory methodsTreatment (Section III) discusses environmental, behavioral, rehabilitative, psychological, social, pharmacological, and procedural interventions for cognitive, emotional, and behavioral disorders.By emphasizing the principles of Behavioral Neurology & Neuropsychiatry, this book will improve your understanding of brain-behavior relationships and inform your care of patients and families affected by neurobehavioral disorders.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems use superconducting electronics and magnetic shielding to detect the magnetic fields generated by synaptic neuronal activity. This chapter focuses on two types of quantitative analyses of human electrophysiological data: spectral analysis methods and evoked potentials. Spectral analysis of Electroencephalography (EEG) and MEG signals across multiple sensor locations reveals clear spatial patterns. EEG and MEG activity can be subdivided into three major subdivisions: spontaneous activity, evoked responses, and induced responses. Evoked responses are time domain averages across multiple trials of a repeating stimulus or response. Electroencephalographic and MEG methods based on time-frequency transformation are usually concerned with capturing changes in the brain's oscillatory phenomena produced by stimuli, mental events, or responses. A valid measure of connectivity between regions of the brain engaged in the same cognitive process or behavior is among the most highly prized uses of EEG and MEG data.
This chapter describes the neuroanatomy of language beginning with the foundation in the classical lesion model and concludes with an updated view of language-brain organization. Clinical aphasia or language impairments from brain lesions have been the window to localization of language in the brain. The neuropathologic lesion underlying transcortical sensory aphasia is in the left angular gyrus in the parietal region or in the left posterior superior or middle temporal gyri. Language impairment from the basal ganglia may resemble transcortical motor aphasia. Individuals with Paul Broca's aphasia demonstrate comprehension impairments and difficulty integrating words into the context of a sentence. In Karl Wernicke's aphasia, content words tend to be absent or replaced by general terms or associations based on context. Current information modifies the classical Wernicke-Geschwind model of language to incorporate the contributions of perisylvian processing hubs that participate in sequential, neurocomputational operations on language-related information.
Brief meetings were held to confirm the elections of the incoming Division President, Francoise Genova and Vice President, Ray Norris along with the Organizing Committee which will consist of the incoming Presidents of the 7 Commissions (5,6,14,41,46,50 and 55) plus additional nominated members. The incoming Organizing Committee will thus consist of: