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Whole grain cereal breakfast consumption has been associated with beneficial effects on glucose and insulin metabolism as well as satiety. Pearl millet is a popular ancient grain variety that can be grown in hot, dry regions. However, little is known about its health effects. This study investigated the effect of a pearl millet porridge (PMP) compared with a well-known Scottish oats porridge (SOP) on glycaemic, gastrointestinal, hormonal and appetitive responses. In a randomized, two way crossover trial, 26 healthy participants consumed two iso-energetic/volumetric PMP or SOP breakfast meals, served with a drink of water. Blood samples for glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GIP and PYY, gastric volumes and appetite ratings were collected for two hours postprandially, followed by an ad libitum meal and food intake records for the remainder of the day. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC2h) for blood glucose was not significantly different between the porridges (p ˃ 0.05). The iAUC2h gastric volume was larger for PMP compared with SOP (p = 0.045). The iAUC2h GIP concentration was significantly lower for PMP compared with SOP (p = 0.001). Other hormones and appetite responses were similar between meals. In conclusion, this study reports, for the first time, data on glycaemic and physiological responses to a pearl millet breakfast, showing that this ancient grain could represent a sustainable, alternative, with health-promoting characteristics comparable to oats. GIP is an incretin hormone linked to triacylglycerol absorption in adipose tissue, therefore the lower GIP response for PMP may be an added health benefit.
The Southern Ocean is the largest of the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the world ocean. Phytoplankton production fails to utilise completely the pool of inorganic nutrients in the euphotic zone, giving rise to low phytoplankton bio-mass and leaving relatively high summer nutrient concentrations. This enigma is of considerable significance for our understanding of the role of the oceans in the global carbon cycle. Various limiting factors have been considered: low light, low temperature, absence of necessary trace elements, grazing pressure and other means of biomass removal.
The dynamics of nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton are of particular importance. Classically, nitrate mixed into the surface layer during winter provides the nitrogen pool for growth in the spring bloom. Some organic material is exported to depth, whilst the remainder is recycled, providing ammonium and other reduced species as nitrogenous substrates for growth during the remainder of the season. The oxidation state of the inorganic nitrogen supply thus identifies new and recycled carbon fixation. Whilst this is convenient “shorthand” for the nitrogen nutrition of carbon export in much of the ocean, it is an inappropriate model for the Southern Ocean. Here, nitrate and ammonium use are simultaneous, and nitrate is never exhausted by the annual phytoplankton production.
We speculate that a range of environmental factors combine to make the large pool of nitrate partially inaccessible to phytoplankton. in addition to the documented effects of low iron availability and high ammonium concentrations, the low temperatures characteristic of the Southern Ocean may decrease nitrate availability because of the increased energetic overheads in its uptake and reduction. This in turn makes ammonium an important nitrogenous substrate, and its production by zooplankton and heterotrophic microorganisms is an important component of the plankton nitrogen cycle. There is some evidence that ammonium production by large grazing animals may stimulate phytoplankton growth. Microbial removal of nitrogen from sedimenting phytoplankton cells may result in local decoupling between the carbon and nitrogen cycles, allowing some reduced nitrogen to remain in the euphotic zone whilst carbon is exported to depth.
Background: For adolescents with epilepsy, there is often a poor system in place to meet their individualized transition needs. Our objectives were 1) to develop epilepsy-specific transition care management plans (TCMPs) to ensure access, and attachment to adult healthcare providers, and 2) to identify strategies for providing support during the transition period, including through the development of physician and patient (or caregiver) navigated web-based tools, resources and recommendations for health system improvements. Methods: Physicians and nurses with expertise in areas including adult and pediatric epilepsy, family medicine, psychiatry, and varied allied health professionals were engaged to generate epilepsy-related TCMPs. Results: Through an iterative process spanning the course of over a year, TCMPs were developed to cover areas including: treatment responsive and resistant epilepsy, ketogenic diet, epilepsy surgery, women’s issues, mental health, and psychosocial aspects of epilepsy. The TCMPs referenced established guidelines and best practices in the literature wherever possible. Caregiver roles and responsibilities were outlined, remaining cognoscent of available provincial resources. Conclusions: Epilepsy specific TCMPs can be developed through a collaborative approach between pediatric and adult healthcare providers, easing the patient experience, creating educated accountability, and providing a forum to identify and address gaps of care in adolescents with epilepsy.
The 1971 Expedition was in the field for almost a month over Easter, thanks to the continued kindness and good will of the Libyan Department of Antiquities, and further generous financial support from the British Academy, the Seven Pillars of Wisdom Trust, the Society for Libyan Studies and the University of Newcastle.
The site of Saniat Gebril lies 300 yards east of the abandoned mud-brick town of Germa. Trial trenching (1965) and surface sherding had shown that at least 5 acres of compact settlement existed there, with the strong likelihood that more sparsely-placed buildings stretched as far as Germa. From the previous work it was thought that the main settlement consisted of a series of smallish mud-brick buildings, occupied from the late-first century A.D. until the early-third century, when the site was abandoned and not subsequently re-occupied.
The Early Iron Age enclosures and associated sites on Sutton Common on the western edge of the Humberhead Levels contain an exceptional variety of archaeological data of importance not only to the region but for the study of later prehistory in the British Isles. Few other later prehistoric British sites outside the East Anglian fens and the Somerset Levels have thus far produced the quantity and quality of organically preserved archaeological materials that have been found, despite the small scale of the investigations to date. The excavations have provided an opportunity to integrate a variety of environmental analyses, of wood, pollen, beetles, waterlogged and carbonised plant remains, and of soil micromorphology, to address archaeological questions about the character, use, and environment of this Early Iron Age marsh fort. The site is comprised of a timber palisaded enclosure and a succeeding multivallate enclosure linked to a smaller enclosure by a timber alignment across a palaeochannel, with associated finds ranging in date from the Middle Bronze Age to the Roman and medieval periods. Among the four adjacent archaeological sites is an Early Mesolithic occupation site, also with organic preservation, and there is a Late Neolithic site beneath the large enclosure. Desiccation throughout the common is leading to the damage and loss of wooden and organic remains. It is hoped that the publication of these results, of investigations between 1987 and 1993, will lead to a fuller investigation taking place.
Field observations from the Trinity Peninsula Group at View Point on the Antarctic Peninsula indicate that thick, southward-younging and overturned clastic sedimentary rocks, comprising unusually coarse conglomeratic lenses within a succession of fine-grained sandstone–mudstone couplets, are the deposits of debris and turbidity flows on or at the foot of a submarine slope. Three detrital zircons from the sandstone–mudstone couplets date deposition at 302 ± 3 Ma, at or shortly after the Carboniferous–Permian boundary. Conglomerates predominantly consist of quartzite and granite and contain boulders exceeding 500 mm in diameter. Zircons from granitoid clasts and a silicic volcanic clast yield U–Pb ages of 466 ± 3 Ma, 373 ± 5 Ma and 487 ± 4 Ma, respectively and have corresponding average εHft values between +0.3 and +7.6. A quartzite clast, conglomerate matrix and sandstone interbedded with the conglomerate units have broadly similar detrital zircon age distributions and Hf isotope compositions. The clast and detrital zircon ages match well with sources within Patagonia; however, the age of one granite clast and the εHf characteristics of some detrital zircons point to a lesser South Africa or Ellsworth Mountain-like contribution, and the quartzite and granite-dominated composition of the conglomerates is similar to upper Palaeozoic diamictites in the Ellsworth Mountains. Unlike detrital zircons, large conglomerate clasts limit possible transport distance, and suggest sedimentation took place on or near the edge of continental crust. Comparison with other upper Palaeozoic to Mesozoic sediments in the Antarctic Peninsula and Patagonia, including detrital zircon composition and the style of deformation, suggests deposition of the Trinity Peninsula Group in an upper plate basin on an active margin, rather than a subduction-related accretionary setting, with slow extension and rifting punctuated by short periods of compression.
The MBE growth and related materials characterisation of InSb/InAlSb strained-layer structures is described. Band-gap considerations and critical thickness calculations are presented and indicate that this material system should offer considerable device potential. Detailed structural studies, performed using both transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, confirm the growth of high quality multiple quantum-wells, and 2K photoluminescence has shown corresponding energy upshifted transitions.
Bombardment damage produced by Si+ ions in AlxGa1−xAs/GaAs layer structures has been studied using transmission electron microscopy and ion channeling and backscattering spectrometry. The damage resistance of A1xGa1−xAs alloy layers increases with Al concentration. In particular, by comparison of complementary Si+ ion doses yielding similar nuclear displacement densities at 150keV and 2MeV bombardment energies, it is demonstrated for the first time that the local concentration of implanted Si impurity is likely to be a significant factor in controlling lattice damage build-up, especially for the highest Si+ ion implantation doses. It is also shown that, in a manner analogous to A1As, the alloy layers can confer a significant protection from ion damage upon adjacent, epitaxially-bonded narrow zones of crystalline GaAs.
The material-dependent manner in which ion damage occurs in AlAs/GaAs heteroepitaxial structures is demonstrated using conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Both 150keV and 2MeV Si+ ion implants are employed over a wide range of ion doses. Under conditions which yield rapid build-up of lattice damage in GaAs, the AlAs is found to be relatively resistant to structure breakdown. Indeed, the crystalline AlAs exerts a novel protective effect on immediately adjacent regions of the GaAs layers. For high implantation doses amorphous-crystal superlattices are formed in multilayer structures. For the highest ion doses the AlAs lattice begins to be disrupted by a characteristic, boundary-dependent, heterogeneous mechanism. These observations suggest that mobile point defects play a significant role in AlAs in situ restructuring processes.
The implantation of Ar+ ions into AlAs/GaAs layered samples is shown to give very different damage structures in the two materials. While the GaAs is relatively easily amorphised, the AlAs is quite resistant to damage accumulation and remains crystalline for the ion doses employed in these investigations. The behaviour of the different damage structures when subjected to rapid thermal annealing treatments is described in some detail. It is demonstrated that differences in the initial damage state have a strong influence upon the nature of lattice defects produced by annealing.
The contrast of misfit dislocations in an InGaAs layer, close to the critical thickness and capped with GaAs grown by MBE on a (001) oriented GaAs substrate has been investigated by double axis synchrotron X-radiation topography. The layer thickness variation as a function of position has been measured to a precision of 1A by matching interference fringes observed in the 004 symmetric reflection double crystal rocking curves with simulations. The misfit dislocation density is highly anisotropic, varying from zero to a high value with increasing thickness. The contrast of the dislocations in the 004, 224 and 044 reflections has been examined in detail. All of the long dislocation segments characterized were 60° in character with ½<110> Burgers vectors inclined to the specimen surface. No dislocations were found which did not appear to be of this type. A surprising difference in contrast of the background in the 224 and 224 reflections is discussed.
Plague, which is most often caused by the bite of Yersinia pestis-infected fleas, is a rapidly progressing, serious disease that can be fatal without prompt antibiotic treatment. In late December 2007, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred in Nimroz Province of southern Afghanistan. Of the 83 probable cases of illness, 17 died (case fatality 20·5%). Being a case was associated with consumption or handling of camel meat (adjusted odds ratio 4·4, 95% confidence interval 2·2–8·8, P<0·001). Molecular testing of patient clinical samples and of tissue from the camel using PCR/electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry revealed DNA signatures consistent with Yersinia pestis. Confirmatory testing using real-time PCR and immunological seroconversion of one of the patients confirmed that the outbreak was caused by plague, with a rare gastrointestinal presentation. The study highlights the challenges of identifying infectious agents in low-resource settings; it is the first reported occurrence of plague in Afghanistan.
The conditions for satisfactory fumigation with formaldehyde were investigated using suspensions of Staph. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa dried as drops on strips of polythene or after mixing with cotton dust. In laboratory experiments with controlled concentrations of formaldehyde and water vapour, satisfactory results were obtained at 86 % humidity, but at 32 % humidity the formaldehyde was virtually inactive.
Measurements under field conditions showed that the permanganate method of vaporizing formaldehyde did not vaporize enough water to produce optimum conditions for sterilization, and that great care was necessary in the sealing of rooms. When sterilization was incomplete the surviving organisms were not uniformly distributed within the room.
In the limited circumstances in which fumigation with formaldehyde is thought to be essential, the process should be controlled by estimating the formaldehyde and water vapour concentrations initially and after 3 hr.
A total of 39 mutants at the grey-3, grey-4 and grey-5 spore colour loci in Sordaria brevicollis have been investigated for conversion pattern by crossing them with wild type and counting aberrant asci. Twenty-one of the mutants were obtained with ICR170 and all showed postmeiotic segregation only rarely (0–8% of the aberrant asci); two showed conversion predominantly to wild type (class A) and the other 19 predominantly to mutant (class B). Six mutants were obtained with ethylmethane sulphonate and one with nitrosoguanidine, and they all showed postmeiotic segregation frequently (14–54% of the aberrant asci) and conversion usually about equally frequently in each direction, though with considerable diversity between mutants (class C). Eleven UV-induced mutants comprised one of class B and ten of class C. There was considerable variation in aberrant ascus frequency between alleles, but conversion pattern seemed to be independent of this frequency.
The effects of the horticultural oil Purespray Green on oviposition behaviour and egg development in the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), were investigated through dual-choice and no-choice bioassays and topical applications of oil to developing eggs. A residual 2% (v/v) oil spray on wax-paper and apple-leaf substrates significantly reduced both the number of eggs laid and egg survival in no-choice assays; however, this effect diminished 3 days after treatment. In dual-choice assays, females laid significantly fewer eggs on oil-treated apple leaves than on control leaves, but laid equal numbers of eggs on the oil-treated wax paper and the untreated wax-paper controls. Topical application of oil caused significant dose-dependent mortality of both newly laid eggs and eggs just before hatch, and these two egg stages were equally susceptible to the oil. Topical application of 2% oil caused >99% egg mortality. Our data indicate that gravid female C. rosaceana can assess and reject oil-sprayed surfaces and that the oil can kill eggs through both contact toxicity and suffocation. These characteristics suggest that highly purified horticultural oils like Purespray Green could play a role in an integrated pest management program for this important pest species.
Dating the pre-Middle Ordovician metavolcanic rocks and metagranites of the Ollo de Sapo Domain has, historically, been difficult because of the small compositional variation, the effects of the Variscan orogeny and, as revealed in this paper, the unusually high fraction of inherited zircon components. The first reliable zircon data (U–Pb ion microprobe and Pb–Pb stepwise evaporation) indicate that the Ollo de Sapo volcanism spanned 495±5 Ma to 483±3 Ma, and was followed by the intrusion of high-level granites from 483±3 Ma to 474±4 Ma. In both metavolcanic rocks and metagranites, no less than 70–80% of zircon grains are either totally Precambrian or contain a Precambrian core overgrown by a Cambro-Ordovician rim. About 80–90% of inherited zircons are Early Ediacaran (602–614 Ma) and derived from calc-alkaline intermediate to felsic igneous rocks generated at the end of the Pan-African arc–continent collision. In the Villadepera region, located to the west, both the metagranites and metavolcanic rocks also contain Meso-Archaean zircons (3.0–3.2 Ga) which ultimately originated from the West African Craton. In the Hiendelaencina region, located to the east, both the metagranites and metavolcanic rocks lack Meso-Archaean zircons, but they have two different inherited zircon populations, one Cryogenian (650–700 Ma) and the other Tonian (850–900 Ma), which suggest older-than-Ediacaran additional island-arc components. The different proportion of source components and the marked variation of the 87Sr/86Srinit. suggest, at least tentatively, that the across-arc polarity of the remnants of the Pan-African arc of Iberia trended east–west (with respect to the current coordinates) during Cambro-Ordovician times, and that the passive margin was situated to the west.
The relationship between plutonic and volcanic rocks is central to understanding the geochemical evolution of silicic magma systems, but it is clouded by ambiguities associated with unravelling the plutonic record. Here we report an integrated U–Pb, O and Lu–Hf isotope study of zircons from three putative granitic–volcanic rock pairs from the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia, to explore the connection between the intrusive and extrusive realms. The data reveal contrasting petrogenetic scenarios for the S- and I-type pairs. The zircon Hf–O isotope systematics in an I-type dacite are very similar to those of their plutonic counterpart, supporting an essentially co-magmatic relationship between these units. The elevated δ18O of zircons in these I-type rocks confirm a significant supracrustal source component. The S-type volcanic rocks are not the simple erupted equivalents of the granites, although the extrusive and plutonic units can be related by open-system magmatic evolution. Zircons in the S-type rocks define covariant εHf–δ18O arrays that attest to mixing or assimilation processes between two components, one being the Ordovician metasedimentary country rocks, the other either an I-type magma or a mantle-derived magma. The data are consistent with models involving incremental melt extraction from relatively juvenile magmas undergoing open-system differentiation at depth, followed by crystal-liquid mixing upon emplacement in shallow magma reservoirs, or upon eruption. The latter juxtaposes crystals with markedly different petrogenetic histories and determines whole-rock geochemical and textural properties. This scenario can explain the puzzling decoupling between the bulk rock isotope and geochemical compositions commonly observed for granite suites.
This report, which was sponsored by the Life Board of the Faculty and Institute of Actuaries, was originally published in November 1997.
Because it is referred to several times in the paper ‘Reserving, Pricing and Hedging for Policies with Guaranteed Annuity Options’, and in the discussions of the paper, and because it is not easily accessible elsewhere, it is printed here as a background paper for reference.