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Sleep alterations are frequent occurrence in Bipolar Disorder (BD), both in acute and interepisodic phases. Sleep alterations have been also described both long before BD onset, as aspecific risk syndromes, or as immediate prodromes of BD onset. The aim of the present study is to systematically review the relationship between sleep alterations anticipating for the full-blown onset of BD, both in general and according to specific polarities of onset.
A systematic literature research according to PRISMA statement and considering: 1. prospective studies about BD patients’ offspring with sleep alterations who later developed BD. 2. prospective studies assessing patients with sleep disorders who later developed BD. 3. retrospective studies on BD patients where sleep alterations before BD onset of the disease were reported.
A total of 16 studies were included in this review. Sleep disturbances may frequently appear 1 year before the onset of BD or more, often during childhood or adolescence. A decreased need for sleep may precede the onset of the illness, specially a manic episode, while insomnia appears to anticipate either a manic or a depressive episode. Hypersomnia seems to precede bipolar depressive episodes.
Sleep alterations frequently appear long before the onset of BD, and appear to be related specifically to the polarity of the index episode. The detection and treatment of sleep alterations in special high risk populations may help achieving an earlier detection of the illness.
Older people have a higher risk of drug-related problems (DRPs). However, little is known about the prevalence of DRPs in community-dwelling people who screened positive for dementia. Our study aimed to determine (1) the prevalence and types of DRPs and (2) the socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with DRPs in people screened positive for dementia in primary care.
The Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (DelpHi-MV) study is a general practitioner (GP)-based cluster-randomized controlled intervention study to implement and evaluate an innovative concept of collaborative dementia care management in the primary care setting in Germany. Medication reviews of 446 study participants were conducted by pharmacists based on a comprehensive baseline assessment that included a computer-based home medication assessment. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01401582.
A total of 1,077 DRPs were documented. In 414 study participants (93%), at least one DRP was detected by a pharmacist. The most frequent DRPs were administration and compliance problems (60%), drug interactions (17%), and problems with inappropriate drug choice (15%). The number of DRPs was significantly associated with the total number of drugs taken and with a formal diagnosis of a mental or behavioral disorder.
Degree of cognitive impairment (MMSE defined) and formal diagnosis of dementia were not risk factors for an increased number of DRPs. However, the total number of drug taken and the presence of a diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders were associated with an increased total number of DRPs.
We present an in-depth study of metal-poor stars, based high resolution spectra combined with newly released astrometric data from Gaia, with special attention to observational uncertainties. The results are compared to those of other studies, including Gaia benchmark stars. Chemical evolution models are discussed, highlighting few puzzles that are still affecting our understanding of stellar nucleosynthesis and of the evolution of our Galaxy.
A combination of neutron diffraction, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements has been used to clarify the correlations between long- and local-range structural distortions across the spin-state transition in powders of LaCoO3 and La0.5Sr0.5Co0.75Nb0.25O3. The analysis of the diffraction data has revealed that the isotropic thermal parameters of Co–O bond abnormally increase below 100 K in both samples, while the temperature dependence of the average Co–O bond lengths is linear from 10 to 300 K. We also have found that the Co–O bond lengths are larger in La0.5Sr0.5Co0.75Nb0.25O3, as compared with the ones in LaCoO3. The X-ray absorption data showed an anomalous decrease of the Co–O bond lengths only for LaCoO3, in contrast to the bond length values obtained by diffraction. The structural anomalies observed by spectroscopy measurements are discussed in terms of the spin-state transition model.
Cattleya walkeriana, one of the most improved Brazilian Cattleyas, is a popular tropical orchid endemic from Brazil and currently endangered. In the present study, for the first time microsatellite markers were developed for C. walkeriana and their transferability was tested for the species C. loddigesii and C. nobilior. The markers were used for genotyping 26 C. walkeriana specimens from different growers and from different levels of improvement. The transferability was successful, with five polymorphic loci transferred to C. loddigesii and six polymorphic loci to C. nobilior. Eight loci were polymorphic, revealing a maximum of two to ten alleles per locus in C. walkeriana and two to four and two to five in C. loddigesii and C. nobilior, respectively. There was no significant linkage disequilibrium in the studied loci. For C. walkeriana, the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.963 and from 0.138 to 0.841, respectively. These markers identified polymorphisms and may be used to study the genetic diversity, gene flow or hybridization of these species.
Structural measurements have been performed on the La0.7Sr0.3Mn3+0.85Nb5+0.15O3 compound with oxidation state of manganese close to +3. The composition undergoes a structural transition from rhombohedral to orthorhombic symmetry below room temperature. The calculated structural parameters show that the orthorhombic phase is not long-range orbitally ordered and that the structural transition is associated with a steric effect. The compound is ferromagnetic with a Curie point of around 150 K and a magnetic moment of 3.1 μB/Mn. It is suggested that ferromagnetism is originated from superexchange interactions via oxygen. Covalence enhances the positive part of the superexchange interactions whereas structural disorder leads to suppression of ferromagnetism.
Neutron diffraction studies of the La0.5Ba0.5CoO2.8 at the different temperatures has been performed. This solid solution crystallizes in the cubic structure (Pm3m space group) and exhibits below TN ~ 250K G-type antifferomagnetic ordering. Applied pressure suppresses magnetic ordering. Anomalous changes of the lattice parameters under pressure have been found.
Nuclear fuel plates based on a γU-Mo/Al mixture are proposed for research reactors. In this work their thermal behavior in the [425; 550°C] temperature range has been studied mainly by neutron and high energy X-ray diffraction. Even if complementary studies will be necessary, the kinetics of first the growth of the interaction layer between γU-Mo and Al and second of the γU-Mo destabilization have been accurately measured. This basic work should be helpful for defining manufacturing conditions for fuel plates with optimized composition.
The field of time-domain astronomy is expected to enjoy a golden age during this decade. However, the traditional method for the classification of transient candidates using spectra obtained with medium- to large-aperture telescopes is extremely time consuming and struggling to keep up with the discovery rate. The Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) Machine uses a new approach in order to overcome this shortcoming.
Complex Metallic Alloys (CMAs) are metallic solids of high structural complexity, consisting of large numbers of atoms in their unit cells. Consequences of this structural complexity are manifold and give rise to a variety of exciting physical properties. The impact that such structural complexity may have on the lattice dynamics will be discussed. The surprising dynamical flexibility of Tsai-type clusters with the symmetry breaking central tetrahedron will be addressed for Zn6Sc, while in the Ba-Ge-Ni clathrate system the dynamics of encaged Ba guest atoms in the surrounding Ge-Ni host framework is analysed with respect to the experimentally evidenced strong reduction of lattice thermal conductivity. For both systems experimental results from neutron scattering are analyzed and interpreted on atomistic scale by means of ab initio and molecular dynamics simulations, resulting in a picture with the respective structural building blocks as the origin of the peculiarities in the dynamics.
Synchrotron-based X-ray techniques are used increasingly to characterize actinide element speciation in heterogeneous media related to nuclear waste disposal safety. Especially techniques offering added temporal, spatial and energy resolved information are advancing our understanding of f-element physics and chemistry in general and of actinide element waste disposal in particular. Examples of investigations of uranium containing systems using both highly (energy) resolved X-ray emission spectroscopy (HRXES) techniques and spatially resolved techniques with focused X-ray beams are presented in this paper: polarization dependent partial fluorescence yield X-ray absorption near edge structure (PD-PFY-XANES) spectroscopic studies of a single Cs2UO2Cl4 crystal, which experimentally reveal a splitting of the σ, π, and δ components of the 6d valence states , and characterization of UO2/Mo thin films prepared on different substrates using a combination of techniques (2D and 3D micro- and nano-X-ray fluorescence, XANES and both holographic and ptychographic tomography).
In previous work, a platform was developed for testing computer-vision algorithms for robotic planetary exploration. This platform consisted of a digital video camera connected to a wearable computer for real-time processing of images at geological and astrobiological field sites. The real-time processing included image segmentation and the generation of interest points based upon uncommonness in the segmentation maps. Also in previous work, this platform for testing computer-vision algorithms has been ported to a more ergonomic alternative platform, consisting of a phone camera connected via the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) network to a remote-server computer. The wearable-computer platform has been tested at geological and astrobiological field sites in Spain (Rivas Vaciamadrid and Riba de Santiuste), and the phone camera has been tested at a geological field site in Malta. In this work, we (i) apply a Hopfield neural-network algorithm for novelty detection based upon colour, (ii) integrate a field-capable digital microscope on the wearable computer platform, (iii) test this novelty detection with the digital microscope at Rivas Vaciamadrid, (iv) develop a Bluetooth communication mode for the phone-camera platform, in order to allow access to a mobile processing computer at the field sites, and (v) test the novelty detection on the Bluetooth-enabled phone camera connected to a netbook computer at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. This systems engineering and field testing have together allowed us to develop a real-time computer-vision system that is capable, for example, of identifying lichens as novel within a series of images acquired in semi-arid desert environments. We acquired sequences of images of geologic outcrops in Utah and Spain consisting of various rock types and colours to test this algorithm. The algorithm robustly recognized previously observed units by their colour, while requiring only a single image or a few images to learn colours as familiar, demonstrating its fast learning capability.
The efficacy of administering a perfluorochemical-based oxygen therapeutic such as perflubron emulsion (Oxygent™) prior to ischaemia is currently unknown, although there is evidence for potential beneficial effects for the perioperative treatment in cardiac risk patients. This experimental study investigated the efficacy of perflubron emulsion in preventing reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction size after coronary ischaemia and reperfusion. The perflubron emulsion was given either in a prophylactic manner, prior to induction of myocardial ischaemia, or as a therapeutic agent given during ischaemia.
Thirty-two anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated rats were subjected to 25 min occlusion of the left coronary artery followed by 120 min reperfusion. Animals were randomized to one of four groups: Group 1 was treated with administration of 6 g kg−1 intravenous perflubron emulsion 25 min before occlusion; Group 2 received the same dose 10 min after occlusion; and Groups 3 and 4 received no perflubron emulsion. Inspired O2 (FiO2) concentration was maintained at 1.0 in Groups 1, 2 and 3 and at 0.35 in Group 4.
Neither prophylactic nor therapeutic perflubron emulsion treatment reduced infarct size measurements by triphenyltetrazolium-chloride staining or severity of cardiac arrhythmias in comparison to the hyperoxic control group. However, prophylactic application of perflubron emulsion reduced areas of impaired perfusion vs. Group 3 assessed by in vivo staining with Thioflavin-S while no significant effect was seen in Groups 2 and 4 vs. 3. Density of DNA single-strand breaks in the ventricle was increased in all groups ventilated with 100% oxygen.
Although administration of perflubron emulsion did not reduce infarct size, areas of impaired perfusion were significantly mitigated when perflubron emulsion was administered prior to coronary occlusion. However, a high oxygen concentration may provoke DNA strand breaks during reperfusion after ischaemia. Further studies must clarify whether enhanced oxidative stress outweighs the advantage of improved areas of impaired perfusion following perflubron emulsion.
Phases that are in equilibrium with BaR2CuO6+x (R=lanthanides and Y), such as the “green-phase” and “brown-phase” structural variants of BaR2CuO5 in bulk samples, are attractive choices for flux-pinning for coated conductor applications because of the guaranteed chemical stability. In films, high-temperature x-ray diffraction studies of Ba2RCu3O6+x superconductor deposited on SrTiO3 substrate using the trifluoroacetate solution method demonstrate that while BaNd2CuO5 (“brown-phase” structure) develops at 735 °C and 100 Pa pO2, neither BaGd2CuO5 nor Ba(Nd1/3Eu1/3Gd1/3)2CuO5 (both green-phase structure) form at these conditions. As a result, Ba2(Nd1/3Eu1/3Gd1/3)Cu3O6+x in thin films is in equilibrium with the brown-phase, and Ba2GdCu3O6+x is in equilibrium with Gd2O3 in the Ba–Gd–Cu–O system, in contrast to the bulk systems. Different phase relationships in the vicinity of the Ba2RCu3O6+x phase imply different phases are available for flux-pinning applications. These differences will need to be considered carefully in designing optimized superconducting coated conductors.
We have used a simple camera phone to significantly improve an ‘exploration system’ for astrobiology and geology. This camera phone will make it much easier to develop and test computer-vision algorithms for future planetary exploration. We envision that the ‘Astrobiology Phone-cam’ exploration system can be fruitfully used in other problem domains as well.
Nb-silicide based in-situ composites consist of a ductile Nb-based solid solution with high-strength silicides, and they show excellent promise for aircraft engine applications. The Nb-silicide controls the high-temperature tensile behavior of the composite, and the Nb solid solution controls the low and intermediate temperature capability. The aim of the present study was to understand the effects of substitutional elements on the room temperature tensile behavior and identify the principal microstructural features contributing to strengthening mechanisms.
In order to reduce operation costs and to increase liquid steel production capacity, a team
"Ugine-Ardoise" and "UCAR Technical Assistance" has redimensioned new transformers for the
electric arc furnaces and has pushed the installation to its maximum limits while maintaining the
existing power input voltage infrastructure. The new transformers reactance has been
considerably increased in order to allow operation with "high power factors" (long arcs). This
modification has been done thanks to the fast investment returns, resulting from considerable
gains in productivity, electrode consumption and energy consumption. The installation is not
yet utilized at its full power, but after some additional transformations (electrode circle diameter
reduction on furnace No.2 and modification of electrode arms and electrode holding grips on
the two furnaces), one more heat could be realized per day.