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Schizophrenia (SKZ) is a disease characterized by positive and negative symptoms, thoughts and behaviour disorganization with a progressive socio-cognitive impairment1; deficits in facial emotion recognition (FER) represent one of the most serious problems linked to interpersonal problems2. In addition, these patients have often comorbid condition of alcohol and substances abuse3.
to compare the ability of FER in patients with SKZ using alcohol and/or substances (SKZ+SUD) compared to schizophrenics without SUD (SUD-SKZ).
we enrolled 53 subjects (M=40, F=13) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of SKZ (SCID I). The sample was divided according to alcohol and/or substance abuse (AUS and DUS) into two groups, compared for socio-demographic and clinic characteristics (PANSS and Bell model4). We analyzed the association between abuse condition and Ekman test performance.
SKZ+SUD (n=20; M=16, F=4) and SKZ-SUD (n=33; M=24, F=9) show a statistically significant age difference with a mean (SD) of 38.4 years (10.5) and 46.0 years (8.7) respectively (p=0.006). SKZ+SUD Ekman test score (mean=43.1, SD=6.9) was statistically higher (p=0.006) than SKZ-SUD (mean=34.6, SD=12.0). The different performance was more evident in comparison with poly-abusers (44.94±7.05 vs 12.04±34.6; p=0.002). We further noticed the role of disorganization as a mediator of the relationship between abuse and FER score (p=0.017): the proportion of the effect of abuse on Ekman test score was 48%.
In subjects with SKZ, FER seems to be less impaired in abusers than non-abusers. We also showed an important role of thoughts and behavioral disorganization as a mediator between SKZ+SUD and FER.
Quality tools for the assessment of social and functional participation in patients suffering from fibromyalgia are few and far between. The Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire (FPQ) achieves reliable results in its original version in German and this project aims to achieve a translated, culturally adapted and validated version of it in Spanish.
The questionnaire has been translated according to the FACIT methodology and tested at the Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Salud Mental (mental health department) in North Almería. Once the preliminary tests were carried out, the final version of the questionnaire was created. The final version underwent a validation process, during which its psychometric properties were analysed, and its reliability evaluated through internal consistency and test-retest, Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Several different types of validity were also analysed including external validity, construct and convergent validity estimated using correlation coefficients, content validity using empirical evaluation and discriminant validity using a DIF analysis. Floor and ceiling effects were also evaluated. The process in its entirety has been approved by the Comité Ético de Investigación Clínica (research ethics committee for clinical investigation) in Almería.
The validation of the FPQ into different languages will provide medical professionals with a new tool for the assessment of patients with fibromyalgia, which will allow for improved treatment methods based on results.
Little is known about who would benefit from Internet-based personalised nutrition (PN) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of participants who achieved greatest improvements (i.e. benefit) in diet, adiposity and biomarkers following an Internet-based PN intervention. Adults (n 1607) from seven European countries were recruited into a 6-month, randomised controlled trial (Food4Me) and randomised to receive conventional dietary advice (control) or PN advice. Information on dietary intake, adiposity, physical activity (PA), blood biomarkers and participant characteristics was collected at baseline and month 6. Benefit from the intervention was defined as ≥5 % change in the primary outcome (Healthy Eating Index) and secondary outcomes (waist circumference and BMI, PA, sedentary time and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, carotenoids and omega-3 index) at month 6. For our primary outcome, benefit from the intervention was greater in older participants, women and participants with lower HEI scores at baseline. Benefit was greater for individuals reporting greater self-efficacy for ‘sticking to healthful foods’ and who ‘felt weird if [they] didn’t eat healthily’. Participants benefited more if they reported wanting to improve their health and well-being. The characteristics of individuals benefiting did not differ by other demographic, health-related, anthropometric or genotypic characteristics. Findings were similar for secondary outcomes. These findings have implications for the design of more effective future PN intervention studies and for tailored nutritional advice in public health and clinical settings.
Pseudocorynosoma constrictum (Van Cleave, 1918) is a polymorphid acanthocephalan that attaches to the digestive tract of waterfowl to complete its life cycle, causing severe histological damage to its definitive avian hosts. In the present study, we present a histopathological analysis of the lesions that P. constrictum induced in the layers of the ileum of the blue-winged teal Anas discors. The results revealed that worms insert the attachment structures into the inner gut muscular layer, which causes substantial swelling, haemorrhaging and necrosis in the tissue near the parasite's proboscis. We also observed that the number of parasites attached to the tissue can obstruct the intestinal lumen; in the most serious case, we observed more than 30 parasites penetrating completely the walls of the bird intestine.
The disease caused by the influenza virus is a global public health problem due to its high rates of morbidity and mortality. Thus, analysis of the information generated by epidemiological surveillance systems has vital importance for health decision making. A retrospective analysis was performed using data generated by the four molecular diagnostic laboratories of the Mexican Social Security Institute between 2010 and 2016. Demographics, influenza positivity, seasonality, treatment choices and vaccination status analyses were performed for the vaccine according to its composition for each season. In all cases, both the different influenza subtypes and different age groups were considered separately. The circulation of A/H1N1pdm09 (48.7%), influenza A/H3N2 (21.1%), influenza B (12.6%), influenza A not subtyped (11%) and influenza A/H1N1 (6.6%) exhibited well-defined annual seasonality between November and March, and there were significant increases in the number of cases every 2 years. An inadequate use of oseltamivir was determined in 38% of cases, and the vaccination status in general varied between 12.1 and 18.5% depending on the season. Our results provide current information about influenza in Mexico and demonstrate the need to update both operational case definitions and medical practice guidelines to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics and antivirals.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus linked to mucosal and cutaneous carcinogenesis. More than 200 different HPV types exist. We carried out a transversal study to investigate the prevalence of HPV types in two regions of Mexico. A total of 724 genital and non-genital samples from women (F) and men (M) were studied; 241 (33%) from North-Eastern (NE) and 483 (66%) from South-Central (SC) Mexico. The overall prevalence was 87%. In genital lesions from females, the NE group showed a prevalence of HPV types 16 (37%), 6 (13%), 59 (6%), 11, 18 and 66 (5.4% each); and the SC group showed types 6 (17%), 16 (15%), 11 (14.5%), 18 (12%) and 53 (6%). In the genital lesions from males, NE group showed types 16 (38%), 6 (21%), 11 (13%) and 59 plus 31 (7.5%) and the SC group showed types 6 (25%), 11 (22%), 18 (17%) and 16 (11.5%). When the two regions were compared, a higher prevalence of low-risk HPV 6 and 11 was found in the SC region and of high-risk HPV 59, 31 and 66 (the latter can also be present in benign lesions) in the NE region. Our findings complement efforts to understand HPV demographics as a prerequisite to guide and assess the impact of preventive interventions.
Traditionally, personalised nutrition was delivered at an individual level. However, the concept of delivering tailored dietary advice at a group level through the identification of metabotypes or groups of metabolically similar individuals has emerged. Although this approach to personalised nutrition looks promising, further work is needed to examine this concept across a wider population group. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to: (1) identify metabotypes in a European population and (2) develop targeted dietary advice solutions for these metabotypes. Using data from the Food4Me study (n 1607), k-means cluster analysis revealed the presence of three metabolically distinct clusters based on twenty-seven metabolic markers including cholesterol, individual fatty acids and carotenoids. Cluster 2 was identified as a metabolically healthy metabotype as these individuals had the highest Omega-3 Index (6·56 (sd 1·29) %), carotenoids (2·15 (sd 0·71) µm) and lowest total saturated fat levels. On the basis of its fatty acid profile, cluster 1 was characterised as a metabolically unhealthy cluster. Targeted dietary advice solutions were developed per cluster using a decision tree approach. Testing of the approach was performed by comparison with the personalised dietary advice, delivered by nutritionists to Food4Me study participants (n 180). Excellent agreement was observed between the targeted and individualised approaches with an average match of 82 % at the level of delivery of the same dietary message. Future work should ascertain whether this proposed method could be utilised in a healthcare setting, for the rapid and efficient delivery of tailored dietary advice solutions.
Stemming from The Worldwide Donkey Breeds Project, an initiative aiming at connecting international researchers and entities working with the donkey species, molecularly tested pedigree analyses were carried out to study the genetic diversity, structure and historical evolution of the Andalusian donkey breed since the 1980s to infer a model to study the situation of international endangered donkey breeds under the remarkably frequent unknown genetical background status behind them. Demographic and genetic variability parameters were evaluated using ENDOG (v4.8). Pedigree completeness and generation length were quantified for the four gametic pathways. Despite mean inbreeding was low, highly inbred animals were present in the pedigree. Average coancestry, relatedness, and non-random mating degree trends were computed. The effective population size based on individual inbreeding rate was about half when based on individual coancestry rate. Nei’s distances and equivalent subpopulations number indicated differentiated farms in a highly structured population. Although genetic diversity loss since the founder generations could be considered small, intraherd breeding policies and the excessive contribution of few ancestors to the gene pool could lead to narrower pedigree bottlenecks. Long average generation intervals could be considered when reducing inbreeding. Wright’s fixation statistics indicated slight inbreeding between farms. Pedigree shallowness suggested applying new breeding strategies to reliably estimate descriptive parameters and control the negative effects of inbreeding, which could indeed, mean the key to preserve such valuable animal resources avoiding the extinction they potentially head towards, making the present model become an international referent when assessing endangered donkey populations.
Within the framework of the AUSPICIO (AUtomatic Scaling of Polar Ionograms and Co-operative Ionospheric Observations) project, a limited sample of ionograms recorded mostly in 2001 and 2009, and to a lesser extent in 2006–07 and 2012–15, at the ionospheric observatories of Hobart and Macquarie Island (mid-latitude), Comandante Ferraz and Livingstone Island (high latitude), and Casey, Mawson, Davis and Scott Base (inside the Antarctic Polar Circle (APC)) were considered to study the capability of the NeQuick2 and IRI2012 models for predicting the behaviour of the ionosphere at mid- and high latitudes and over the Antarctic area. The applicability of NeQuick2 and IRI2012 was evaluated as i) climatological models taking as input the F10.7 solar activity index and ii) assimilative models ingesting the foF2 and hmF2 measurements obtained from the electron density profiles provided by the Adaptive Ionospheric Profiler (AIP). The statistical analysis results reveal that the best description of the ionosphere’s electron density is achieved when the AIP measurements are ingested into the NeQuick2 and IRI2012 models. Moreover, NeQuick2 performance is far better than IRI2012 performance outside the APC. Conversely, the IRI2012 model performs better than the NeQuick2 model inside the APC.
Individual response to dietary interventions can be highly variable. The phenotypic characteristics of those who will respond positively to personalised dietary advice are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the phenotypic profiles of differential responders to personalised dietary intervention, with a focus on total circulating cholesterol. Subjects from the Food4Me multi-centre study were classified as responders or non-responders to dietary advice on the basis of the change in cholesterol level from baseline to month 6, with lower and upper quartiles defined as responder and non-responder groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between demographic and anthropometric profiles of the groups. Furthermore, with the exception of alcohol, there was no significant difference in reported dietary intake, at baseline. However, there were marked differences in baseline fatty acid profiles. The responder group had significantly higher levels of stearic acid (18 : 0, P=0·034) and lower levels of palmitic acid (16 : 0, P=0·009). Total MUFA (P=0·016) and total PUFA (P=0·008) also differed between the groups. In a step-wise logistic regression model, age, baseline total cholesterol, glucose, five fatty acids and alcohol intakes were selected as factors that successfully discriminated responders from non-responders, with sensitivity of 82 % and specificity of 83 %. The successful delivery of personalised dietary advice may depend on our ability to identify phenotypes that are responsive. The results demonstrate the potential use of metabolic profiles in identifying response to an intervention and could play an important role in the development of precision nutrition.
To characterise clusters of individuals based on adherence to dietary recommendations and to determine whether changes in Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores in response to a personalised nutrition (PN) intervention varied between clusters.
Food4Me study participants were clustered according to whether their baseline dietary intakes met European dietary recommendations. Changes in HEI scores between baseline and month 6 were compared between clusters and stratified by whether individuals received generalised or PN advice.
Individuals in cluster 1 (C1) met all recommended intakes except for red meat, those in cluster 2 (C2) met two recommendations, and those in cluster 3 (C3) and cluster 4 (C4) met one recommendation each. C1 had higher intakes of white fish, beans and lentils and low-fat dairy products and lower percentage energy intake from SFA (P<0·05). C2 consumed less chips and pizza and fried foods than C3 and C4 (P<0·05). C1 were lighter, had lower BMI and waist circumference than C3 and were more physically active than C4 (P<0·05). More individuals in C4 were smokers and wanted to lose weight than in C1 (P<0·05). Individuals who received PN advice in C4 reported greater improvements in HEI compared with C3 and C1 (P<0·05).
The cluster where the fewest recommendations were met (C4) reported greater improvements in HEI following a 6-month trial of PN whereas there was no difference between clusters for those randomised to the Control, non-personalised dietary intervention.
To characterise participants who dropped out of the Food4Me Proof-of-Principle study.
The Food4Me study was an Internet-based, 6-month, four-arm, randomised controlled trial. The control group received generalised dietary and lifestyle recommendations, whereas participants randomised to three different levels of personalised nutrition (PN) received advice based on dietary, phenotypic and/or genotypic data, respectively (with either more or less frequent feedback).
Seven recruitment sites: UK, Ireland, The Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Poland and Greece.
Adults aged 18–79 years (n 1607).
A total of 337 (21 %) participants dropped out during the intervention. At baseline, dropouts had higher BMI (0·5 kg/m2; P<0·001). Attrition did not differ significantly between individuals receiving generalised dietary guidelines (Control) and those randomised to PN. Participants were more likely to drop out (OR; 95 % CI) if they received more frequent feedback (1·81; 1·36, 2·41; P<0·001), were female (1·38; 1·06, 1·78; P=0·015), less than 45 years old (2·57; 1·95, 3·39; P<0·001) and obese (2·25; 1·47, 3·43; P<0·001). Attrition was more likely in participants who reported an interest in losing weight (1·53; 1·19, 1·97; P<0·001) or skipping meals (1·75; 1·16, 2·65; P=0·008), and less likely if participants claimed to eat healthily frequently (0·62; 0·45, 0·86; P=0·003).
Attrition did not differ between participants receiving generalised or PN advice but more frequent feedback was related to attrition for those randomised to PN interventions. Better strategies are required to minimise dropouts among younger and obese individuals participating in PN interventions and more frequent feedback may be an unnecessary burden.
The aim of this study is to compare the corrosion rate of aluminum alloys for ornamental pieces. Three Fe/Cu relationships were tested in order to improve hardness and brightness in aluminum pieces since these alloys are used in the making of ornamental pieces. The variation on Fe/Cu content could result in modification on corrosion rate, since a metallographic characterization must be carried out identifying the presence of intermetallic phases. The presence of these elements could result in increasing corrosion rate, or even in modification of corrosion morphology, so localized corrosion could be expected.
The assessment of corrosion rate was carried out in saline media, since chlorides are ions that promote localized corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (polarization curves and Tafel plots) were used in order to evaluate the attack in aluminum pieces; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was also employed with voltage amplitude of 10 mV rms, and a frequency range from 10,000 Hz to 0.01 Hz. A typical three electrodes cell was used, exposing an area of one cm2. Before polarization, open circuit potential was monitored for an hour looking for a steady state. All conditions were tested for triplicate.
The behavior of open circuit potential vs. time, and polarization curves was analyzed; a corrosion mechanism is proposed according to the electrochemical control. Polarization rate was calculated by using Tafel plots and, an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis by using equivalent electric circuits is shown. Electrochemical impedance will yield information about corrosion morphology that is backed with microscopic inspection.
The objective of this study is to compare the corrosion rate of aluminum alloys for ornamental pieces in order to determine the effect of the relationship Fe/Cu on the corrosion mechanism in aluminum parts for ornamental pieces.
The array of the TiO2 nanotubular films, also called one-dimensional nanostructures is carried out by electrochemical anodization tests, for which, titanium sheets were used with a high purity (99.7% and 0.25 mm thickness) in a solution of deionized water and glycerol (50:50 vol.%) + 0.27M NH4F applying a voltage of 20V. Electrochemical tests were performed at an anodization time of 2:30 hours and 3:30 hours. For the tests mirror polished foils and unpolished foils with flat surfaces to achieve better uniform arrays during the anodic growth of nanotubes were used. After anodizing, samples were observed in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the geometry and morphology of the films. Also, potentiodynamic polarization curves were performed for samples crystallized at 600 °C and 450 °C (polished and unpolished) to determine the electrochemical stability of the films, which were presented at two aqueous solutions: 1M of Na2SO4 (pH= 6.7) and 1M Na2SO4 + H2SO4 (pH= 3.2). Mechanical characterization was also performed by nanoindentation technique through the application of loading/unloaings of: (1, 2.5, 5, 10 mN). Chemical characterization was performed using XRD analysis, with the aim to determine the crystalline phases formed in the films crystallized at 450 °C and 600 °C. The electrochemical characterization showed that the TiO2 nanotubular film obtained by mirror polished and crystallized at 600 °C showed better electrochemical stability. Nanoindentation tests showed deformation curves, and the parameters such as hardness, Vickers hardness, elastic modulus and the maximum penetration depth were determined as mechanical parameters.
The aim of this work was to assess the corrosion and degradation effects of a biofuel on metallic materials tested in an experimental internal combustion engine (ICE). Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel for diesel, for industrial applications ranging from boilers to ICE. The experimental vehicle motor, fitted with carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys was operated with local biodiesel. The corrosion performance was evaluated by gravimetric, chemical and electrochemical techniques, following the practices recommended in ASTM and NACE standards for corrosion testing. This work is the result of an international cooperation between the Institute of Engineering, Autonomous University of Baja California, Mexico and the Corrosion Research Center, Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, Israel. The characteristics and conditions of the ICE operated with biodiesel, and the results of the corrosion essays are presented, analyzed and discussed.