To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The functional composition of plant communities in montane regions has been studied for decades, and most recent analyses find that environmentally favourable landscapes at lower altitudes tend to be dominated by species with resource-acquisitive traits, while more resource-conservative taxa dominate higher-altitude communities. However, it is unclear the extent to which this pattern is driven by co-gradient variation within clades or changes in clade representation across the gradient. To test for co-gradient variation, species composition, phylogenetic structure and functional traits were quantified for 97 species within the plant family Melastomataceae at five locations across a 2500-m altitudinal gradient along Volcán Barva in Costa Rica. Average melastome leaf force to punch, specific leaf area and leaf size vary with altitude, while four other functional traits do not. Taxonomic dissimilarity between communities was correlated with altitudinal difference, while phylogenetic dissimilarity was correlated with altitudinal dissimilarity only when measured with a metric that emphasizes shallow turnover of the tips of the phylogeny. These results highlight how species turnover may be more pronounced than functional or phylogenetic variation along altitudinal gradients. In addition, these results highlight the conservation value of lowland tropical forests, which here harbour a disproportionate amount of phylogenetic and functional diversity.
We compared rotavirus detection patterns before (2001–2006) and after (2008–2015) rotavirus vaccine introduction. We also compared rotavirus detection patterns in odd (2009, 2011, 2013, 2015) and even (2008, 2010, 2012, 2014) years post-vaccine separately. Results of stool rotavirus antigen testing from inpatient, outpatient and emergency department encounters from July 2000 to July 2015 at two paediatric hospital laboratories in Atlanta, Georgia were reviewed. Post-vaccine, rotavirus detection declined (30.2% vs. 13.7% (overall 54.6% decline, P <0.001)), occurred more frequently outside the rotavirus season (19.8% vs. 3.5%; P < 0.001), and was more common among older children (26 vs. 13 median months of age; P < 0.001). During odd years post-vaccine, rotavirus detection was significantly higher than even years (20.2% vs. 6.4%; P < 0.001). Rotavirus detection declined substantially and developed a biennial pattern in the post-vaccine era. The intensity and temporality of rotavirus detection in odd years post-vaccine resembled that observed pre-vaccine, although considerably reduced in magnitude.
A number of laser facilities coming online all over the world promise the capability of high-power laser experiments with shot repetition rates between 1 and 10 Hz. Target availability and technical issues related to the interaction environment could become a bottleneck for the exploitation of such facilities. In this paper, we report on target needs for three different classes of experiments: dynamic compression physics, electron transport and isochoric heating, and laser-driven particle and radiation sources. We also review some of the most challenging issues in target fabrication and high repetition rate operation. Finally, we discuss current target supply strategies and future perspectives to establish a sustainable target provision infrastructure for advanced laser facilities.
Nutrition during pregnancy can impact on the susceptibility of the offspring to CVD. Postnatal consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA), associated with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO), increases the risk of atherosclerosis, whereas evidence for those TFA associated with ruminant-derived dairy products and meat remain equivocal. In this study, we investigate the impact of maternal consumption of dietary PHVO (P) and ruminant milk fat (R) on the development of atherosclerosis in their offspring, using the transgenic apoE*3 Leiden mouse. Dams were fed either chow (C) or one of three high-fat diets: a diet reflecting the SFA content of a ‘Western’ diet (W) or one enriched with either P or R. Diets were fed during either pregnancy alone or pregnancy and lactation. Weaned offspring were then transferred to an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. Atherosclerosis was assessed as lipid staining in cross-sections of the aorta. There was a significant effect of maternal diet during pregnancy on development of atherosclerosis (P=0·013) in the offspring with those born of mothers fed R or P during pregnancy displaying smaller lesions that those fed C or W. This was not associated with changes in total or lipoprotein cholesterol. Continuing to feed P during lactation increased atherosclerosis compared with that seen in offspring of dams fed P only during pregnancy (P<0·001). No such effect was seen in those from mothers fed R (P=0·596) or W (P=901). We conclude that dietary TFA have differing effects on cardiovascular risk at different stages of the lifecycle.
We describe preliminary results from our study of multi-scale structures in Centaurus A (NGC 5128) obtained using the Chandra X-ray Observatory HRC-I observations. The high-angular resolution Chandra images reveal X-ray multi-scale structures in this object with unprecedented detail and clarity. The region surrounding the Cen A nucleus, believed to be associated with a supermassive black hole, shows structures on arcsecond scales clearly resolved from the central source.
We discuss two themes from Chandra cluster observations. First, we describe the interaction of buoyant, radio emitting plasma bubbles with the hot intracluster gas. Second we summarize the Chandra observations of “cold” fronts (sharp discontinuities in gas density and temperature) separating cool, denser gas clouds from the hotter intracluster medium.
Germany has been an officially bovine tuberculosis (bTB)-free (OTF) country since 1996. Gradually rising numbers of bTB herd incidents due to Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae in North-Western and Southern Germany during the last few years prompted the competent authorities to conduct a nationwide bTB survey in 2013/2014. This led to the detection of a dairy herd in which as many as 55 cattle reacted positively to consecutive intra vitam testing. Test-positive animals lacked visible lesions indicative of bTB at necropsy. Extensive mycobacterial culturing as well as molecular testing of samples from 11 tissues for members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) yielded negative results throughout. However, caseous lymphadenitis of Ln. mandibularis accessorius was observed during meat inspection of a fattening pig from the same farm at regular slaughter at that time. Respective tissue samples tested MTC positive by polymerase chain reaction, and M. tuberculosis T1 family were identified by spoligotyping. Four human reactors within the farmer's family were also found to be immunoreactive. As exposure of livestock to M. tuberculosis is not generally considered, its impact may result in regulatory and practical difficulties when using protocols designed to detect classical bTB, particularly in OTF countries.
Objective: Despite growing adoption, the impact of prehospital initiation of therapeutic hypothermia on outcomes of cardiac arrest patients is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine if prehospital administration of cold intravenous fluids improved the time-to-target temperature.
Methods: All patients enrolled in an institutional post– cardiac arrest treatment pathway were prospectively registered into a quality assurance database. Patients undergoing cooling induction on hospital arrival were compared to those receiving a new treatment protocol initiated during the study period involving prehospital cooling with 4°C (39.2°F) normal saline. The primary outcome was the time-to-target temperature. Secondary outcomes included emergency medicine system transport time metrics, mortality, and neurologic status at discharge and 1 year.
Results: One hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled during the study period. The initial rhythm was ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia in 63% and asystole/pulseless electrical activity in 36%. Eighty patients received prehospital cooling and 52 patients did not and comprised the historical control group. Time-to-target temperatures were not significantly different between prehospital and hospital cooled groups (256 v. 271 minutes, respectively, p=0.64), nor was there any improvement in hospital survival (54% v. 50%, p=0.67), good neurologic outcome (49% v. 44%, p=0.61), or 1- year survival (49% v. 42%, p=0.46) between the two groups. Transport times were longer in the prehospital cooled group.
Conclusions: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients treated with prehospital cooling before arrival at our urban hospital did not have faster time-to-target temperature or improvement in outcomes compared to patients cooled immediately on emergency department arrival. Further research is needed to determine if any benefits exist from prehospital cooling prior to its widespread adoption.
Radio-loud AGN play an important rôle in galaxy evolution. We need to understand their properties, and the processes that affect their behaviour in order to model galaxy formation and development. We here present preliminary results of an investigation into the cluster environments of radio galaxies. We have found evidence of a strong correlation between radio luminosity and environment richness for low excitation radio galaxies, and no evidence of evolution of the environment with redshift. Conversely, for high excitation radio galaxies, we found no correlation with environment richness, and tentative evidence of evolution of the cluster environment.
Cygnus A, the nearest truly powerful radio galaxy, resides at the centre of a massive galaxy cluster. Chandra X-ray observations reveal its cocoon shocks, radio lobe cavities and an X-ray jet, which are discussed here. It is argued that X-ray emission from the outer regions of the cocoon shocks is nonthermal. The X-ray jets are best interpreted as synchrotron emission, suggesting that they, rather than the radio jets, are the path of energy flow from the nucleus to the hotspots. In that case, a model shows that the jet flow is non-relativistic and carries in excess of one solar mass per year.
The analysis of thickness-fringe contrast in weak-beam transmission electron microscope (TEM) images has been shown to be a reliable method for the complete determination of the character, as well as the magnitude, of a dislocation Burgers vector. By selecting multiple diffraction conditions and, for each condition, determining the number of terminating thickness fringes at the exit of a dislocation from a wedge-shaped sample, the Burgers vector can be unambiguously determined. Defect analysis of GaN pyramids grown on (111)Si by the lateral epitactic overgrowth (LEO) technique reveals a core region which contains a relatively high density of dislocations and a lateral-growth region where the defect density is decreased. The thickness-fringe contrast technique was used in the lateral growth regions of the pyramids to analyze the dislocation Burgers vectors.
Cold Gas Spraying is a new coating technique, in which the formation of dense, tightly bonded coatings occurs only due to the kinetic energy of high velocity particles of the spray powder. These particles are still in the solid state as they impinge on the substrate. Adiabatic heating after impingement can cause local shear instabilities and jet formation. The local microstructure is strongly dependant on local stress state and temperature rise. A variety of different microstructures is observed by TEM. The results are compared with modelling of the spray process.
In this study we present investigation on the anelastic behavior of sputtered 1 [.proportional]m thin Cu films. Most of the literature that reports on the mechanical properties of thin metallic films is based on substrate curvature measurements. We have developed a new version of a bulge tester that combines the capacitive measurement of the bulge deflection of a membrane with a resonance frequency measurement of the residual stress in the membrane. A Cu membrane is plastically deformed to a pre-determined strain by controlled gas-pressure bulging of the membrane. After the bulging stress is removed, the residual tensile stress, which has been decreased by the plastic deformation, is then determined by measuring the resonant frequency as a function of time. Immediately after plastic straining, the residual (tensile) stress of membranes was observed to increase. At room temperature a maximum stress was typically reached in the order of an hour. At still longer times the stress decreased again as a result of creep. The transient increase in stress following plastic straining grew larger as the amount of plastic strain produced by bulging was increased. With higher temperatures the transient became both faster and larger. A model is presented that based on the mechanism of thermally activated glide separates the microstructure in a class of “soft” and “hard” grains solving the issue of an “apparent” increase in strain energy as a function of time after deformation.
In this study the thermo-mechanical behavior of a commercial Pt containing NiAl coating deposited on a Ni-base superalloy is compared with a Ni-rich NiAl coating sputter-deposited on a Si substrate. Both types of coatings possess high tensile room temperature stresses after thermal straining. The Pt-NiAl coating shows negligible plasticity as a result of solid solution and dispersion strengthening. In contrast, for the NiAl coatings on Si noticeable plasticity can be obtained if the film thickness exceeds the sub-micrometer range.
Studies of the effect of different electrode combinations on the device characteristics of simple three layer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) prepared with poly(ρ-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) as the emissive layer sandwiched between two metal contacts have shown that it is generally more difficult to inject electrons than holes. In order to improve the efficiency of such devices it is, therefore, necessary to develop methods to enhance the injection of electrons and we illustrate here one example where we have successfully achieved this by the introduction of a further, electron transport, layer. The result is an eight fold increase in efficiency over our best three layer PPV devices. The efficiency is also dependent on the details of the polymer electronic structure and using a family of copolymers we have been able to produce enhancements in efficiency to values of up to 30 times that of the corresponding PPV devices. Variations in the polymer electronic structure also affect the colour of emission and the same family of copolymers allow control of emission colour from blue/green to orange/red. Supramolecular control of the copolymer electronic structure can be achieved by lithographic patterning and we show that it is possible to produce regions within a single polymer film that possess different π-π* energy gaps.
A brief review is given of models which propose a correlation between electromigration resistance and the mechanical strength of thin film interconnects. In an attempt to achieve metallurgical strengthening and improved electromigration resistance, aluminum films were implanted with oxygen ions. Preliminary electromigration tests on line arrays patterned from these films resulted in lifetimes comparable to the standard Al films. The lack of improvement is attributed to enhanced hillock/whisker growth during electromigration in the implanted interconnects. This behavior is coincident with a lower compressive strength in similarly treated continuous films at elevated temperatures as measured by the substrate curvature technique.
Because of the continuing miniaturization, electromigration (EM) phenomena are still a key issue in reliability of VLSI metallizations. The present study of EM induced voiding and hillocking was performed on unpassivated conductor lines with various widths and current densities. Stressed and unstressed interconnects were carefully examined with SEM and TEM techniques, especially with regard to void densities, void sizes and characteristic lengths between void and hillock. The fatal void shape was related to current density and line width indicating that the failure mechanism changes with decreasing line width and decreasing current density.