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Although a number of studies have examined the relationship between depression and obesity, it is still insufficient to establish the specific pattern of relationship between depression and body mass index (BMI) categories. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the relationship between depression and BMI categories.
A cross-sectional study was conducted for a cohort of 159,390 Korean based on Kangbuk Samsung Health Study (KSHS). Study participants were classified into 5 groups by Asian-specific cut-off of BMI (18.5, 23, 25 and 30 kg/m2). The presence of depression was determined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scales (CES-D) = 16 and = 25. The adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for depression were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis, in which independent variable was 5 categories of BMI and dependent variable was depression. Subgroup analysis was conducted by gender and age.
When normal group was set as a reference, the adjusted ORs for depression formed U-shaped pattern of relationship with BMI categories [underweight: 1.31 (1.14–1.50), overweight: 0.94 (0.85–1.04), obese group: 1.01 (0.91–1.12), severe obese group: 1.28 (1.05–1.54)]. This pattern of relationship was more prominent in female and young age group than male and elderly subgroup. BMI level with the lowest likelihood of depression was 18.5 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in women and 23 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in men.
There was a U-shaped relationship between depression and BMI categories. This finding suggests that both underweight and severe obesity are associated with the increased risk for depression.
The Asian elephant Elephas maximus is at risk of extinction as a result of anthropogenic pressures, and remaining populations are often small and fragmented remnants, occupying a fraction of the species' former range. Once widely distributed across China, only a maximum of 245 elephants are estimated to survive across seven small populations. We assessed the Asian elephant population in Nangunhe National Nature Reserve in Lincang Prefecture, China, using camera traps during May–July 2017, to estimate the population size and structure of this genetically important population. Although detection probability was low (0.31), we estimated a total population size of c. 20 individuals, and an effective density of 0.39 elephants per km2. Social structure indicated a strong sex ratio bias towards females, with only one adult male detected within the population. Most of the elephants associated as one herd but three adult females remained separate from the herd throughout the trapping period. These results highlight the fragility of remnant elephant populations such as Nangunhe and we suggest options such as a managed metapopulation approach for their continued survival in China and more widely.
Joe P. Buhler, Center for Communications Research, San Diego, CA 92121, USA,
Anthony C. Gamst, Center for Communications Research, San Diego, CA 92121, USA,
Ron Graham, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA,
Alfred W. Hales, Center for Communications Research, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
The Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) is a proposed radio continuum survey
of the Southern Hemisphere up to declination + 30°, with the Australian
Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). EMU will use an automated source
identification and measurement approach that is demonstrably optimal, to
maximise the reliability and robustness of the resulting radio source
catalogues. As a step toward this goal we conducted a “Data
Challenge” to test a variety of source finders on simulated images. The
aim is to quantify the accuracy and limitations of existing automated source
finding and measurement approaches. The Challenge initiators also tested the
current ASKAPsoft source-finding tool to establish how it could benefit from
incorporating successful features of the other tools. As expected, most finders
show completeness around 100% at ≈ 10σ dropping to about 10% by
≈ 5σ. Reliability is typically close to 100% at ≈
10σ, with performance to lower sensitivities varying between finders. All
finders show the expected trade-off, where a high completeness at low
signal-to-noise gives a corresponding reduction in reliability, and vice versa.
We conclude with a series of recommendations for improving the performance of
the ASKAPsoft source-finding tool.
Previously, it has been shown that strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) supplementations, when fed to rats from 19 to 21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenols, including decreased stress signalling, increased neurogenesis, and increased signals involved in learning and memory. Thus, the present study was carried out to examine these mechanisms in aged animals by administering a control, 2 % SB- or 2 % BB-supplemented diet to aged Fischer 344 rats for 8 weeks to ascertain their effectiveness in reversing age-related deficits in behavioural and neuronal function. The results showed that rats consuming the berry diets exhibited enhanced motor performance and improved cognition, specifically working memory. In addition, the rats supplemented with BB and SB diets showed increased hippocampal neurogenesis and expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, although the improvements in working memory performance could not solely be explained by these increases. The diverse polyphenolics in these berry fruits may have additional mechanisms of action that could account for their relative differences in efficacy.
“And when it comes to mathematics, you must realize that this is the human mind at the extreme limit of its capacity.”
“ … so reduce the use of the brain and calculate!”
(E. W. Dijkstra)
“The fact that a brain can do it seems to suggest that the difficulties [of trying with a machine] may not really be so bad as they now seem.”
§1. Computer calculation.
1.1. A panorama of the status quo. Where stands the mathematical endeavor?
In 2012, many mathematical utilities are reaching consolidation. It is an age of large aggregates and large repositories of mathematics: the arXiv, Math Reviews, and euDML, which promises to aggregate the many European archives such as Zentralblatt Math and Numdam. Sage aggregates dozens of mathematically oriented computer programs under a single Python-scripted front-end.
Book sales in the U.S. have been dropping for the past several years. Instead, online sources such as Wikipedia and Math Overflow are rapidly becoming students' preferred math references. The Polymath blog organizes massive mathematical collaborations. Other blogs organize previously isolated researchers into new fields of research. The slow, methodical deliberations of referees in the old school are giving way; now in a single stroke, Tao blogs, gets feedback, and publishes.
Machine Learning is in its ascendancy. Log Answer and Wolfram Alpha answer our elementary questions about the quantitative world; Watson our Jeopardy questions.
In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239 adolescents, assessed annually over 8 years. Latent growth modeling indicated different developmental trajectories from early into late adolescence for the different anxiety disorder symptoms, with some symptoms decreasing and other symptoms increasing over time. Sex differences in developmental trajectories were found for some symptoms, but not all. Furthermore, latent class growth analysis identified a normal developmental profile (including a majority of adolescents reporting persistent low anxiety disorder symptoms over 8 years) and an at-risk developmental profile (including a minority of adolescents reporting persistent high anxiety disorder symptoms over 8 years) for all of the anxiety disorder symptom dimensions except panic disorder. Additional analyses longitudinally supported the validity of these normal and at-risk developmental profiles and suggested differential associations between different anxiety disorder symptom dimensions and developmental trajectories of substance use, parenting, and identity development. Taken together, our results emphasize the importance of examining separate dimensions of anxiety disorder symptoms in contrast to a using a global, one-dimensional approach to anxiety.
If loose-housed farrowing systems are to be an alternative to traditional farrowing crates, it is important that they can deliver the same production results as can be achieved in farrowing crates under commercial conditions. The aim of this study was to compare preweaning mortality in farrowing crates and free farrowing pens (FF-pens) within herds that had both systems. The study was conducted over 2 years in three commercial Danish herds that had FF-pens as well as traditional farrowing crates in their farrowing unit. Piglet mortality was analysed in two periods: before litter equalisation and after litter equalisation. Linear models were used to analyse effects of housing (crate or pen), herd (Herd A, B or C), parity (parities 1, 2, 3 to 4 or 5 to 8) as well as the effect of number of total born piglets on mortality before litter equalisation, and the effect of equalised litter size on piglet mortality after litter equalisation. All corresponding interactions were included in the models. Before litter equalisation piglet mortality was higher (P<0.001) in pens (13.7%) than in crates (11.8%). Similarly, piglet mortality after litter equalisation was higher in pens than in crates in all three herds, but the difference between pens and crates were dissimilar (P<0.05) in the different herds. In addition, piglet mortality, both before (P<0.001) and after litter equalisation (P<0.001), grew with increasing parity of the sows. Mortality before litter equalisation moreover increased with increasing number of total born piglets per litter (P<0.001), and mortality after equalisation increased when equalised litter size increased (P<0.001). No significant interactions were detected between housing and parity or housing and litter size for any of the analysed variables. In conclusion, there is knowledge how to design pens for free farrowing; but this study showed a higher preweaning mortality in the FF-pen. Nonetheless a noteworthy proportion of the sows in the FF-pens delivered results comparable to those farrowing in crates. This indicates that FF-pens are not yet a robust type of housing for farrowing sows.
DX Cha (HD 104237) is a southern, optically bright Herbig Ae star with an infrared excess, that is part of a small stellar group younger than 5 Myr. We used the APEX and ASTE submillimeter telescopes in Chile to search for continuum and gas emission around this system. Using LABOCA on APEX we detect strong continuum emission around HD104237-A and system component HD104237-E. Our ASTE spectrum detects a double-peaked 12CO(3-2) line profile towards the system, typical of a rotating disk. The new data are used as constraints with MCFOST to produce a disk model that fits the entire SED as well as the observed CO line profile.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
The Bering Glacier–Bagley Icefield system in Alaska is currently surging (2011). Large-scale elevation changes and small-scale elevation-change characteristics are investigated to understand surge progression, especially mass transport from the pre-surge reservoir area to the receiving area and propagation of the kinematic surge wave as manifested in heavy crevassing characteristic of rapid, brittle deformation. This analysis is based on airborne laser altimeter data collected over Bering Glacier in September 2011. Results include the following: (1) Maximal crevasse depth is 60 m, reached in a rift that separates two deformation domains, indicative of two different flow regimes. Otherwise surge crevasse depth reaches 20–30 m. (2) Characteristic parameters of structural provinces are derived by application of geostatistical classification. Parameters include significance and spacing of crevasses, surface roughness and crevasse-edge curvature (indicative of crevasse age). A classification based on these parameters serves to objectively discriminate structural provinces, indicative of surge progression down-glacier and up-glacier. (3) Elevation changes from 2011 and 2010 altimetry show 40–70 m surface lowering in the reservoir area in lower central Bering Glacier and 20–40m thickening near the front in Tashalich arm. Combining elevation changes with results of crevasse profilometry and pattern analysis, the rapid progression of the surge can be mathematically–physically reconstructed.
To reduce mortality among suckling piglets, lactating sows are traditionally housed in farrowing crates. Alternatively, lactating sows can be housed in farrowing pens where the sow is loose to ensure more behavioural freedom and consequently a better welfare for the sow, although under commercial conditions, farrowing pens have been associated with increased piglet mortality. Most suckling piglets that die do so within the first week of life, so potentially lactating sows do not have to be restrained during the entire lactation period. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether confinement of the sow for a limited number of days after farrowing would affect piglet mortality. A total of 210 sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Yorkshire) were farrowed in specially designed swing-aside combination farrowing pens measuring 2.6 m × 1.8 m (combi-pen), where the sows could be kept loose or in a crate. The sows were either: (a) loose during the entire experimental period, (b) crated from days 0 to 4 postpartum, (c) crated from days 0 to 7 postpartum or (d) crated from introduction to the farrowing pen to day 7 postpartum. The sows and their subsequent litters were studied from introduction to the combi-pen ∼1 week before expected farrowing and until 10 days postpartum. Confinement period of the sow failed to affect the number of stillborn piglets; however, sows that were crated after farrowing had fewer live-born mortality deaths (P < 0.001) compared with the sows that were loose during the experimental period. The increased piglet mortality among the loose sows was because of higher mortality in the first 4 days after farrowing. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that crating the sow for 4 days postpartum was sufficient to reduce piglet mortality.
Exposure to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an important risk factor for impaired learning and memory, particularly in males. Although the basis of IUGR-associated learning and memory dysfunction is unknown, potential molecular participants may be insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) and its receptor, IGF1r. We hypothesized that transcript levels and protein abundance of Igf1 and IGF1r in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory, would be lower in IUGR male rats than in age-matched male controls at birth (postnatal day 0, P0), at weaning (P21) and adulthood (P120). We also hypothesized that changes in messenger Ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcript levels and protein abundance would be associated with specific histone marks in IUGR male rats. Lastly, we hypothesized that IUGR male rats would perform poorer on tests of hippocampal function at P120. IUGR was induced by bilateral ligation of the uterine arteries in pregnant dams at embryonic day 19 (term is 21 days). Hippocampal Igf1 mRNA transcript levels and protein abundance were unchanged in IUGR male rats at P0, P21 or P120. At P0 and P120, IGF1r expression was increased in IUGR male rats. At P21, IGF1r expression was decreased in IUGR male rats. Increased IGF1r expression was associated with more histone 3 lysine 4 dimethylation (H3K4Me2) in the promoter region. In addition, IUGR male rats performed poorer on intermediate-term spatial working memory testing at P120. We speculate that altered IGF1r expression in the hippocampus of IUGR male rats may play a role in learning and memory dysfunction later in life.
Often, animals leave clues that can provide some information about their individual identities. These may be conventional fingerprints, which are extremely useful in courts of law but can be physically altered or removed and are restricted to humans. In contrast, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fingerprinting (Avise 2004) is important not only in human forensics and paternity analysis but also in conservation biology and resource management (Table 4–1). When monitoring DNA fingerprints, biologists are capitalizing on the permanent genetic tags by which nature has labeled each individual. In principle, DNA fingerprints (e.g., from leaves, root tips, blood, hair, or feathers) can be traced over space and time, thereby yielding insights into organismal behavior, population structure, and population demography.
Sexing assays and conservation
In concert with individual identification via DNA fingerprinting, molecular sexing has proven valuable in conservation and management (see Box 4 by Lisette Waits). Molecular assays that distinguish males from females can be informative in many ways. For example, the sexes of most dioecious plants are indistinguishable prior to sexual maturity, yet molecular assays have revealed that sex ratios change as seeds develop into reproductively mature plants (Korpelainen 2002; Korpelainen & Kostamo 2008). For vertebrates, most efforts in molecular sexing have focused on mammals and birds in part because of the special interest in these animals, but also because the mode of sex determination is known and conserved within each of these two taxonomic groups. Thus, reliable molecular-sexing assays have been relatively straightforward to develop and also to transfer across species within each group.
The Isaac Newton Photometric H-Alpha Survey (IPHAS) provides (r′-Hα)-(r′-i′) colors, which can be used to select AV0-5 Main Sequence star candidates (age~20-200 Myr). By combining a sample of 23050 IPHAS-selected A-type stars with 2MASS, GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL photometry we searched for mid-infrared excesses attributable to dusty circumstellar disks. Positional cross-correlation yielded a sample of 2692 A-type stars, of which 0.6% were found to have 8-μm excesses above the expected photospheric values. The low fraction of main sequence stars with mid-IR excesses found in this work indicates that dust disks in the terrestrial planet zone of Main Sequence intermediate mass stars are rare. Dissipation mechanisms such as photo-evaporation, grain growth, collisional grinding or planet formation could possibly explain the depletion of dust detected in the inner regions of these disks.
Background: Exposure-based therapy for anxiety disorders is believed to operate on the basis of fear extinction. Studies have shown acute administration of D-cycloserine (DCS) enhances fear extinction in animals and facilitates exposure therapy in humans, but the neural mechanisms are not completely understood. To date, no study has examined neural effects of acute DCS in anxiety-disordered populations.
Methods: Two hours prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, 23 spider-phobic and 23 non-phobic participants were randomized to receive DCS 100 mg or placebo. During scanning, participants viewed spider, butterfly, and Gaussian-blurred baseline images in a block-design paradigm. Diagnostic and treatment groups were compared regarding differential activations to spider versus butterfly stimuli.
Results: In the phobic group, DCS enhanced prefrontal (PFC), dorsal anterior cingulate (ACC), and insula activations. For controls, DCS enhanced ventral ACC and caudate activations. There was a positive correlation between lateral PFC and amygdala activation for the placebo-phobic group. Reported distress during symptom provocation was correlated with amygdala activation in the placebo-phobic group and orbitofrontal cortex activation in the DCS-phobic group.
Conclusions: Results suggest that during initial phobic symptom provocation DCS enhances activation in regions involved in cognitive control and interoceptive integration, including the PFC, ACC, and insular cortices for phobic participants.
Discrete, Feulgen-positive granules, attached to the periphery of bacterial spores, were described by Pietschmann & Rippel (1931), who considered them to be residual cytoplasmic structures; by Stille (1937), who was apparently in doubt as to their nature; and by others, including Robinow (1945), who at first described them as the natural appearance of the spore nucleus. Delaporte (1950) figured the spore nucleus as a less discrete, crescentic body lying against one side of the spore, and in a later study Robinow (1951) accepted this view, and presented evidence to prove that the appearance of the discrete body was an artefact, caused by the hydrolysis with HC1 which was employed in staining. Robinow, in this later study, employed nitric acid instead of hydrochloric acid, and claimed that it gave a truer picture. Both Delaporte and Robinow observed a central, stainable body, which they considered to be cytoplasmic.