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All livestock animal species harbour complex microbial communities throughout their digestive tract that support vital biochemical processes, thus sustaining health and productivity. In part as a consequence of the strong and ancient alliance between the host and its associated microbes, the gut microbiota is also closely related to productivity traits such as feed efficiency. This phenomenon can help researchers and producers develop new and more effective microbiome-based interventions using probiotics, also known as direct-fed microbials (DFMs), in Animal Science. Here, we focus on one type of such beneficial microorganisms, the yeast Saccharomyces. Saccharomyces is one of the most widely used microorganisms as a DFM in livestock operations. Numerous studies have investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with different species, strains and doses of Saccharomyces (mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on gut microbial ecology, health, nutrition and productivity traits of several livestock species. However, the possible existence of Saccharomyces which are indigenous to the animals’ digestive tract has received little attention and has never been the subject of a review. We for the first time provide a comprehensive review, with the objective of shedding light into the possible existence of indigenous Saccharomyces of the digestive tract of livestock. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a nomadic yeast able to survive in a broad range of environments including soil, grass and silages. Therefore, it is very likely that cattle and other animals have been in direct contact with this and other types of Saccharomyces throughout their entire existence. However, to date, the majority of animal scientists seem to agree that the presence of Saccharomyces in any section of the gut only reflects dietary contamination; in other words, these are foreign organisms that are only transiently present in the gut. Importantly, this belief (i.e. that Saccharomyces come solely from the diet) is often not well grounded and does not necessarily hold for all the many other groups of microbes in the gut. In addition to summarizing the current body of literature involving Saccharomyces in the digestive tract, we discuss whether the beneficial effects associated with the consumption of Saccharomyces may be related to its foreign origin, though this concept may not necessarily satisfy the theories that have been proposed to explain probiotic efficacy in vivo. This novel review may prove useful for biomedical scientists and others wishing to improve health and productivity using Saccharomyces and other beneficial microorganisms.
The Centro de Laseres Pulsados in Salamanca, Spain has recently started operation phase and the first user access period on the 6 J 30 fs 200 TW system (VEGA 2) already started at the beginning of 2018. In this paper we report on two commissioning experiments recently performed on the VEGA 2 system in preparation for the user campaign. VEGA 2 system has been tested in different configurations depending on the focusing optics and targets used. One configuration (long focal length
cm) is for underdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a low density gas-jet generating electron beams (via laser wake field acceleration mechanism) with maximum energy up to 500 MeV and an X-ray betatron source with a 10 keV critical energy. A second configuration (short focal length
cm) is for overdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a
thick Al target generating a proton beam with a maximum energy of 10 MeV and temperature of 2.5 MeV. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results.
Objectives: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) can present with disruptive behavior, which is often a consequence of injury and parent factors. Parent factors are associated with child disruptive behavior. Furthermore, disinhibition in the child also leads to disruptive behavior. However, it is unclear how these factors interact. We investigated whether parental factors influence child disruptive behavior following ABI and how these factors interact. Methods: Parents of 77 children with ABI participated in the study. Parent factors (executive dysfunction, trait-anxiety), potential intervention targets (dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress, child disinhibition), and child disruptive behavior were assessed. A hypothetical model based on the literature was tested using mediation and path analysis. Results: Mediation analysis revealed that child disinhibition and dysfunctional parenting practices mediated the association of parent factors and child disruptive behavior. Parents’ executive dysfunction mediated the association of dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress and parent trait-anxiety. Parenting practices mediated the association of executive dysfunction and child disruptive behavior. Path analysis indices indicated good model adjustment. Comparative and Tucker-Lewis Index were >0.95, and the root mean square error of approximation was 0.059, with a chi-square of 0.25. Conclusions: A low level of parental trait-anxiety may be required to reduce dysfunctional parenting practices and child disinhibition. Impairments in child disinhibition can be exacerbated when parents present with high trait-anxiety. Child disinhibition is the major contributor of disruptive behavior reported by parents and teachers. The current study provides evidence of parent anxiety and child disinhibition as possible modifiable intervention targets for reducing child disruptive behavior. (JINS, 2019, 25, 237–248)
Over the last decade, polymer composites reinforced with natural fibers gained interest, both from the academic world and from various industries. Due to the demanding needs for environmentally friendly composites, the automotive industry is now searching for biodegradable and renewable composite materials and products. There are a wide variety of different natural fibers which can be applied as reinforcement or fillers, showing potential as a replacement for inorganic fibers in automotive components. The fact that plastics are often economical to produce implies an advantage especially in very complex shapes, make them promising for obtaining composite materials, achieving short demolding times, as no chemical reaction is required. Moreover, polymers are used increasingly for stressed tribological components, whereby plastic parts replace metallic bearings, gear wheels or sliding elements. In this regard, the objective of this work was to produce composite materials based on natural fibers and to characterize the influence of the addition of different amounts of filler. To do so, composites of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and peanut shells (PS), at different proportions (2, 4 6, 8 and 10% wt.), were prepared. The composites were produced by injection molding and molded into a particular tension test simple mold. Although the FTIR presented an increment on the O-H vibration and a band around 1600 cm-1, the HDPE structure did not present modification. The mechanical properties of the HDPE were affected with the inclusion of the fibers. The tensile performance of the HDPE decrease with the increment of the fibers inclusion whiles the elastic modulus increases. The sample with 2% of natural fibers presented the lowest wear rate (k) and coefficient of friction (µ).
High-Mn Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steels are an excellent alternative in the design of structural components for the automotive industry. The TWIP steels application allows weight reduction, maintaining the performance of vehicles. Nowadays the research works focused on TWIP steel weldability are relative scarce. It is well-known that weldability is one of the main limitations for industrial application of TWIP steel. The main goal of this research work was studied the effect of heat input on the microstructural changes generated in a TWIP steel microalloyed with Ti. A pair of welds were performed through Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process. The GTAW process was carried out without filler material, using Direc Current Electrode Negative (DCEN), tungsten electrode EWTh-2 and Ar as shielding gas. The microstructure and average grain size in the fusion (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were determined by light optical metallography (LOM). Elements segregation in the FZ was evaluated using point and elemental mapping chemical analysis (EPMA) by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Phase transformations were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Finally, the hardness were measured by means of Vickers microhardness testing (HV500). The results show that the FZ is characterized by a dendritic solidification pattern. Meanwhile, the HAZ presented equiaxed grains in both weld joints. On the other hand, the TWIP-Ti steel weldments did not present austenite phase transformations. Nevertheless, the FZ exhibited variations in the chemical elements distribution (Mn, Al, Si and C), which were higher as the heat input increases. Finally, the heat input reduced the microhardness of TWIP-Ti steel weld joints. Although post-welding hardness recovery was detected, which is associated with precipitation of Ti second-phase particles.
In the industry, the titanium nitride (TiN) coating is widely used in cutting tools, decorative and corrosion protection film, but unfortunately, this coating presented a poor performance under some work condition. For that, different studies have been dedicated to improving its properties with the inclusion of a third element that modifies the film structure, chemical and mechanical properties. In this work, TiN layers with/without of Al, B, and Cr inclusion were studied in order to analyze their effect in the film tribological performance. These were deposited using cathodic arc PVD technic on AISI-M2 steel. They were chemical and structural characterized using EDX and XRD, respectively. While the film thickness was determinate using a ball-cratering technique. Their tribological performance was studied using a sliding reciprocating movement in dry conditions, under three loads, at 30 min against Al2O3 ball as counterbody. The resulting wear tracks were studied using optical microscopy in order to study the wear mechanism. Raman spectroscopy was used to determinate the chemical changes produced on wear zones and the lost material was measured with a stylus profilometer. As result, the structure and morphology were modified with the inclusion of the third element. The TiN with the inclusion of Al and B presented a higher friction force and wear rate than TiN films. While the TiN with Cr inclusion film presented the best tribological performance with lower wear rate and friction coefficient. The Raman studies did not showed considerable changes on the damage coted surface areas, except for TiAlN coating that show the M2 tool steel Raman spectra on the areas where the film was removed.
The in vitro nematicidal effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Castela tortuosa n-hexane extracts (E-Cham and E-Cato, respectively) on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) and the anthelmintic effect of these extracts against the pre-adult stage of the parasite in gerbils were evaluated using both individual and combined extracts. The in vitro confrontation between larvae and extracts was performed in 24-well micro-titration plates. The results were considered 24 and 72 h post confrontation. The in vivo nematicidal effect was examined using gerbils as a study model. The extracts from the two assessed plants were obtained through maceration using n-hexane as an organic agent. Gerbils artificially infected with H. contortus L3 were treated intraperitoneally with the corresponding extract either individually or in combination. The results showed that the highest individual lethal in vitro effect (96.3%) was obtained with the E-Cham extract at 72 h post confrontation at 40 mg/ml, followed by E-Cato (78.9%) at 20 mg/ml after 72 h. The highest combined effect (98.7%) was obtained after 72 h at 40 mg/ml. The in vivo assay showed that the individual administration of the E-Cato and E-Cham extracts reduced the parasitic burden in gerbils by 27.1% and 45.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the anthelmintic efficacy increased to 57.3% when both extracts were administered in combination. The results of the present study show an important combined nematicidal effect of the two plant extracts assessed against L3 in gerbils.
This study assessed milk productivity, demographic characteristics and workload distribution on a single high-yield dairy ewe farm in Spain (Avila, Spain; continental climate, latitude of 40.90 N, altitude of 900 m) over a 7-year period considering a transition from a herd management system involving five lambings per year (5LY) to a system involving 10 lambings per year (10LY). The 5LY system was practiced on the farm from 2010 to 2012 and the 10LY system from 2014 to 2015, with 2009 and 2013 being considered transition years. During this period, 27 415 lactations were recorded from an average of 3746 Lacaune sheep/year. Several productivity parameters were higher in 2014 to 2015 than in 2010 to 2012: milk yield/lactation (370±156 v. 349±185 l), lactation length (218±75 v. 192±75 days) and dry period length (53.5±38.3 v. 69.1±34.8 days) (all P<0.0001). During 2014 to 2015, investment in new lambing facilities was possible, workload was distributed more uniformly throughout the year, workload per worker was smaller, rate of ewe culling was lower (35.39±0.53% v. 42.51±7.51%), ewe longevity was greater and higher-order lactations were more numerous (P<0.0001). On the other hand, during 2010 to 2012, daily production was higher (1.73±1.66 v. 1.70±0.62 l/day; P=0.038), the interlambing period was shorter (283±50 v. 302±44 days; P<0.0001) and lambings/ewe per year were greater (1.42±0.01 v. 1.30±0.01; P<0.05). These results suggest that a 10LY herd management system can be compatible with profitability, productivity and good animal and worker’s welfare on a high-yield dairy farm, and may even be associated with better outcomes than a 5LY system.
Arc welding processes such Gas Tungsten (GTAW), Gas Metal (GMAW) and Submerged Arc (SAW) are typically used in order to produce a weld joint in stainless steels (SS). However, welding thermal cycle generates a sensitization by formation of chromium carbides. In addition, the heat affected zone (HAZ) is also susceptible to sensitization and fracture of the weldment. Weld bead geometric parameters such depth penetration, fusion zone (FZ) width and size of HAZ are mainly determined by welding operation parameters. This research work studies the influence of welding current, welding speed and arc gap on the width and grain size in the HAZ produced by a single pass of autogenous GTAW process applied to a plate butt-welded joint of AISI 304 SS. The welded specimens were prepared for analysis by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopies to identify the interfaces between FZ-HAZ and base material as well as the grain growth in the HAZ. Adams equation for 2-D heat distribution was used to estimate theoretically the width of the HAZ. Furthermore, computational simulation which solved a convective-diffusion problem of the volumetric heat applied during the weld pool formation allowed to correlate the thermal gradient and the molten material flow of the FZ with the welding depth penetration, and width and grain size in the HAZ. The results demonstrated that the high heat input generates an important grain growth in the HAZ caused by low heat diffusion in the adjacent material to the fusion line. Welding speed was the main factor in the thermal gradient changes. Simulation results indicate that outward recirculating flow in the molten metal produced by surface tension forces is responsible for the shallow penetration of the autogenous GTAW process. Theoretical and computational estimations of the HAZ are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Childhood overweight and obesity are worldwide public health problems and risk factors for chronic diseases. The presence of SNP in several genes has been associated with the presence of obesity. A total of 580 children (8–13 years old) from Queretaro, Mexico, participated in this cross-sectional study, which evaluated the associations of rs9939609 (fat mass obesity-associated (FTO)), rs17782313 (melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R)) and rs6548238 (transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18)) SNP with obesity and metabolic risk factors. Overweight and obesity prevalence was 19·8 and 19·1 %, respectively. FTO, MC4R and TMEM18 risk allele frequency was 17, 9·8 and 89·5 %, respectively. A significant association between FTO homozygous and MC4R heterozygous risk alleles and obesity was found (OR 3·9; 95 % CI 1·46, 10·22, and OR 2·1; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·71; respectively). The FTO heterozygous subjects showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, compared with the homozygous for the ancestral allele subjects. These results remain significant after considering adiposity as a covariate. The FTO and MC4R genotypes were not significantly associated with total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and insulin concentration. No association was found between TMEM18 risk allele and obesity and/or metabolic alterations. Our results show that, in addition to a higher BMI, there is also an association of the risk genotype with blood pressure in the presence of the FTO risk genotype. The possible presence of a risk genotype in obese children must be considered to offer a more comprehensive therapeutic approach in order to delay and/or prevent the development of chronic diseases.
We present near-IR spectroscopy of a sample of 30 IRAS sources recently identified as late AGB stars, post-AGB stars or early PNe. The spectra obtained are centred at various wavelengths covering the molecular hydrogen v=1→0 S(1) 2.122 μm and v=2→1 S(1) 2.248 μm emission lines, the recombination lines of hydrogen Brγ 2.166 μm, Pfγ 3.741 μm and Brα 4.052 μm, and the CO[v=2→0] first overtone bandhead at 2.294 μm. As a result of these observations we have increased from 4 to 13 the total number of proto-PNe detected in H2 and we have confirmed that the onset of H2 emission takes place in the post-AGB phase. When the molecular hydrogen is fluorescence-excited the detection rate is found to be directly correlated with the evolutionary stage of the central star, rather than with the nebular morphology. In contrast, shocked-excited H2 is detected only in strongly bipolar proto-PNe, sometimes even at an early stage in the post-AGB phase. The strong correlation of shocked-excited H2 emission with bipolarity found confirms the result previously reported by Kastner et al. (1996) in evolved PNe. However, our results show that this correlation does not exist in the case of fluorescence-excited molecular hydrogen. (to be published in A&A).
When high strength and high ductility are required, the Twinning Induced Plasticity steels are an excellent choice. Their mechanical advantages are perfectly known in the automotive industry. Then, they are currently deeply studied. During the deformation at high temperature, TWIP steel experiences dynamic recrystallization. This mechanism results from dislocation interactions, and it depends of temperature, stress, strain, and strain rate. Experimental data give the maximum stress reached by the material, but the critical stress which determinates the DRX onset must be calculated from the strain hardening rate. Both stress and strain change simultaneously, and this variation gives the analytic data to determine σc, which is located at the inflection point of θ-σ plot. The main purpose of this paper was to study how the chemical composition and the experimental parameters (temperature and strain rate) affect the DRX, by the calculation and analysis of the σc values. Hot compression tests were applied to a pair of TWIP steels to compare the DRX onset and its relationship with the vanadium addition. The experimental variables were temperature and strain rate. The true stress–true strain plots were used to calculate σc by cutting data up to a previous point before the σp value, then, a polynomial fit and derivation were applied. The Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z) versus the stresses (peak and critical) plots show how the micro-alloying element vanadium improves the strain hardening in the analyzed TWIP steels.
This article outlines the use of quenching dilatometry in phase transformation kinetics research in steels under continuous cooling conditions. For this purpose, the phase transformation behavior of a hot-rolled heat treatable steel was investigated over the cooling rate range of 0.1 to 200 °C/s. The start and finish points of the austenite transformation were identified from the dilatometric curves and then the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were constructed. The experimental CCT diagrams were verified by microstructural characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Vickers micro-hardness. In general, results revealed that the quenching dilatometry technique is a powerful tool for the characterization and study of solid-solid phase transformations in steels. For cooling rates between 200 and 25 °C/s the final microstructure consists on plate-like martensite with the highest hardness values. By contrast, a mixture of phases of ferrite, bainite and pearlite predominated for slower cooling rates (10-0.1 °C/s).
The non-ferrous shape memory alloys have, normally, two problems that hinder its use in industrial scale: the natural aging and grains growth. The first degrades the memory effect, while the second, observed during the processing of alloy, modifies the temperatures which the transformations occur. Thus, the study of kynetic of recrystallization is important for enabling the control of hardened state in function of treatment time, without causing excessive grain growth. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the kinetics of recrystallization of Cu-14Al-4Ni shape memory alloy, based on an empirical law of the formation of Jonhson-Mehl-Avrami, as well as their activation energies for grain growth process according to the empirical Arrhenius law. The alloy was vacuum melted in an induction furnace. After casting, the bulk samples of the alloy were homogenized for 24 hours, solubilized and hot rolled followed by water-quenching to initiate the recrystallization. Then, different samples were annealed at temperatures close to the peak, start and end of the DSC curve. Following the heat treatments, the samples were submitted to mechanical tests and the values of the properties were correlated to the fraction transformed for determination of recrystallization’s kinetic. For the characterization of the grain growth process, analyses in optical microscopy were accomplished and all annealed samples were examined by statistical metallography and the grain sizes were measured. After measurements, the ln[-ln(1-Yrec)] x ln(t) and the ln [D-Do] x 1/T diagrams were plotted to determine the parameters of Jonhson-Mehl-Avrami equation and the activation energy of the process, respectively. The results showed that the equation of the recrystallized fraction follows the empiric law of the formation of Jonhson-Mehl-Avrami for the considered property, as well as, also showed that the alloy Cu-14Al-4Ni is extremely sensitive to temperature variation in which the alloy is treated, having a dual kinetics of grain growth. In the first domain, between 670 and 710°C, the diagram provides a value for the activation energy equal to 39.32 KJ/mol, in the second domain, between 710 and 790°C, the diagram provides a value for the activation energy equal to 9.01 KJ/mol.
The present study determined the mineralogy and thermal properties of kaolin from Acoculco (Puebla), at the eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and compared it with the nearby deposits of Agua Blanca (Hidalgo) and Huayacocotla (Veracruz). The mineralogy of the kaolins was determined by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thermal behaviour was studied by differential thermal analysis, dilatometry and hot-stage microscopy. The Acoculco deposit is composed mainly of kaolinite and SiO2 minerals. In the case of Agua Blanca and Huayacocotla, alunite is abundant in places and minor anatase is also present locally. The Acoculco kaolins are Fe-poor and relatively rich in some potentially toxic elements (Zr, Sb, Pb). They undergo a relatively small amount of shrinkage (∼3–4 vol.%), during firing at 20–1300°C and cooling down to 20°C, except when >10 wt.% alunite is present. These kaolins are a suitable raw material for the ceramics industry. Other applications (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics) would require an enrichment process to eliminate impurities such as Fe oxides.
The analysis of fertility in colonizing populations is of great interest, since its individuals experience a major environmental change, and fertility rates can reflect the level of adaptation of the population to its new conditions. Using Northrop’s genealogical compilations, this paper examines the fertility pattern of California’s early Spanish-Mexican colonists between 1742 and 1876, their fitness levels and their trend across time throughout the colonizing period. A total of 197 women from 599 compiled families who had completed their reproductive period and had at least one child were analysed. The correlations among variables were also analysed in order to infer the relationship between longevity and fertility, and the influence of fertility determinants. The results show a natural fertility pattern, with a very young age at marriage and birth of first child (17.2 and 19.1 years respectively), and also a young age at last childbirth (38.8 years). The population’s fitness showed greater values than for contemporary European populations, with 8 of 9.2 children surviving to adulthood, in comparison with 55% of newborns in Finland for the same period, suggesting a good adaptation of the population to their new environmental conditions. No relationship between fertility and lifespan was observed, as has been reported by other authors and in opposition to classical theories. A temporal trend in the number of children, consisting of three different phases, was observed, in accordance with the stability of living conditions in the region.
Currently, the research team is systematically studying the oxide compounds present in the ternary system In2O3-TiO2-MgO in order to analyze its thermoluminescent (TL) response. The oxide Mg1.5InTi0.5O4 present in this system was synthesized by a solid state reaction at 1350 °C in air. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern showed a spinel-type structure for this compound. In this work, this spinel, as well as its TL properties when exposed to beta particles, are being reported for the first time. The glow curve is simple and wide with a TL maximum located at 203 °C at 21.33 Gy. The peak shows a shift to lower temperatures and it increases its intensity, as the irradiation dose increases. The lineal behavior was observed between 10.66 to 341 Gy, and no saturation signs were observed. The relative sensitivity variation was 2.7% and standard deviation after ten consecutive irradiation - TL readout cycles was 1 %. The minimum detectable dose was 5.65 Gy for this spinel-type oxide . These results suggest the possible application of Mg1.5InTi0.5O4 in dosimetry.
Sapphire is best known for its hardness that makes it ideal for many mechanical and optical applications, but its resistance to radiation damage and its optical properties, combined with metallic nano-particles, make it promising for future opto-electronic and plasmonic devices. In this paper, we present an overview of our work on the fabrication of metallic nano-particles embedded in synthetic sapphire by means of ion implantation, thermal annealing and high energy ion irradiation. We show that we can have control over the amount and size of the nano particles formed inside the matrix by carefully choosing the parameters during the preparation process. Furthermore, we show that anisotropic nano particles can be obtained by an adequate high energy ion irradiation of the originally spherical nano particles. We also have studied the linear and non-linear optical properties of these nano-composites and have confirmed that they are large enough for future applications.
Protozoan parasites of genus Leishmania are the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Leishmania promastigotes primarily infect macrophages in the host, where they transform into amastigotes and multiply. Lipophosphoglycan (LPG), the most abundant surface molecule of the parasite, is a virulence determinant that regulates the host immune response. Promastigotes are able to modulate this effect through LPG, creating a favourable environment for parasite survival, although the mechanisms underlying this modulation remain unknown. We analysed the participation of TLR2 and TLR4 in the production of cytokines and explored the possible phosphorylation of ERK and/or p38 MAP kinase signalling cascades in human macrophages stimulated with Leishmania mexicana LPG. The results show that LPG induced the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12p40, IL-12p70 and IL-10 and led to phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAP kinase. Specific inhibitors of ERK or p38 MAP kinases and mAbs against TLR2 and TLR4 reduced cytokine production and phosphorylation of both kinases. Our results suggest that L. mexicana LPG binds TLR2 and TLR4 receptors in human macrophages, leading to ERK and MAP kinase phosphorylation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.