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Emergency departments are high-risk settings for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) surface contamination. Environmental surface samples were obtained in rooms with patients suspected of having COVID-19 who did or did not undergo aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs). SARS-CoV-2 RNA surface contamination was most frequent in rooms occupied by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who received no AGPs.
Are cues from party leaders so important that they can cause individuals to change their own issue positions to align with the party's position? Recent work on the importance of party cues suggests they do, especially given the literature on partisanship as a strong and persistent group identity. However, in this paper we test the limits of those partisan cues. Using a unique two-wave panel survey design we find that the effect of party cues is moderated by the prior level of importance individuals place on an issue. We find that when a person believes an issue area to be more important, party cues are less likely to move that citizen's position, particularly when the cue goes against partisan ideological norms. Our results show evidence that an individual's own issue positions—at least the important ones—can be resilient in the face of party cues.
Damage to non–dicamba resistant (non-DR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] has been frequent in geographies where dicamba-resistant (DR) soybean and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) have been grown and sprayed with the herbicide in recent years. Off-target movement field trials were conducted in northwest Arkansas to determine the relationship between dicamba concentration in the air and the extent of symptomology on non-DR soybean. Additionally, the frequency and concentration of dicamba in air samples at two locations in eastern Arkansas and environmental conditions that impacted the detection of the herbicide in air samples were evaluated. Treatment applications included dicamba at 560 g ae ha−1 (1X rate), glyphosate at 860 g ae ha−1, and particle drift retardant at 1% v/v applied to 0.37-ha fields with varying degrees of vegetation. The relationship between dicamba concentration in air samples and non-DR soybean response to the herbicide was more predictive with visible injury (generalized R2 = 0.82) than height reduction (generalized R2 = 0.43). The predicted dicamba air concentration resulting in 10% injury to soybean was 1.60 ng m−3 d−1 for a single exposure. The predicted concentration from a single exposure to dicamba resulting in a 10% height reduction was 3.78 ng m−3 d−1. Dicamba was frequently detected in eastern Arkansas, and daily detections above 1.60 ng m−3 occurred 17 times in the period sampled. The maximum concentration of dicamba recorded was 7.96 ng m−3 d−1, while dicamba concentrations at Marianna and Keiser, AR, were ≥1 ng m−3 d−1 in six samples collected in 2020 and 22 samples in 2021. Dicamba was detected consistently in air samples collected, indicating high usage in the region and the potential for soybean damage over an extended period. More research is needed to quantify the plant absorption rate of volatile dicamba and to evaluate the impact of multiple exposures of gaseous dicamba on non-targeted plant species.
This article uses three fictitious case vignettes to raise questions and educate on how clinicians can appropriately approach patients experiencing spiritually significant hallucinations. Religious hallucinations are common but are not pathognomonic of mental illness. They are often intimate experiences for the patient that raise complex questions about psychopathology for clinicians. When assessing a patient with religious hallucinations it is important that clinicians hold at the centre that person's personal experience and create a safe space in which they are listened to and epistemic injustices are avoided. Involvement of chaplaincy services is important not just to support the patient but also to ensure that as clinicians we seek support in understanding the religious nature of these experiences.
The illuminance and spectral power distribution in 19 duckling and 16 turkey poult houses in the UK were sampled. Illuminance was highly variable within duckling houses and to a lesser extent in housing for turkey poults. In a free choice experiment, the preferences of commercial ducklings and turkey poults for four incandescent illuminances (<I, 6, 20 and 200 Ix; Osram, 60 W, Pearl) were tested at 2 and 6 weeks of age. Four replicate flocks of 12 birds were given continuous access to four compartments illuminated with each illuminance for six days. The illuminances were changed daily between the compartments. After two days of conditioning, the birds’ location and behaviour was recorded at 10 min intervals over 22 h. Nine and 12 defined behavioural categories were recorded for the ducklings and poults respectively. Ducklings spent significantly more time occupying the three brightest light environments both at 2 and 6 weeks of age, and the least time in the dimmest. Illuminance had a significant effect on the partition of behaviours amongst the light environments. At 2 weeks of age, locomotion and environmentally directed pecking occurred most often in 6, 20 and 200 lx, whereas at 6 weeks, preening and feeding also occurred more often in these light environments. At 6 weeks of age, resting, standing and drinking occurred significantly more often in 6 lx than in the dimmest environment. Turkeys spent most time in the brightest environment at 2 weeks of age, but in 20 and 200 Ix at 6 weeks. This change in overall preference was reflected in the partition of different behaviours between the light environments. At 2 weeks of age, all behaviours were observed to occur most often in 200 lx. At 6 weeks, resting and perching were observed least often in <I lx, whereas all other activities were observed more in the two brightest light environments. These results show that ducklings and turkey poults have significant but differing preferences for illuminance, and imply that some spatial or temporal variation in the ambient illuminance of housing would be consistent with their preferences.
Owing to their ultra-high accelerating gradients, combined with injection inside micrometer-scale accelerating wakefield buckets, plasma-based accelerators hold great potential to drive a new generation of free-electron lasers (FELs). Indeed, the first demonstration of plasma-driven FEL gain was reported recently, representing a major milestone for the field. Several groups around the world are pursuing these novel light sources, with methodology varying in the use of wakefield driver (laser-driven or beam-driven), plasma structure, phase-space manipulation, beamline design, and undulator technology, among others. This paper presents our best attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the global community efforts towards plasma-based FEL research and development.
Dicamba residues in sprayers are difficult to remove and may interact with subsequent herbicides, including contact herbicides labeled for use in soybean. Without proper tank cleanout, applicators treating dicamba-resistant and non–dicamba resistant crops are at risk of contaminating the spray solution with dicamba residue from previous applications. Experiments were conducted in Fayetteville, AR, in 2018 and 2019, with the first experiment evaluating consequences of dicamba tank contamination with contact herbicides and the second experiment addressing the impact of dicamba exposure on a glufosinate-resistant soybean cultivar relative to a contact herbicide application. Experiments for tank contamination and timing of dicamba exposure were designed as a three-factor and a two-factor randomized complete block with four replications, respectively, considering site-year as a fixed effect in each experiment. Dicamba at 0, 0.056, 0.56, and 5.6 g ae ha−1 was applied alone, with glufosinate, with acifluorfen, or with glufosinate plus acifluorfen to V3 soybean. Dicamba applied in combination with contact herbicides exacerbated visible auxin symptomology over dicamba alone at 21 and 28 d after treatment (DAT), while dicamba at 5.6 g ae ha−1 reduced soybean height. Injury and height reductions caused by dicamba mixtures with contact herbicides did not reduce grain yield. In the second experiment, dicamba was applied at 2.8 g ae ha−1 at VC, V1, V2, and V3 and at 3, 7, and 10 d after a glufosinate application to V3 soybean (DATV3). Greater soybean injury was observed when dicamba exposure followed a glufosinate application than when dicamba preceded glufosinate or was applied in a mixture with glufosinate, with yield reductions resulting from 7 and 10 DATV3 dicamba applications. Dicamba exposure in the presence of contact herbicides resulted in increased auxin symptomology and can be intensified if soybean are exposed to dicamba following a contact herbicide application.
Antipsychotic treatment is known to be associated with secondary sexual dysfunction (SD). Recognition and treatment of this adverse effect has received growing attention. Until now, all antipsychotic agents were thought to potentially cause SD mediated by increased prolactin. Our aim was to observe whether aripiprazole modifies SD in patients with schizophrenia after 3 months of treatment.
Material and Methods:
Multicenter, observational, open-label, prospective, three-month study with single group of aripiprazole treated patients. Sexual activity was assessed using CGI-S and CGI-I for SD; SALSEX scale, validated for Spanish, 3 times after initiating study drug. Patient's clinical status was evaluated by CGI-S and CGI-I for psychotic disorders, and by BPRS Scale.
Result: 42 patients (70% men), 38 completed the study. Incidence of SD at 3 months was null for all patients studied. As period of treatment advanced, the Salsex score decreased, showing a mean overall reduction of –5 points (SD 3.6). Largest reduction was observed in subgroup of patients with SD in baseline visit, who exhibited a mean reduction of –6 points (SD 3.1).
Men with SD in baseline evaluation showed more marked improvement than women at 40 days of treatment (p=0.0447). However, recovery was similar for both groups at 90 days of treatment.
In schizophrenia, SD secondary studies to antipsychotics are important in establishing effectiveness of these agents in chronic treatment. After 3 months of aripiprazole treatment, no SD was observed in patients. Patients who presented SD at study initiation improved over course of 3 months treatment with aripiprazole.
This review aims to understand the scope of the literature regarding mental health-related microaggressions towards people affected by mental health problems.
A scoping review was conducted to explore this question. Four electronic health-oriented databases were searched alongside Google Scholar. As per scoping review principles, the inclusion criteria were developed iteratively. The results of included studies were synthesised using a basic narrative synthesis approach, utilising principles of thematic analysis and thematic synthesis where appropriate.
A total of 1196 records were identified, of which 17 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 12 were peer-reviewed journal articles, three were research degree theses and two were book chapters. Six included empirical studies were qualitative, four were quantitative and two employed a mixed-methods design. Within these, five qualitative studies aimed to describe the nature of mental health microaggressions experienced by people with mental health problems. Themes identified in a thematic synthesis of these five studies included stereotypes about mental illness, invalidating peoples' experience and blaming people with mental illness for their condition. The included publications informed on the perpetration of mental health microaggressions by family, friends, health professionals and social workers. In addition, two studies created scales, which were then used in cross-sectional surveys of the general public and community members to assess characteristics, such as right-wing political views, associated with endorsement of mental health microaggressions. A consensus definition of microaggressions emerged from the included studies: microaggressions are brief, everyday slights, snubs or insults, that may be subtle or ambiguous, but communicate a negative message to a target person based on their membership of a marginalised group, in this case, people affected by mental illness.
The study of mental health microaggressions is an emerging, heterogeneous field, embedded in the wider stigma and discrimination literature. It has been influenced by earlier work on racial microaggressions. Both can be ambiguous and contradictory, which creates difficulty defining the boundaries of the concept, but also underpins the key theoretical basis for the negative impact of microaggressions. Mental illness is a more concealable potential type of identity, so it follows that the reported perpetrators of microaggressions are largely friends, family and professionals. This has implications for intervening to reduce the impact of microaggressions. There are several challenges facing research in this area, and further work is needed to understand the impact of mental health microaggressions on people affected by mental health problems.
What does the rise and election of Donald J. Trump as president mean for the future of conservatism? Republican elites continue to argue about whether Trump is changing the definition of conservatism for better or worse, although many Republicans seem content to let him shape the issues, direction, and brand of the traditional party of conservatism. We examine the ideological characteristics of different groups of Republican voters across three types of ideology: symbolic, operational, and conceptual. We find distinct differences between Republicans who consistently supported Trump and other groups that either supported him in the general election only and those who never supported him. The Never Trump camp stands out as a group that is less symbolically and operationally conservative but also better able to articulate what it means to be a conservative than do Trump’s core supporters, who look very much the opposite. These results suggest a contemporary Republican Party that is far from unified in what it means to be a conservative.
The hippocampus plays an important role in psychopathology and treatment outcome. While posterior hippocampus (PH) may be crucial for the learning process that exposure-based treatments require, affect-focused treatments might preferentially engage anterior hippocampus (AH). Previous studies have distinguished the different functions of these hippocampal sub-regions in memory, learning, and emotional processes, but not in treatment outcome. Examining two independent clinical trials, we hypothesized that anterior hippocampal volume would predict outcome of affect-focused treatment outcome [Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT); Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (PFPP)], whereas posterior hippocampal volume would predict exposure-based treatment outcome [Prolonged Exposure (PE); Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT); Applied Relaxation Training (ART)].
Thirty-five patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 24 with panic disorder (PD) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before randomization to affect-focused (IPT for PTSD; PFPP for PD) or exposure-based treatments (PE for PTSD; CBT or ART for PD). AH and PH volume were regressed with clinical outcome changes.
Baseline whole hippocampal volume did not predict post-treatment clinical severity scores in any treatment. For affect-focused treatments, but not exposure-based treatments, anterior hippocampal volume predicted clinical improvement. Smaller AH correlated with greater affect-focused treatment improvement. Posterior hippocampal volume did not predict treatment outcome.
This is the first study to explore associations between hippocampal volume sub-regions and treatment outcome in PTSD and PD. Convergent results suggest that affect-focused treatment may influence the clinical outcome through the ‘limbic’ AH, whereas exposure-based treatments do not. These preliminary, theory-congruent, therapeutic findings require replication in a larger clinical trial.
Are people conservative (liberal) because they are Republicans
(Democrats)? Or is it the reverse: people are Republicans
(Democrats) because they are conservatives (liberals)? Though much
has been said about this long-standing question, it is difficult to
test because the concepts are nearly impossible to disentangle in
modern America. Ideology and partisanship are highly correlated,
only growing more so over time. However, the election of President
Trump presents a unique opportunity to disentangle party attachment
from ideological commitment. Using a research design that employs
actual “conservative” and “liberal” policy statements from President
Trump, we find that low-knowledge respondents, strong Republicans,
Trump-approving respondents, and self-described conservatives are
the most likely to behave like party loyalists by accepting the
Trump cue—in either a liberal or conservative direction. These
results suggest that there are a large number of party loyalists in
the United States, that their claims to being a self-defined
conservative are suspect, and that group loyalty is the stronger
motivator of opinion than are any ideological principles.
The analysis of an acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fraction of one systematically sampled, partially dolomitized limestone bed is reported. The original lime sediment, composed principally of skeletal remains, pellets, occasional intraclasts, detrital quartz, illite, and muscovite has been modified by the addition of calcite, dolomite, and dickite cements and has been patchily replaced by dolomite, quartz, and pyrite. Rapid chemical and mineralogical variations occur over short distances, i.e. within 10 m. Fe and Mn are both present in greater concentration in dolomite than in calcite. Dolomite itself varies in overall composition within the limestones and dolostones but is always Sr-deficient. The insoluble residue is dominated by quartz. Authigenic quartz occurs but its distribution is controlled by pre-existing detrital quartz so SiO2 distribution corresponds to a detrital arrangement. TiO2 and K2O follow the distribution of SiO2 and are believed to be sited in detrital minerals, muscovite, and other unidentified minerals. Sulphur, present in pyrite, has a patchy distribution but is deficient in totally dolomitized areas suggesting removal of pyrite during dolomitization.
Two new species of Oreocharis, O. tribracteata and O. rufescens, are described and a key to the species in Vietnam is provided. The new species have distinct features not previously, or rarely, observed in the genus, both showing the partial fusion of the calyx lobes into a tube, and the presence of three bracts in Oreocharis tribracteata.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Palmer amaranth is one of the most problematic weeds in the midsouthern United States, and the evolution of resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitors in biotypes already resistant to glyphosate and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors is a major cause of concern to soybean and cotton growers in these states. A late-season weed-escape survey was conducted in the major row crop–producing counties (29 counties) to determine the severity of PPO-inhibitor resistance in Arkansas. A total of 227 Palmer amaranth accessions were sprayed with fomesafen at 395 g ha−1 to identify putative resistant plants. A TaqMan qPCR assay was used to confirm the presence of the ΔG210 codon deletion or the R128G/M (homologous to R98 mutation in common ragweed) target-site resistance mechanisms in the PPX2 gene. Out of the 227 accessions screened, 44 were completely controlled with fomesafen, and 16 had only one or two severely injured plants (≥98% mortality) when compared with the 1986 susceptible check (100% mortality). The remaining 167 accessions were genotypically screened, and 82 (49%) accessions were found to harbor the ΔG210 deletion in the PPX2 gene. The R128G was observed in 47 (28%) out of the 167 accessions screened. The mutation R128M, on the other hand was rare, found in only three accessions. About 13% of the accessions were segregating for both the ΔG210 and R128G mutations. Sixteen percent of the tested accessions had mortality ratings <90% and did not test positive for the ΔG210 or the R128G/M resistance mechanisms, indicating that a novel target or non–target site resistance mechanism is likely. Overall, PPO inhibitor–resistant Palmer amaranth is widespread in Arkansas, and the ΔG210 resistance mechanism is especially dominant in the northeast corridor, while the R128G mutation is more prevalent in counties near Memphis, TN.