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In this paper, we will report about the implementation of the self-consistent Kröner–Eshelby model for the calculation of X-ray elastic constants for general, triclinic crystal symmetry. With applying appropriate symmetry relations, the point groups of higher crystal symmetries are covered as well. This simplifies the implementation effort to cover the calculations for any crystal symmetry. In the literature, several models can be found to estimate the polycrystalline elastic properties from single crystal elastic constants. In general, this is an intermediate step toward the calculation of the polycrystalline response to different techniques using X-rays, neutrons, or ultrasonic waves. In the case of X-ray residual stress analysis, the final goal is the calculation of X-ray Elastic constants. Contrary to the models of Reuss, Voigt, and Hill, the Kröner–Eshelby model has the benefit that, because of the implementation of the Eshelby inclusion model, it can be expanded to cover more complicated systems that exhibit multiple phases, inclusions or pores and that these can be optionally combined with a polycrystalline matrix that is anisotropic, i.e., contains texture. We will discuss a recent theoretical development where the approaches of calculating bounds of Reuss and Voigt, the tighter bounds of Hashin–Shtrikman and Dederichs–Zeller are brought together in one unifying model that converges to the self-consistent solution of Kröner–Eshelby. For the implementation of the Kröner–Eshelby model the well-known Voigt notation is adopted. The 4-rank tensor operations have been rewritten into 2-rank matrix operations. The practical difficulties of the Voigt notation, as usually concealed in the scientific literature, will be discussed. Last, we will show a practical X-ray example in which the various models are applied and compared.
Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are a highly medicated group. Few studies have examined the neuropsychiatric profile and patterns of psychotropic medication use among adults with ASD.
To describe and compare the neuropsychiatric profile and psychotropic medication use in a cohort of adults with ASD and non-autistic controls.
Baseline data from a survey-based, longitudinal study of adults with ASD in Australia. Participants were 188 adults with ASD and 115 controls aged 25–80 years.
ASD was associated with increased odds of psychotropic medication use even when controlling for the presence of any neurological or psychiatric disorder. There were no corresponding indications for 14.4% of psychotropic medications prescribed to adults with ASD.
This study found substantial psychotropic prescribing for adults with ASD. Patterns of psychotropic medication use may reflect prescribing for behavioural indications despite limited evidence to support this practice.
To describe an adenovirus outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), including the use of qualitative and semiquantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data to inform the outbreak response.
Mixed prospective and retrospective observational study.
A level IV NICU in the southeastern United States.
Two adenovirus cases were identified in a NICU. Screening of all inpatients with qPCR on nasopharyngeal specimens revealed 11 additional cases.
Outbreak response procedures, including enhanced infection control policies, were instituted. Serial qPCR studies were used to screen for new infections among exposed infants and to monitor viral clearance among cases. Changes to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) exam procedures were made after an association was noted in those patients. At the end of the outbreak, a retrospective review allowed for comparison of clinical factors between the infected and uninfected groups.
There were no new cases among patients after outbreak identification. One adenovirus-infected patient died; the others recovered their clinical baselines. The ROP exams were associated with an increased risk of infection (odds ratio [OR], 84.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5–1,601). The duration of the outbreak response was 33 days, and the previously described second wave of cases after the end of the outbreak did not occur. Revisions to infection control policies remained in effect following the outbreak.
Retinopathy of prematurity exams are potential mechanisms of adenovirus transmission, and autoclaved or single-use instruments should be used to minimize this risk. Real-time molecular diagnostic and quantification data guided outbreak response procedures, which rapidly contained and fully terminated a NICU adenovirus outbreak.
The controls on rapid surface lake drainage on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) remain uncertain, making it challenging to incorporate lake drainage into models of GrIS hydrology, and so to determine the ice-dynamic impact of meltwater reaching the ice-sheet bed. Here, we first use a lake area and volume tracking algorithm to identify rapidly draining lakes within West Greenland during summer 2014. Second, we derive hydrological, morphological, glaciological and surface-mass-balance data for various factors that may influence rapid lake drainage. Third, these factors are used within Exploratory Data Analysis to examine existing hypotheses for rapid lake drainage. This involves testing for statistical differences between the rapidly and non-rapidly draining lake types, as well as examining associations between lake size and the potential controlling factors. This study shows that the two lake types are statistically indistinguishable for almost all factors investigated, except lake area. Thus, we are unable to recommend an empirically supported, deterministic alternative to the fracture area threshold parameter for modelling rapid lake drainage within existing surface-hydrology models of the GrIS. However, if improved remotely sensed datasets (e.g. ice-velocity maps, climate model outputs) were included in future research, it may be possible to detect the causes of rapid drainage.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 can infect poultry causing low pathogenicity (LP) AI, but these LPAIVs may mutate to highly pathogenic AIV in chickens or turkeys causing high mortality, hence H5/H7 subtypes demand statutory intervention. Serological surveillance in the European Union provides evidence of H5/H7 AIV exposure in apparently healthy poultry. To identify the most sensitive screening method as the first step in an algorithm to provide evidence of H5/H7 AIV infection, the standard approach of H5/H7 antibody testing by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) was compared with an ELISA, which detects antibodies to all subtypes. Sera (n = 1055) from 74 commercial chicken flocks were tested by both methods. A Bayesian approach served to estimate diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities, without assuming any ‘gold standard’. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA was 97% and 99.8%, and for H5/H7 HI 43% and 99.8%, respectively, although H5/H7 HI sensitivity varied considerably between infected flocks. ELISA therefore provides superior sensitivity for the screening of chicken flocks as part of an algorithm, which subsequently utilises H5/H7 HI to identify infection by these two subtypes. With the calculated sensitivity and specificity, testing nine sera per flock is sufficient to detect a flock seroprevalence of 30% with 95% probability.
The mechanics of snow friction are central to competitive skiing, safe winter driving and efficient polar sleds. For nearly 80 years, prevailing theory has postulated that self-lubrication accounts for low kinetic friction on snow: dry-contact sliding warms snow grains to the melting point, and further sliding produces meltwater layers that lubricate the interface. We sought to verify that self-lubrication occurs at the grain scale and to quantify the evolution of real contact area to aid modeling. We used high-resolution (15 µm) infrared thermography to observe the warming of stationary snow under a rotating polyethylene slider. Surprisingly, we did not observe melting at contacting snow grains despite low friction values. In some cases, slider shear failed inter-granular bonds and produced widespread snow movement with no persistent contacts to melt (μ < 0.03). When the snow grains did not move and persistent contacts evolved, the slider abraded rather than melted the grains at low resistance (μ < 0.05). Optical microscopy revealed that the abraded particles deposited in air pockets between grains and thereby carried heat away from the interface, a process not included in current models. Overall, our results challenge whether self-lubrication is indeed the dominant mechanism underlying low snow kinetic friction.
The impact of spatial and temporal variations in the surface albedo and aerodynamic roughness length on the surface energy balance of Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland, was examined using a semi-distributed surface energy-balance model (Arnold and others, 1996). The model was updated to incorporate the glacier-wide effects of albedo and aerodynamic roughness-length variations using parameterizations following Brock (1997). After the model’s performance was validated, the glacier-wide patterns of the net shortwave, turbulent and melt energy fluxes were examined on four days, representative of surface conditions in late May, June July and August. In the model, meteorological conditions were held constant on each day in order that the impact of albedo and aerodynamic roughness-length variations could be assessed independently. A late-summer snowfall event was also simulated. Albedo and aerodynamic roughness-length variations, particularly those associated with the migration of the transient snowline and the decay of the winter snowpack, were found to exert a strong influence on the magnitude of the surface energy fluxes The importance of meteorological conditions in suppressing the surface energy fluxes and melt rate following a fresh snowfall was highlighted
Modelling the hydrology of the Greenland ice sheet, including the filling and drainage of supraglacial lakes, requires melt inputs generated at high spatial and temporal resolution. Here we apply a high spatial (100 m) and temporal (1 hour) mass-balance model to a 450 km2 subset of the Paakitsoq region, West Greenland. The model is calibrated by adjusting the values for parameters of fresh snow density, threshold temperature for solid/liquid precipitation and elevation-dependent precipitation gradient to minimize the error between modelled output and surface height and albedo measurements from three Greenland Climate Network stations for the mass-balance years 2000/01 and 2004/05. Bestfit parameter values are consistent between the two years at 400 kg m-3, 2°C and +14% (100 m)-1, respectively. Model performance is evaluated, first, by comparing modelled snow and ice distribution with that derived from Landsat-7 ETM+ satellite imagery using normalized-difference snow index classification and supervised image thresholding; and second, by comparing modelled albedo with that retrieved from the MODIS sensor M0D10A1 product. Calculation of mass-balance components indicates that 6% of surface meltwater and rainwater refreezes in the snowpack and does not become runoff, such that refreezing accounts for 31% of the net accumulation.
We use a simple energy-conservation model and a model based on Röthlisberger’s theory for steady-state water flow in a subglacial conduit to model water movement between lakes in the Adventure subglacial trench region of East Antarctica during a 1996–98 jökulhlaup. Using available field evidence to constrain the models suggests that water flow would likely be accommodated in a tunnel with a cross-sectional area of 36 m2 and a value for k (the reciprocal of Manning’s roughness parameter) larger than the 12.5 m1/3 s−1 previously calculated. We also use Nye’s theory for time-dependent conduit water flow to model the temporal evolution of conduit discharge, cross-sectional area, water pressure and lake draining and filling during the flood. We initially assume one source and one sink lake. We perform sensitivity tests on the input parameter set, matching modeled source- and sink-lake depth changes with measured surface elevation data. Using a simple function for vertical ice deformation in which surface deformation scales linearly to the lake depth change, we find the scaling factor is of the order 4 × 10−3 of the ice thickness. The most likely value of k lies in the range 55–68 m1/3 s−1, and the ratio of source to sink-lake radii is approximately 1 : 1.4. Finally, we experiment using Nye’s theory to model water movement between one source and three sink lakes. The model fails to produce the observed patterns of water movement as indicated by the surface deformation data.
To date, most macroevolutionary studies have focused on taxonomic data; there are very few data sets that provide a large enough statistical population for extensive macroevolutionary studies involving direct morphometric data. The Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera are exceptional in this regard. Digitally captured shape descriptions of 342 species of Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera have been combined with the available data on their phylogenetic relationships to examine the interplay between speciation rates, size change, and various geometric characters. The results tend, at least for the planktonic foraminifera, to support Stanley's (1973) hypothesis regarding the causal mechanisms behind Cope's Rule. The tendency toward size increase may result from the disadvantages of large size during times of mass extinction rather than from the (conventionally assumed) advantages of larger size.
Additional results derived from morphotypic longevities and morphotypic turnover rates suggest an enhanced probability of speciation early in the Cenozoic, and enhanced longevity in the later Cenozoic.
Microevolutionary studies of patterns of changing variance within the Paleocene and Eocene genus Morozovella suggest that conventional foraminiferal taxonomic practice may not accurately reflect biological realities within the group, thus implying that our macroevolutionary results might be interpreted in other ways.
Paedomorphosis has now been seen in several foraminiferal lineages, including Morozovella angulata, a focus of the present study. Isotopic data (Shackleton, Corfield, and Hall, 1985) suggests that evolution of this group is accompanied by the invasion of a stratified water column. These observations suggest that one might look for systematic macroevolutionary morphologic tendencies in chamber expansion rate and size as a guide to understanding paleoecological conditions. It also seems reasonable to suggest that the complex morphological changes seen in the morozovellids may not represent morphological adaptation, but resource-related heterochronic shifts with ancillary morphological consequences.
Meighen Island lies in the centre of the north coast of the Queen Elizabeth Islands and fronts on the Arctic Ocean. An ice cap of about 76 km.2 covers about one-tenth of the island. Its greatest thickness of 150 m. occurs under the summit, near the south end, which was 268 m. above sea-level in 1960. The northern half of the ice cap is less than 30 m. thick; and the total volume is of the order of 2,000 × 106 m.3.
Precipitation is low in the northern Queen Elizabeth Islands, and Meighen Island lies in an area where summer temperatures are lowest. In the winters of 1959–60, 1960–61 and 1961–62, the snow accumulation was 12.6, 18.2 and 14.1 cm. of water equivalent. Some snowfall remained on the higher part of the ice cap in the cold summer of 1961; but the ice cap diminished in volume in each year; by 36 × 106, 72 × 106, 22 × 106 and 91 × 106 m.3 in the 1959, 1960, 1961 and 1962 ablation seasons.
If the conditions of these four seasons were maintained the ice cap would disappear in about 100 yr. However, a radio-carbon dating of a saxifrage exposed by the retreat of the ice from a small nunatak near the northern edge gave a date of less than 100 yr., and it appears that the existence of the ice cap might be sensitively related to recent climatic change.
Careful surveys were made in 1959, 1960 and 1961 in an attempt to detect movement in the ice cap. Unequivocal evidence is not available from these surveys; but the stake network has been maintained and another survey has recently been completed.
Identifying youth who may engage in future substance use could facilitate early identification of substance use disorder vulnerability. We aimed to identify biomarkers that predicted future substance use in psychiatrically un-well youth.
LASSO regression for variable selection was used to predict substance use 24.3 months after neuroimaging assessment in 73 behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth aged 13.9 (s.d. = 2.0) years, 30 female, from three clinical sites in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study. Predictor variables included neural activity during a reward task, cortical thickness, and clinical and demographic variables.
Future substance use was associated with higher left middle prefrontal cortex activity, lower left ventral anterior insula activity, thicker caudal anterior cingulate cortex, higher depression and lower mania scores, not using antipsychotic medication, more parental stress, older age. This combination of variables explained 60.4% of the variance in future substance use, and accurately classified 83.6%.
These variables explained a large proportion of the variance, were useful classifiers of future substance use, and showed the value of combining multiple domains to provide a comprehensive understanding of substance use development. This may be a step toward identifying neural measures that can identify future substance use disorder risk, and act as targets for therapeutic interventions.
Supraglacial ponds play a key role in absorbing atmospheric energy and directing it to the ice of debris-covered glaciers, but the spatial and temporal distribution of these features is not well documented. We analyse 172 Landsat TM/ETM+ scenes for the period 1999–2013 to identify thawed supraglacial ponds for the debris-covered tongues of five glaciers in the Langtang Valley of Nepal. We apply an advanced atmospheric correction routine (Landcor/6S) and use band ratio and image morphological techniques to identify ponds and validate our results with 2.5 m Cartosat-1 observations. We then characterize the spatial, seasonal and interannual patterns of ponds. We find high variability in pond incidence between glaciers (May–October means of 0.08–1.69% of debris area), with ponds most frequent in zones of low surface gradient and velocity. The ponds show pronounced seasonality, appearing in the pre-monsoon as snow melts, peaking at the monsoon onset at 2% of debris-covered area, then declining in the post-monsoon as ponds drain or freeze. Ponds are highly recurrent and persistent, with 40.5% of pond locations occurring for multiple years. Rather than a trend in pond cover over the study period, we find high interannual variability for each glacier after controlling for seasonality.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe cognitive, academic, and psychosocial outcomes after an incident demyelinating event (acquired demyelinating syndromes, ADS) in childhood and to investigate the contribution of brain lesions and confirmed MS diagnosis on outcome. Methods: Thirty-six patients with ADS (mean age=12.2 years, SD=2.7, range: 7–16 years) underwent brain MRI scans at presentation and at 6-months follow-up. T2-weighted lesions on MRI were assessed using a binary classification. At 6-months follow-up, patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation and were compared with 42 healthy controls. Results: Cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes did not differ between the patients with ADS and controls. Three of 36 patients (8.3%) were identified with cognitive impairment, as determined by performance falling ≤1.5 SD below normative values on more than four independent tests in the battery. Poor performance on a visuomotor integration task was most common, observed among 6/32 patients, but this did not differ significantly from controls. Twelve of 36 patients received a diagnosis of MS within 3 years post-ADS. Patients with MS did not differ from children with monophasic ADS in terms of cognitive performance at the 6-months follow-up. Fatigue symptoms were reported in 50% of patients, irrespective of MS diagnosis. Presence of brain lesions at onset and 6 months post-incident demyelinating event did not associate with cognitive outcome. Conclusions: Children with ADS experience a favorable short-term neurocognitive outcome, even those confirmed to have MS. Longitudinal evaluations of children with monophasic ADS and MS are required to determine the possibility of late-emerging sequelae and their time course. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1050–1060)
In current practice, children with anatomically normal hearts routinely undergo fluoroscopy-free ablations. Infants and children with congenital heart disease (CHD) represent the most difficult population to perform catheter ablation without fluoroscopy. We report two neonatal patients with CHD in whom cardiac ablations were performed without fluoroscopy. The first infant had pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum with refractory supraventricular tachycardia, and the second infant presented with Ebstein’s anomaly of the tricuspid valve along with persistent supraventricular tachycardia. Both patients underwent uncomplicated, successful ablation without recurrence of arrhythmias. These cases suggest that current approaches to minimising fluoroscopy may be useful even in challenging patients such as neonates with CHD.
The construction of a prototype telescope is now reaching the stage of mirror polishing and building the active cell. Three blanks have already been produced. Two polishing methods are tested, utilizing the stressing technics, or involving excentered polishing strokes. A working model of one leg of the telescope translator has been built.
The standard procedure for measuring 14C at the Gif-sur-Yvette Tandetron AMS facility is described. A new sample manipulator and automated measurements are being used and have been operational for six months. Evidence of isotopic fractionation in the sputter ion source is provided. We take this into account by measuring the 13C/12C ratio of the sample in the accelerator.
Tests have been carried out on the measurement of 14C directly from CO2, using a source designed by Middleton, and a Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer system. These tests were very promising from the point of view of minimum quantity of carbon necessary (<50μg), but suffered from a background (apparently not memory effect) giving an equivalent age of ∼25,000 years. As a demonstration of the technique, a single thread from the mummy wrapping of the Egyptian king Ramses II was dated.
Advances in radiocarbon dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) have made it possible to date prehistoric cave paintings by sampling the pigment itself instead of relying on dates derived from miscellaneous prehistoric remains recovered in the vicinity of the paintings. The work at the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) concentrated on prehistoric charcoal cave paintings from southern France and northern Spain. In most caves, pigment samples were collected from several paintings, and in some instances the sample size allowed for multiple independent measurements on the same figure, so that the coherence of the calculated dates could be tested. Before being dated, each specimen was subjected to a thermal treatment preceded by an acid and basic treatment of intensity commensurate with the sample size.
Nine bison drawings from three caves in the Cantabrian region of Spain—two from Covaciella, three from Altamira, and four from El Castillo—were sampled and dated. The 27 dates fell between 13,000 and 14,500 BP, allowing us to attribute the drawings to the Magdalenian period. The 24 dates for 13 drawings in the Cosquer cave indicated two distinct periods of painting activity—one around 28,000 BP and the other around 19,000 BP. The Chauvet cave paintings turned out to be the oldest recorded to date, as five dates fell between 32,000 and 31,000 BP. After discussing the sample preparation protocol in more detail, we will discuss the ages obtained and compare them with other chronological data.
The new facility Artemis was installed in 2003 in Saclay, France. This 3MV NEC Pelletron is dedicated to high-precision radiocarbon measurements for French 14C laboratories. We will present information on Artemis along with our sample preparation methods. Results from measurements on some intercalibration samples will be given along with the values of measured blanks. Finally, we report on some problems we have encountered when measuring sputter cathodes with high CH− outputs.