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Developing alternatives to antibiotics is an urgent need in livestock production. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are regarded as powerful antibiotic substitutes (ASs) because AMPs have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and growth-promoting ability. Here, we aimed to comprehensively assess the effects of AMPs on the growth performance, diarrhea rate, intestinal morphology and immunity of healthy or challenged piglets, compared with an antibiotics group or negative control group. We performed a set of meta-analyses of feeding trials from database inception to 27 May 2019. Among the 1379 identified studies, 20 were included in our meta-analyses (56 arms and 4067 piglets). The meta-analyses revealed that (1) compared with the negative control group, AMPs significantly improved the healthy piglets’ average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), gain : feed ratio (G/F), levels of immune globulin (Ig) IgM and IgG, and intestinal villus height : crypt depth ratio (V/C) (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, AMPs significantly increased the challenged piglets’ ADG, ADFI, G/F and V/C of the jejunum and ileum, and notably deceased the diarrhea rate (P < 0.05); (2) compared with antibiotics group, the effects of AMPs were slightly weaker than those of antibiotics in the healthy piglets, but AMPs have similar effects to those of antibiotics in challenged piglets. In a higher purity, the optimal dose of AMPs may be approximately 0.01%. Our findings indicate that AMPs can improve piglet growth performance, enhance immunity, benefit intestinal morphology and decrease the diarrheal rate. AMPs could be great ASs especially under infection conditions.
Previous work led to the proposal that the precision feeding of a high-concentrate diet may represent a potential method with which to enhance feed efficiency (FE) when rearing dairy heifers. However, the physiological and metabolic mechanisms underlying this approach remain unclear. This study used metabolomics analysis to investigate the changes in plasma metabolites of heifers precision-fed diets containing a wide range of forage to concentrate ratios. Twenty-four half-sib Holstein heifers, with a similar body condition, were randomly assigned into four groups and precision fed with diets containing different proportions of concentrate (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% based on DM). After 28 days of feeding, blood samples were collected 6 h after morning feeding and gas chromatography time-of-ﬂight/MS was used to analyze the plasma samples. Parameters of oxidative status were also determined in the plasma. The FE (after being corrected for gut fill) increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing level of dietary concentrate. Significant changes were identified for 38 different metabolites in the plasma of heifers fed different dietary forage to concentrate ratios. The main pathways showing alterations were clustered into those relating to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism; all of which have been previously associated with FE changes in ruminants. Heifers fed with a high-concentrate diet had higher (P < 0.01) plasma total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase but lower (P ≤ 0.02) hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide than heifers fed with a low-concentrate diet, which might indicate a lower plasma oxidative status in the heifers fed a high-concentrate diet. Thus, heifers fed with a high-concentrate diet had higher FE and antioxidant capacity but a lower plasma oxidative status as well as changed carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Our findings provide a better understanding of how forage to concentrate ratios affect FE and metabolism in the precision-fed growing heifers.
Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) can improve the growth performance of bulls. This study investigated the influences of GAA addition on growth, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation and serum metabolites in bulls. Forty-eight Angus bulls were randomly allocated to experimental treatments, that is, control, low-GAA (LGAA), medium-GAA (MGAA) and high-GAA (HGAA), with GAA supplementation at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 g/kg DM, respectively. Bulls were fed a basal diet containing 500 g/kg DM concentrate and 500 g/kg DM roughage. The experimental period was 104 days, with 14 days for adaptation and 90 days for data collection. Bulls in the MGAA and HGAA groups had higher DM intake and average daily gain than bulls in the LGAA and control groups. The feed conversion ratio was lowest in MGAA and highest in the control. Bulls receiving 0.9 g/kg DM GAA addition had higher digestibility of DM, organic matter, NDF and ADF than bulls in other groups. The digestibility of CP was higher for HGAA than for LGAA and control. The ruminal pH was lower for MGAA, and the total volatile fatty acid concentration was greater for MGAA and HGAA than for the control. The acetate proportion and acetate-to-propionate ratio were lower for MGAA than for LGAA and control. The propionate proportion was higher for MGAA than for control. Bulls receiving GAA addition showed decreased ruminal ammonia N. Bulls in MGAA and HGAA had higher cellobiase, pectinase and protease activities and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus populations than bulls in LGAA and control. However, the total protozoan population was lower for MGAA and HGAA than for LGAA and control. The total bacterial and Ruminococcus flavefaciens populations increased with GAA addition. The blood level of creatine was higher for HGAA, and the activity of l-arginine glycine amidine transferase was lower for MGAA and HGAA, than for control. The blood activity of guanidine acetate N-methyltransferase and the level of folate decreased in the GAA addition groups. The results indicated that dietary addition of 0.6 or 0.9 g/kg DM GAA improved growth performance, nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation in bulls.
The dendrite morphologies of the cast nickel-based superalloy CMSX-4® (CMSX-4® is registered trademarks of the Cannon-Muskegon Corporation) and the austenitic stainless steel HP microalloy have been obtained via an automated serial-sectioning process which allows three-dimensional (3D) microstructural characterization. The dendrite arm spacing, volume fraction of segregation, and fraction of porosity have been determined. This technique not only increases the depth, scope, and level of detailed microstructural characterization but also delivers microstructural data for modeling and simulation.
In this paper, the generation of relativistic electron mirrors (REM) and the reflection of an ultra-short laser off the mirrors are discussed, applying two-dimension particle-in-cell simulations. REMs with ultra-high acceleration and expanding velocity can be produced from a solid nanofoil illuminated normally by an ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse with a sharp rising edge. Chirped attosecond pulse can be produced through the reflection of a counter-propagating probe laser off the accelerating REM. In the electron moving frame, the plasma frequency of the REM keeps decreasing due to its rapid expansion. The laser frequency, on the contrary, keeps increasing due to the acceleration of REM and the relativistic Doppler shift from the lab frame to the electron moving frame. Within an ultra-short time interval, the two frequencies will be equal in the electron moving frame, which leads to the resonance between laser and REM. The reflected radiation near this interval and corresponding spectra will be amplified due to the resonance. Through adjusting the arriving time of the probe laser, a certain part of the reflected field could be selectively amplified or depressed, leading to the selective adjustment of the corresponding spectra.
Ovarian follicle selection is a natural biological process in the pre-ovulatory hierarchy in birds that drives growing follicles to be selected within the ovulatory cycle. Follicle selection in birds is strictly regulated, involving signaling pathways mediated by dietary nutrients, gonadotrophic hormones and paracrine factors. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that dietary Ca may participate in regulating follicle selection in laying ducks through activating the signaling pathway of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), possibly mediated by gonadotrophic hormones. Female ducks at 22 weeks of age were initially fed one of two Ca-deficient diets (containing 1.8% or 0.38% Ca) or a Ca-adequate control diet (containing 3.6% Ca) for 67 days (depletion period), then all birds were fed the Ca-adequate diet for an additional 67 days (repletion period). Compared with the Ca-adequate control, ducks fed 0.38% Ca during the depletion period had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) numbers of hierarchical follicles and total ovarian weight, which were accompanied by reduced egg production. Plasma concentration of FSH was decreased by the diet containing 1.8% Ca but not by that containing 0.38%. The ovarian content of cAMP was increased with the two Ca-deficient diets, and phosphorylation of PKA and ERK1/2 was increased with 0.38% dietary Ca. Transcripts of ovarian estradiol receptor 2 and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) were reduced in the ducks fed the two Ca-deficient diets (P < 0.05), while those of the ovarian follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) were decreased in the ducks fed 0.38% Ca. The transcript abundance of ovary gap junction proteins, A1 and A4, was reduced with the Ca-deficient diets (P < 0.05). The down-regulation of gene expression of gap junction proteins and hormone receptors, the increased cAMP content and the suppressed hierarchical follicle numbers were reversed by repletion of dietary Ca. These results indicate that dietary Ca deficiency negatively affects follicle selection of laying ducks, independent of FSH, but probably by activating cAMP/PKA/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
Introduction: There is ongoing concern about the burden placed on healthcare systems by lab tests. Although these concerns are widespread, it is difficult to quantify the extent of the problem. One approach involves use of a metric known as the Mean Abnormal Response Rate (MARR), which is the proportion of tests ordered that return an abnormal result; a higher MARR value indicates higher yield. The primary objective of this study was to calculate MARRs for tests ordered between April 2014 and March 2019 at the four adult emergency departments (EDs) covering a metropolitan population of 1.3 million. Secondary objectives included identifying tests with highest and lowest MARRs; comparison of MARRs for nurse- and physician-initiated orders; correlation of the number of tests per order requisition to MARR; and correlation of physician experience to MARR. Methods: In total, 40 laboratory tests met inclusion criteria for this study. Administrative data on these tests as ordered at the four EDs were obtained and analyzed. Multi-component test results, such as from CBC, were consolidated such that an abnormal result for any component was coded as an abnormal result for the entire test. Repeat tests ordered within a single patient visit were excluded. Physician experience was quantified for 209 ED physicians as number of years since licensure. Analyses were descriptive where appropriate for whole-population data. Risk of bias was attenuated by the focus on administrative data. Results: The population dataset comprised 33,757,004 test results on 415,665 unique patients. Of these results, 30.3% were the outcomes of nurse-initiated orders. The 5-year MARRs for the four hospitals were 38.3%, 40.0%, 40.7% and 40.9%. The highest per-test MARRs were for BNP (80.5%) and CBC (62.6%), while the lowest were for glucose (7.9%) and sodium (11.6%). MARRs were higher for nurse-initiated orders than for physician-initiated orders (44.7% vs. 38.1%), likely due to the greater order frequency of high-yield CBC in nurse-initiated orders (38.6% vs. 18.1%). The number of tests per order requisition was inversely associated with MARR (r = -0.90, p < 0.001). Finally, the number of years since licensure was modestly but significantly associated with MARR (r = 0.28, p < 0.001). Conclusion: This is the first and largest study to apply the MARR in an ED setting. As a metric, MARR effectively identifies differences in test ordering practices on per-test and per-hospital bases, which could be useful for data-informed practice optimization.
Introduction: Physician metrics extracted from an electronic medical records (EMR) system can be utilized for practice improvement. One key metric analyzed at many emergency departments (EDs) is ‘patients per hour’ (pts/hr), a proxy for physician productivity. It is often believed that early-career physicians experience rapid growth in efficiency as they acclimatize to a hospital system and develop clinical confidence. This is the first study to evaluate the following question: Do early-career ED physicians increase their productivity when beginning practice? Methods: We performed a retrospective review of EMR data of early-career ED physicians working at one or more urban, academic centers. Early-career physicians must have started practice within three months of residency completion, and were identified by privileging records and provincial medical college registration. Physicians were excluded if they did not have at least 36 months of continuous data. Monthly productivity data (pts/hr) was extracted for each physician for their first 36-months of practice. A ‘performance curve’ or graph with a trendline of productivity as a moving average was created for each physician. Each performance curve was visually evaluated by two independent reviewers to qualitatively identify the general trend as upward, downward, or stable, with disagreements resolved by conference. Each physician's first and third year average productivity was compared quantitatively as well, with a significant upward or downward trend defined as a difference of at least 0.2 pts/hr. Results: A total of 41 physicians met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Overall monthly pts/hr averages ranged from 1.08 to 7.65. Upon visual inspection, six (14.6%) physicians had upward trends, five (12.2%) had downward trends, and 30 (73.2%) had no discernable pattern. The quantitative analysis comparing first year to third year productivity matched the qualitative inspection exactly, with the same six physicians showing increased productivity, five with decreased, and 30 without significant change. Notably, the majority (30/41) of physicians demonstrated radical productivity variations over short periods with no discernable long-term trends. Conclusion: The majority of early career physicians do not demonstrate sustained early-career productivity changes. Of those that do, an approximately equal number will become faster and slower.
Background: Ketorolac has long been used to manage pain in the Emergency Department and has the advantage of being the only parenteral NSAID formulation. Despite multiple studies demonstrating an analgesic ceiling dose of 10mg for intravenous ketorolac, higher doses (30-60mg) are commonly ordered. Use of optimal doses of ketorolac (10mg) has the advantage of lower side effects and cost. Aim Statement: The aim of this project was to increase the usage of the optimal dose parenteral ketorolac (10mg) without increasing the use of additional, concomitant or rescue opioids (balancing measures). Measures & Design: This pre-/post-intervention comparison study (May 1, 2016 to April 30, 2018) included all patients ≥18 years of age that received parenteral ketorolac at one of 4 EDs in the Calgary zone. All data was captured via administrative data records. Stakeholders (ED leadership, analgesia committee, nursing and pharmacy) provided feedback and support for the project. Our multi-modal intervention included modifying all ED computerized order sets such that the default parenteral ketorolac dose was 10mg (post-intervention) from 30mg (pre-intervention), education (dissemination of evidence to support the changes to clinicians) and our pharmacy securing 10mg vials of ketorolac. At their discretion, physicians’ were still able to order other doses of ketorolac. Evaluation/Results: During the 2 year study period, 19290 patient records were identified where parenteral ketorolac was administered during the ED visit. Baseline characteristics were similar between the pre/post periods. Prior to the change in default dosing, 10.5% of orders were for ketorolac 10mg compared to 87% in the post-intervention period (p < 0.000). Statistical process charts support the above results and demonstrate that the changes have been sustained. There were no differences in patients receiving ketorolac as the only analgesic between the pre/post periods (42% vs 42%, p = 0.396), nor where there significant changes in concomitant opioid usage (46% vs 46%, p = 0.817), or rescue analgesia (11% vs 12%, p = 0.097). Discussion/Impact: In this large cohort, our multi-modal intervention, resulted in a significant increase in optimal ketorolac parenteral dosing without a significant change in additional opioid use. The results support the utility of computerized order set changes as the cornerstone of an effective and rapid knowledge translation strategy to align physician practice with best evidence.
Se can enhance lactation performance by improving nutrient utilization and antioxidant status. However, sodium selenite (SS) can be reduced to non-absorbable elemental Se in the rumen, thereby reducing the intestinal availability of Se. The study investigated the impacts of SS and coated SS (CSS) supplementation on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbiota in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were blocked by parity, daily milk yield and days in milk and randomly assigned to five treatments: control, SS addition (0.3 mg Se/kg DM as SS addition) or CSS addition (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg Se/kg DM as CSS addition for low CSS (LCSS), medium CSS (MCSS) and high CSS (HCSS), respectively). Experiment period was 110 days with 20 days of adaptation and 90 days of sample collection. Dry matter intake was higher for MCSS and HCSS compared with control. Yields of milk, milk fat and milk protein and feed efficiency were higher for MCSS and HCSS than for control, SS and LCSS. Digestibility of DM and organic matter was highest for CSS addition, followed by SS addition and then control. Digestibility of CP was higher for MCSS and HCSS than for control, SS and LCSS. Higher digestibility of ether extract, NDF and ADF was observed for SS or CSS addition. Ruminal pH decreased with dietary Se addition. Acetate to propionate ratio and ammonia N were lower, and total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration was greater for SS, MCSS and HCSS than control. Ruminal H ion concentration was highest for MCSS and HCSS and lowest for control. Activities of cellobiase, carboxymethyl-cellulase, xylanase and protease and copies of total bacteria, fungi, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus amylophilus increased with SS or CSS addition. Activity of α-amylase, copies of protozoa, Ruminococcus albus and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and serum glucose, total protein, albumin and glutathione peroxidase were higher for SS, MCSS and HCSS than for control and LCSS. Dietary SS or CSS supplementation elevated blood Se concentration and total antioxidant capacity activity. The data implied that milk yield was elevated due to the increase in total tract nutrient digestibility, total VFA concentration and microorganism population with 0.2 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM from CSS supplementation in dairy cows. Compared with SS, HCSS addition was more efficient in promoting lactation performance of dairy cows.
Neuroticism is associated with the onset and maintenance of a number of mental health conditions, as well as a number of deleterious outcomes (e.g. physical health problems, higher divorce rates, lost productivity, and increased treatment seeking); thus, the consideration of whether this trait can be addressed in treatment is warranted. To date, outcome research has yielded mixed results regarding neuroticism's responsiveness to treatment, perhaps due to the fact that study interventions are typically designed to target disorder symptoms rather than neuroticism itself. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether a course of treatment with the unified protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic intervention that was explicitly developed to target neuroticism, results in greater reductions in neuroticism compared to gold-standard, symptom focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocols and a waitlist (WL) control condition.
Patients with principal anxiety disorders (N = 223) were included in this study. They completed a validated self-report measure of neuroticism, as well as clinician-rated measures of psychological symptoms.
At week 16, participants in the UP condition exhibited significantly lower levels of neuroticism than participants in the symptom-focused CBT (t(218) = −2.17, p = 0.03, d = −0.32) and WL conditions(t(207) = −2.33, p = 0.02, d = −0.43), and these group differences remained after controlling for simultaneous fluctuations in depression and anxiety symptoms.
Treatment effects on neuroticism may be most robust when this trait is explicitly targeted.
The aim of this study was to clarify effects of Clozapine and its metabolites on insulin resection and expression of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) located in cell membrane of isolated rat's islets.
The cells of isolated rat's islets were prepared by a modified collagenase digestion methods. At 5.5 mmol/L glucose, the cells of islets was treated with 1mmol/L clozapine, desmethyl-clozapine(DCLO), clozapine N-oxide(CNO), respectively, blank control group was also set.
1. After incubation 48h, the insulin in supernatant was assayed by radioimmunoassay.
2. The cells of isolated rat's islets in each group were detected GLUT2 mRNA level with RT-PCR and its protein expression with Western-blot.
1. Compared to control group, clozapine significantly inhibited insulin secretion (P=0.007< 0.01); DCLO has a tendency to inhibit insulin secretion after 48h of incubation, but no significant difference was found (P=0.154>0.05). There was no difference of insulin secretion between CNO group and the control group after 48h of incubation (P>0.05).
2. The mRNA and protein expression of GLUT2 located in cell membrane of slets: clozapine group was significantly lower than control group (P=0.017< 0.05, P=0.035< 0.05), DCLO group was also lower than control group, but no significant difference was found (P>0.05), and no significant difference between CNO group and control group (P>0.05).
Clozapine can inhibit GLUT2 expression of cells of islets, and then hamper glucose transport through cell membrane, which was one of mechanisms to explain the effect of clozapine on insulin secretion.
To evaluate newborn fluoxetine exposure at different period on development and behavior of adult rats.
Male rat pups were randomized to be treated once daily with fluoxetine(s.c.) or saline(s.c.) during postnatal day 1∼7 and postnatal day 8∼21. Recorded the body weight. Starting at 90 days of age, all rats were tested with several experimental facilities, including open field test, elevated-plus maze, novelty- suppressed feeding test and forced swim test.
1 Weight gain of rats with fluoxetine exposure during postnatal day 1∼7 were lower than controls (P<0.05).
2 Exploratory behavior decreased and depression anxiety behavior increased in adult rats with neonatal fluoxetine exposure (P<0.05), and more severe with postnatal day 1∼7 exposure (P<0.05).
Newborn fluoxetine exposure may result badness weight gain and depression anxiety behavior in adult rats, and the earlier exposure may accompany the larger risk.
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and the safety of venlafaxine and fluoxetine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
One hundred and Eight inpatients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Forth Edition(DSM-IV) for OCD were involved in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into venlafaxine group or fluoxetine group. Efficacy of venlafaxine and fluoxetine in treatment of OCD were assessed with Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity(CGI-S), the side effects were evaluated with Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS).
The therapeutic efficacy in venlafaxine group was similar to that in fluoxetine (70.36%vs68.29%, P>0.05) after eight weeks’ therapy. The improve-rates of Y-BOCS after 2 weeks’ therapy of venlafaxine were significant higher than those of baseline, while the improve-rates of Y-BOCS after 4 weeks’ therapy of fluoxetine were significant higher than those of baseline(P< 0.05). The side effects of venlafaxine group were similar to fluoxetine group (P>0.05).
The results indicate that both venlafaxine and fluoxetine is effective in the treatment of OCD, but venlafaxine work faster than fluoxutine.
To explore rearing, coping, attributional style and their relations in depression adolescents.
64 adolescents with depressive disorder and 125 normal subjects of similar age, sex were presented with self-made social demographic scale, Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-own memories of parental rearing practices in childhood (EMBU), Children attributional style questionnaire (CASQ) and Coping style questionnaire.
1. As to EMBU, there was a significant deficit in parental emotional warmth (p< 0.001) with depression adolescents, and whose parental punishment and strict (p< 0.05), rejection and denial (p< 0.001) were higher than normal ones.
2. As to CASQ, the differences were significant in self-blame (p< 0.001), asking for help (p< 0.001), daydreaming (p< 0.001) and recession (p< 0.05).
3. The difference of attributional pattern was significant (p< 0.001).
4. Mather’ emotional warmth and rejection and denial were both related to adolescents’ coping style and attributional style.
Depressive adolescents had negative coping style and attributional style, and mother’ rearing style may has relation with them.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ziprasidone adjunctive to a mood stabilizer for the maintenance treatment of bipolar mania.
Male and female subjects with bipolar I disorder with MRS 3 14 were enrolled. Subjects achieving ≥ 8 consecutive weeks of stability with open-label ziprasidone (80-160 mg/d) and lithium or divalproex were randomized into the 6-month double-blind maintenance period, to ziprasidone + mood stabilizer or placebo + mood stabilizer. The primary and key secondary end points were the time to intervention for a mood episode, and time to discontinuation for any reason, respectively. Inferential analysis was performed using a Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimator (Log-rank test).
127 and 112 subjects were randomized to and treated in the ziprasidone and placebo groups, respectively. The time to intervention for a mood episode was significantly different, favoring ziprasidone (p = 0.0104). 19.7% and 32.4% of ziprasidone and placebo subjects, respectively, required intervention for a mood episode. Time to discontinuation for any reason was significantly different (p = 0.0047), favoring ziprasidone. Among treatment-emergent adverse events occurring in the double-blind period, the only event occurring more frequently in the ziprasidone group than in the placebo group (≥ 5%) was tremor (6.3% vs 3.6%, respectively).
These results demonstrate that ziprasidone is an effective, safe, and well-tolerated adjunctive treatment with a mood stabilizer for long-term maintenance treatment of bipolar mania.
Indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase is responsible for tryptophan catabolism; IFN-β is a treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) and it has been associated with depression. IDO activation might play a role in IFN-β induction of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms associated with MS illness and IFN-β treatment have been treated with pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention.
Evaluation of the kynurenine pathway, IDO activation and neurotoxic agents, serum BDNF in MS patients during IFN-β intervention.
14 study subjects, aged 18-64 years with major depressive disorder and MS treated with IFN-β, before and after pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic intervention, and 34 age matched healthy controls were enrolled at the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and at the at the University of Antwerp. Depressed participants were randomized to sertraline-treatment or interpersonal psychodynamic psychotherapy.
There were significant improvements in both depression and anxiety symptoms with medication and psychotherapy groups, although the effect with sertraline was more robust. Sertraline treatment was associated with a decline in serotonin. In the psychotherapy group, a significant increase in 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (HAA) was observed after 4 months treatment (p= .04) with a significant decrease in tryptophan levels at 6 weeks (p= .02) and a trend towards a significant decrease in BDNF after 6 wks (p=0.06), neither of which were seen in the medication condition.
The increase in HAA among the psychotherapy-treated patients raises the possibility of a neurodegenerative challenge for patients with multiple sclerosis during treatment with IFN-β which appeared to be prevented with pharmacological treatment.
To explore the characteristics of cerebral activation during the performance of WCST in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenic patients by functional magnetic resonance imaging,Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Color Card Sorting Test (CCST).
Twenty healthy adults and twenty schizophrenic patients underwent fMRI with a 1.5T MR imager with gradient echo-EPI sequence during the performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Color Card Sorting Test (CCST). The functional images of two groups were analyzed with analysis software. The active volume of interested brain areas and the performance of WCST were compared between healthy group and patient group. Results:(1) The performance of WCST in first-episode drug-naive schizophrenic group were significantly lower than the performance in healthy group(P<0.01) . (2) The images subtracted the functional images of CCST from those of WCST in healthy group suggested that activations were mainly localized in the bilateral frontal lobe, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,posterior parietal cortices and anterior cingulate gyrus.(3)The patients group showed less activations in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex(P<0.01), left anterior cingulated (P<0.05),but more activations in left posterior parietal cortices(P<0.05).
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate of first-episode schizophrenic patients are hypofunction,which maybe involved in the executive function disorder in schizophrenia. The hyperactivity of posterior parietal cortices maybe can compensate the hypofrontality in a certain extent.