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Recruitment is related to the occupation of the substrate by fouling organisms. It plays an important role in the maintenance and distribution of benthic populations, being under the influence of biotic and abiotic factors. In the present work, the recruitment of calcareous sponges was monitored over two years in a marina at Todos os Santos Bay, a large bay in the tropical portion of the Brazilian coast. Artificial plates were immersed, being replaced bimonthly and the potential influence of the seawater temperature, photoperiod and precipitation on the number of sponge recruits was tested. The results showed that the number of calcareous sponge recruits had significant temporal variation. Nevertheless, different species showed different patterns over time. Significant differences were observed for Sycon avus, Sycon sp. and Leucandra serrata, and the periods with the highest number of recruits were different amongst them. Sycon bellum, Paraleucilla incomposita, Leucilla sp. and Heteropia glomerosa did not show significant variation in the number of recruits over time. None of the three tested environmental factors were correlated with the number of recruits, but results indicated S. avus recruitment might be driven by seawater temperature. Our results contribute to improve the current knowledge on the dynamics of each species found on the plates and reinforce the general view that the pattern of recruitment varies greatly in Calcarea, even amongst sympatric species.
Our aim was to analyse the association of change patterns on TV-viewing and computer/tablet use and incidence of elevated consumption of ultra-processed food consumption and lower consumption of fruits and vegetables during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Data of 39 208 Brazilian adults from a Behaviour Web Survey were used. Unhealthy nutrition habits were eating fruits or vegetables for <5 d/week and ultra-processed food (sugary foods, snacks, ready-to-eat frozen foods and embedded foods) for ≥5 d/week. For incidence indicators, we only considered participants without unhealthy behaviour before the quarantine. We created four categories of change in TV-viewing and computer/tablet use, considering a cut-off point of 4 h/d for each behaviour (1 – consistently low, 2 – become low during the quarantine, 3 – become high during the quarantine or 4 – consistently high). Analyses were adjusted for sex, age group, highest academic achievement, per capita income, working status during the quarantine, skin colour and adherence to the quarantine.
Brazilian adults (nationally representative).
Logistic regression models revealed that high TV-viewing and computer/tablet use incidence were associated with higher odds for elevated frequency of ultra-processed food consumption (TV-viewing: OR 1·70; 95 % CI 1·37, 2·12; computer/tablet: OR 1·73; 95 % CI 1·31, 2·27) and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (TV-viewing: OR 1·70; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·23; computer/tablet: OR 1·53; 95 % CI 1·08, 2·17) incidence. Consistent high computer/tablet use also presented higher odds for incidence of elevated frequency of ultra-processed food consumption.
Participants with incidence of sedentary behaviours were also more likely to present incidence of unhealthy diet during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine.
Literature describes breast milk as the best food for the newborn, recommending exclusive breastfeeding for up to 6 months of age. However, it is not available for more than 40% of children worldwide. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological models of 3-day early weaning were developed in rodents to investigate later outcomes related solely to this nutritional insult. Thus, the present work aimed to describe biometric, nutritional, biochemical, and cardiovascular outcomes in adult male rats submitted to 3-day early weaning achieved by maternal deprivation. This experimental model comprises not only nutritional insult but also emotional stress, simulating mother abandoning. Male offspring were physically separated from their mothers at 21st (control) or 18th (early weaning) postnatal day, receiving water/food ad libitum. Analysis performed at postnatal days 30, 90, 150, and 365 encompassed body mass and food intake monitoring and serum biochemistry determination. Further assessments included hemodynamic, echocardiographic, and cardiorespiratory evaluation. Early-weaned males presented higher body weight when compared to control as well as dyslipidemia, higher blood pressure, diastolic dysfunction, and cardiac hypertrophy in adult life. Animals early deprived of their mothers have also presented a worse performance on the maximal effort ergometer test. This work shows that 3-day early maternal deprivation favors the development of cardiovascular disease in male rats.
To estimate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in caregivers of dependent grade II and III of a health center. Calculate the perceived social support for caregivers. Estimating the degree of caregiver stress. Assess the socio-demographic factors associated.
Descriptive and transversal.
Primary Health Care.
We selected 55 dependent caregivers grade II and III consecutive sample, according to the law of dependence, belonging to the health center Algeciras-North and were registered in the database of the Center on January 31, 2009. Exclude those who would not participate in the study, did not understand the Spanish language or could not contact with them.
We conducted through a questionnaire that contained heteroadministrated Hamilton scales for depression and anxiety, social support scale of the Duke, caregiver overload of Zarit and sociodemographic variables. The accomplishment was held at the home of the caregiver.
We detected the presence of depressive disorders in 47.3% (95% 14,6-39%) respondents and anxiety disorders in 25.5% (95% 23-6-61,1%). 36.4% (CI 95% 23,8-50,4%) of caregivers had low social support and overhead was 57.1% (CI 95% 43,2-70,9%).
Caregivers of Dependent grade II and III in our area are at risk of depressive disorders and anxiety. At the same time, they feel helpless, so we think it would be interesting to be given greater attention from health centers in order to identify them early.
Chronically stressed adult male Balb C mice were submitted to the tail suspension test. Chronic immobilization stress (6 h/d for 14 consecutive days) induced a significant reduction in immobility time when compared to non-stressed controls. Pretreatment with LY 53857, a serotonin 5HT2 antagonist, and IPS 339, a selective beta-2 adrenoceptor blocker, reversed immobility time to the levels of non-stressed controls. Chronic administration of corticosterone (100 mg/kg for 7 d) did not modify immobility time as compared to saline treated controls. It is suggested that both serotonergic and adrenergic pathways in the brain may participate in the stress-induced changes occurring in the tail suspension test response and that corticosterone does not appear to play a role in this process.
This study is aimed to establish biological, psychological, and social risk factors for a group of patients hospitalized following a suicide attempt or suicide ideation, and controls. Patients were characterized by different degrees of severity, namely: 1)Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempt 2)Suicide Attempt with a Survival Strategy 3)Suicidal Ideation without Suicide Attempt, 4) Control inpatients without suicide ideation or history.
We evaluated nearly 100 patients using several scales for the assessment of: Personality, Reasons for Living, Axis I, Social factors and History of previous suicide attempts.
There is a higher proportion of young, adolescent, single and female patients. Most of them asked for help after the suicide attempt. The majority had a comorbid diagnosis for substance abuse. In reference to personality disorders, we found counterintuitively, that those who made a Nearly Lethal Suicide attempt were healthier than the subjects who's suicide attempt was less severe.
This finding is also reflected in the fact that those with a less severe suicide attempt rated much higher on impulsivity and also were much less satisfied with their family and friends. This last trait is probably associated with personality disorders.
Patients who made a Nearly lethal suicide attempt had much higher on the Reasons for Living questionnaire. Compared to less severe suicide attempters, they had more reasons to stay alive. This last finding might be an early aftereffect of the attempt.
Suicide configures failure in the mental health care of persons deprived of their liberty in terms of detection of risk factors, prevention, specific planning in terms of addressing thoughts of death or autolytic planning, trends, impulses and moods. The factors that unite in this catastrophe are multiple and depend not only on mental health care, but also on the circumstances that led to the deprivation of liberty, the family and the care of social continence and the intimate relationship of the person with its existence. Also, security personnel who take care of people in confinement contexts have a preponderant role in suicide preference. Structuring the personality distorted, immature or insufficient, circumstances that lead to vulnerability and threaten the preservation of life in the context of constant stress and loneliness. The transdisciplinary work experience provides us with constant review and dynamic concepts and practices to predict, diagnose and prevent risky behaviors prone to the symptoms of self-injury or self-harm of patients. In this sense, we propose interdisciplinary interviews of entry, registry for the detection of risk factors, specific treatment in patients at risk. The transdisciplinary confluence is a tool to be implemented to quantify the results and propose to reduce the incidence of suicide in people in a confinement context.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Meteorological and even human-made disasters are increasing every year in frequency and magnitude. The passage of a disaster affects a society without distinction, but groups with social vulnerability (low socioeconomic status, chronic medical, or psychological conditions, limited access to resources) face the most significant impact. As a result, psychological and behavioral symptoms (eg, depression and anxiety) can ensue, making the immediate response of mental health services crucial. Secondary data from a database of a temporary healthcare unit were analyzed. A total of 54 records were reviewed to collect information; univariate and bivariate analyses were done. The purpose of this article is to present our experience regarding the incorporation of a mental health services model, with its respective benefits and challenges, into a temporary healthcare unit, after Hurricane Maria in 2017.
There have been few studies realized that evaluate the effects of adopting
different nutritional systems in more than one phase of cattle production on
carcass and meat characteristics. This study was realized to evaluate carcass
and meat characteristics from bulls submitted to different nutritional systems
during two production phases. The experiment was conducted at
Figueira’s farm during two production phases: I (cow–calf)
– 80 calves (99.6±2.72 days of age and
109.7±2.99 kg of BW) with their mothers were randomly assigned into
two supplemental diets: cow–calf mineral supplement
(n=40) or cow–calf creep-feeding
(n=40); II (stocker) – the same 80
calves (201.2±2.11 days of age and 190.2±3.37 kg of BW)
were redistributed into two production systems: stocker pasture
(n=40) or stocker feedlot (SF;
n=40). After, all 80 animals were kept on a pasture
system (III) for 290 days, and then finished in a feedlot system (IV) for more
33 days. Then, they were slaughtered at an average 764.2±3.06 days of
age and at 499.2±3.33 kg of final BW. After slaughter, the average
daily gain was calculated, and the carcass and meat characteristics were
measured. The statistical model design used was completely randomized in a
2×2 factorial arrangement (two treatment groups on
cow–calf phase and two treatment groups on stocker phase). The single
effects between the groups in each phase and the interactions between both
phases (cow–calf v. stocker) were analyzed. The
results were compared by Fisher’s test, using the R statistical
software. A cow–calf by stocker phases interaction occurred for
carcass conformation and fiber diameter. For single effects, the greatest
influences observed were in the stocker phase. The feedlot group was slaughtered
17 days earlier, with greater final BW (3.8%), hot carcass weight
(5.7%), average daily gain (6.9%), dressing percentage
(1.8%), carcass length (1.8%), carcass width
(1.5%), longissimus muscle area (4.8%)
and muscle depth (2.3%) than pasture group. The SF group also had
influence on fat color; showing higher L* and lower
b* values. These results reveal that bulls
reared in feedlot at the stocker phase have higher muscle development and that
the stocker phase has the greatest potential to influence carcass
characteristics and meat quality.
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest species complex that causes widespread damage to cassava, a staple food crop for millions of households in East Africa. Species in the complex cause direct feeding damage to cassava and are the vectors of multiple plant viruses. Whilst significant work has gone into developing virus-resistant cassava cultivars, there has been little research effort aimed at understanding the ecology of these insect vectors. Here we assess critically the knowledge base relating to factors that may lead to high population densities of sub-Saharan African (SSA) B. tabaci species in cassava production landscapes of East Africa. We focus first on empirical studies that have examined biotic or abiotic factors that may lead to high populations. We then identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled to deliver sustainable management solutions. We found that whilst many hypotheses have been put forward to explain the increases in abundance witnessed since the early 1990s, there are little published data and these tend to have been collected in a piecemeal manner. The most critical knowledge gaps identified were: (i) understanding how cassava cultivars and alternative host plants impact population dynamics and natural enemies; (ii) the impact of natural enemies in terms of reducing the frequency of outbreaks and (iii) the use and management of insecticides to delay the development of resistance. In addition, there are several fundamental methodologies that need to be developed and deployed in East Africa to address some of the more challenging knowledge gaps.
Anaplasmataceae agents comprise obligate intracellular bacteria that can cause disease in humans and animals. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 Nasua nasua (coati), 78 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), seven Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 110 wild rodents, 30 marsupials, and 42 dogs were sampled in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. In addition, ectoparasites found parasitizing the animals were collected and identified. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Anaplasmataceae agents in wild mammals, domestic dogs and ectoparasites, by molecular and serological techniques. Overall, 14 (17·9%) C. thous, seven (16·6%) dogs and one (3·2%) N. nasua were seroreactive to Ehrlichia canis. Nine dogs, two C. thous, one N. nasua, eight wild rodents, five marsupials, eight Amblyomma sculptum, four Amblyomma parvum, 13 A. sculptum nymphal pools, two Amblyomma larvae pools and one Polygenis (Polygenis) bohlsi bohlsi flea pool were positive for Ehrlichia spp. closely related to E. canis. Seven N. nasua, two dogs, one C. thous, one L. pardalis, four wild rodents, three marsupials, 15 A. sculptum, two Amblyomma ovale, two A. parvum and one Amblyomma spp. larval pools were positive for Anaplasma spp. closely related to A. phagocytophilum or A. bovis. The present study provided evidence that wild animals from Brazilian Pantanal are exposed to Anaplasmataceae agents.
The higher prevalence of depressive symptoms among females is well recognised but the reasons for this gender difference are not fully understood. There is growing evidence that current diagnostic criteria and instruments used to assess depression are less sensitive to depression in men, but studies about this issue among adolescents are scarce, especially in Latin countries. Our aim was to assess sex differences in the intensity of depressive symptoms, measured using the Beck Depression Inventory second edition (BDI-II), among Portuguese adolescents, at 13 and 17 years of age.
Urban adolescents born in 1990 and enrolled in schools of Porto, Portugal, in 2003–2004 (EPITeen study) completed the BDI-II at 13 and 17 years of age. The final sample included 1988 (52.2% girls) and 2131 (53.0% girls) adolescents at 13 and 17 years, respectively. Sex differences in the frequency of endorsing the statements on the 21 items of the BDI-II were examined using the χ2 test and effect sizes were estimated (Cohen's w). To examine whether responses were linked systematically to sex, we used a differential item functioning (DIF), based on the logistic regression approach. Option characteristic curves were estimated for items with differential endorsement and a new BDI-II score was computed excluding those items.
Girls and boys at the same level of depression expressed similar severity ratings for most of the depressive symptoms. We had four items with DIF at 13 and 17 years of age. At 13 years, two items provided lower scores (sadness and crying items) and two higher scores (punishment feelings and loss of interest in sex items) among boys, comparing with equally depressed girls. At 17 years, the four items with DIF provided lower scores among boys (sadness, crying, self-dislike and tiredness or fatigue items). After excluding these items the prevalence of depression remained higher among girls but at 17 years the difference between sexes was attenuated.
Sex differences were found in the functioning of the BDI-II, more relevant at 17 years of age, which may lead to an overestimation of symptoms among girls as well as to lower reported rates of depression among boys. For a higher diagnostic accuracy it is important that the criteria and instruments used to assess depression adequately reflect female and male common symptoms and experiences of depression.
In this work we explore the radiocarbon (14C) signal as an independent tool to assess the year of formation of individual tree rings of tropical species in northern Brazil. Three different species were analyzed in this work: Dipteryx magnifica, Enterolobium maximum, and Hymenolobium petraeum. The studied samples are from the stem of only one individual of each species, all cut down in 2008 in Porto Trombetas, Pará, Brazil. Individual tree rings were identified based on wood anatomy and they were counted from bark to pith. Several rings were selected for 14C analysis in order to cover the overall shape of the 14C atmospheric bomb peak (after 1955). The 14C content was measured at Laboratory of Radiocarbon, Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF). Results are compared with the Southern Hemisphere 14C atmospheric calibration curves. For E. maximum and H. petraeum the 14C signal exhibits an overall good match with the SH zone 3 and suggests annual seasonality in the growth-ring formation. These species offer suitable characteristics for dendrochronology. The D. magnifica shows mismatches in the 14C measurements that are likely a result of difficulties in identifying ring boundaries with certainty. Additional techniques may be helpful to disentangle the origin of this discrepancy.
We performed two different approaches (broth enrichment step prior to culture (BEC) and PCR (BEPCR)) for detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal specimens collected from 242 children aged <6 years attending one hospital (n = 140) and one childcare centre (n = 102) in a major urban area in Brazil. These specimens were collected immediately before the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) for routine use in Brazil. Results were compared with previous findings obtained with direct culture (DC) on a selective medium. Colonisation prevalence was 58·3% (n = 141), being higher among children attending the childcare centre (62·7% vs. 55%). The culture-based methods (DC and BEC) enabled the detection of S. pneumoniae in 119 (49·2%) and 115 (47·5%) children, respectively. The PCR-based method (BEPCR) was more sensitive and 137 (56·6%) carriers were identified. Twenty-six serogroups/serotypes were identified, predominantly 6B, 19F, 14, 6A, 15C and 23F. Multiple colonisation was observed in 13 (5·4%) children. The estimated serotypes coverage of available PCVs was 40·4% for the 10-valent (included in the Brazilian immunisation programme) and 55·8% for the 13-valent (only available in private clinics). The use of robust approaches to obtain a more realistic insight about the asymptomatic carrier status is of paramount importance to estimate and assess the impact of vaccine implementation. The combination between culture-based and molecular methods constitutes a suitable strategy.
There are still uncertainties on the psychometric validity of the DSM-5 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) criteria for its use in the adult population. We aim to describe the adult ADHD phenotype, to test the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 ADHD criteria, and to calculate the resulting prevalence in a population-based sample in their thirties.
A cross-sectional evaluation using the DSM-5 ADHD criteria was carried out in 3574 individuals from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort. Through receiver operator curve, latent and regression analyses, we obtained parameters on construct and discriminant validity. Still, prevalence rates were calculated for different sets of criteria.
The latent analysis suggested that the adult ADHD phenotype is constituted mainly by inattentive symptoms. Also, inattention symptoms were the symptoms most associated with impairment. The best cut-off for diagnosis was four symptoms, but sensitivity and specificity for this cut-off was low. ADHD prevalence rates were 2.1% for DSM-5 ADHD criteria and 5.8% for ADHD disregarding age-of-onset criterion.
The bi-dimensional ADHD structure proposed by the DSM demonstrated both construct and discriminant validity problems when used in the adult population, since inattention is a much more relevant feature in the adult phenotype. The use of the DSM-5 criteria results in a higher prevalence of ADHD when compared to those obtained by DSM-IV, and prevalence would increase almost threefold when considering current ADHD syndrome. These findings suggest a need for further refinement of the criteria for its use in the adult population.
This study aimed to assess the contribution of hosts characteristics (rodents and marsupials) in the organization of ectoparasite communities present in woodland patches in western central Brazil. We verified the effect of host species, sex, body mass and vertical strata in addition to the role of seasonality on the ectoparasite composition, richness and abundance. The total sampling effort was 22 032 trap-nights equally distributed in 54 woodland patches. Variance partition and principal coordinate analysis were used to verify the existence of significant relationships between response variables and predictors. As expected, host species was the most important variable in ectoparasite community assembly. The composition, richness and abundance of mites and lice were highly influenced by host species, although higher for mites than for lice. Host body mass had a determining role on the richness and abundance of tick species. Vertical stratification and seasonality had weak influence, while the sex of the host had no influence on the organization of these communities. The results are closely related to the evolutionary characteristics of the species involved, as well as with local environmental characteristics of the study area.
One of the most important parts of a hybrid reactor is the cladding because it should withstand high temperatures, neutrons with high energy, high neutron flux, as well as provide the first security contention. Besides, the material should have good mechanical properties to remove the heat. Although, the cladding material choice will have a great influence on criticality calculations. In previous works on ADS there is no cladding used, therefore in this paper it is tested different cladding materials based on SS-316, ODS, T91 and 15-15Ti used in nuclear reactors, to study the variations on the fuel depletion and variations on the neutronic parameters. The results using the cladding are compared with the one obtained without using it. The best material choice is based on the neutronic parameters that presents the closest behavior to the ADS simulated without clad.
Previous research suggests that social comparisons affect decision making under uncertainty. However, the role of the length of the social interaction for this relationship remains unknown. This experiment tests the effect of social comparisons on financial risk taking and how this effect is modulated by whether social encounters are sporadic or repeated. Participants carried out a computer task consisting of a series of binary choices between lotteries of varying profitability and risk, with real monetary stakes. After each decision, participants could compare their own payoff to that of a counterpart who made the same decision at the same time and whose choices/earnings did not affect the participants’ earnings. The design comprised three between-subjects treatments which differed in the nature of the social interaction: participants were informed that they would be matched with either (a) a different participant in each trial, (b) the same participant across all trials, or (c) a “virtual participant”, i.e., a computer algorithm. Compared to the non-social condition (c), subjects in both social conditions (a and b) chose lotteries with lower expected value (z = –3.10, p < .01) and higher outcome variance (z = 2.13, p = .03). However, no differences were found between the two social conditions (z = 1.15, p = .25 and z = 0.35, p = .73, respectively). These results indicate that social comparison information per se leads to poorer and riskier financial decisions, irrespective of whether or not the referent other is encountered repeatedly.
Episodes of depression and anxiety (D&A) during the transition from late adolescence to adulthood, particularly when persistent, are predictive of long-term disorders and associated public health burden. Understanding risk factors at this time is important to guide intervention. The current objective was to investigate the associations between maternal symptoms of D&A with offspring symptoms during their transition to adulthood.
Data from a large population-based birth cohort study, in South Brazil, were used. Prospective associations between maternal D&A and offspring risk of these symptoms during the transition to adulthood (18/19, 24 and 30 years) were estimated.
Maternal D&A in adolescence was associated with offspring symptoms across the transition to adulthood, associations were consistently stronger for females than for males. Daughters whose mothers reported D&A were 4.6 times (95% confidence interval 2.71–7.84) as likely to report D&A at all three time-points, than daughters of symptom-free mothers.
Maternal D&A is associated with persistent D&A during the daughter's transition to adulthood. Intervention strategies should consider the mother's mental health.
In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modelled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses. We show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. We exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance, K2-19. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (>1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterise the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed.