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The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
It is unclear which of four popular contemporary diet patterns is best for weight maintenance among postmenopausal women. Four dietary patterns were characterised among postmenopausal women aged 49–81 years (mean 63·6 (sd 7·4) years) from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study: (1) a low-fat diet; (2) a reduced-carbohydrate diet; (3) a Mediterranean-style (Med) diet; and (4) a diet consistent with the US Department of Agriculture’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). Discrete-time hazards models were used to compare the risk of weight gain (≥10 %) among high adherers of each diet pattern. In adjusted models, the reduced-carbohydrate diet was inversely related to weight gain (OR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·76), whereas the low-fat (OR 1·43; 95 % CI 1·33, 1·54) and DGA (OR 1·24; 95 % CI 1·15, 1·33) diets were associated with increased risk of weight gain. By baseline weight status, the reduced-carbohydrate diet was inversely related to weight gain among women who were normal weight (OR 0·72; 95 % CI 0·63, 0·81), overweight (OR 0·67; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·76) or obese class I (OR 0·63; 95 % CI 0·53, 0·76) at baseline. The low-fat diet was associated with increased risk of weight gain in women who were normal weight (OR 1·28; 95 % CI 1·13, 1·46), overweight (OR 1·60; 95 % CI 1·40, 1·83), obese class I (OR 1·73; 95 % CI 1·43, 2·09) or obese class II (OR 1·44; 95 % CI 1·08, 1·92) at baseline. These findings suggest that a low-fat diet may promote weight gain, whereas a reduced-carbohydrate diet may decrease risk of postmenopausal weight gain.
In this paper, analytical simulations of the steel-laminated elastomeric bearing (SLEB) using a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model incorporating material, geometric nonlinearities, and a frictional contact algorithm in LS-DYNA code is conducted. In order to simulate the nonlinear responses of the elastomeric bearing under the compression and shear, a hyperviscoelastic rubber model such as The MAT_77_H (MAT_HYPERVISCOELASTIC_RUBBER) in LS- DYNA code is adopted. Based on the proposed material model for the SLEB, the interaction effects of the SLEB under compression, bending, and torsion are analyzed. Analytical results are compared with the test results of the SLEBs. A set of material parameters is proposed for 3D FEM analysis of SLEBs. The proposed material model demonstrates its accuracy.
Residual stress in MEMS is of inherent importance in various respects. This study proposes a specific method using ANSYS including the birth and death method and combined with the optimal method (SCGM) to reduce the residual stresses during the CMOS fabrication process. The suitable cooling temperature for decreasing the residual stress is proposed and available. It demonstrates that the suitable parameter on the fabrication can reduce the residual stress in MEMS devices without any extra manufacturing process or external apparatus. The proposed method can expand to simulate the realistic MEMS model effectively.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO), which will be launched onboard the
Lomonosov spacecraft, contains two crucial instruments: UFFO Burst
Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) for detection and localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts
(GRBs) and the fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) designed for the observation
of the prompt optical/UV counterparts. Here we discuss the in-space calibrations of the
UBAT detector and SMT telescope. After the launch, the observations of the standard X-ray
sources such as pulsar in Crab nebula will provide data for necessary calibrations of
UBAT. Several standard stars will be used for the photometric calibration of SMT. The
celestial X-ray sources, e.g. X-ray binaries with bright optical sources
in their close angular vicinity will serve for the cross-calibration of UBAT and SMT.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Pathfinder for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) consists
of two telescopes. The UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) handles the
detection and localization of GRBs, and the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) conducts the
measurement of the UV/optical afterglow. UBAT is equipped with an X-ray detector, analog
and digital signal readout electronics that detects X-rays from GRBs and determines the
location. SMT is equipped with a stepping motor and the associated electronics to rotate
the slewing mirror targeting the GRBs identified by UBAT. First the slewing mirror points
to a GRB, then SMT obtains the optical image of the GRB using the intensified CCD and its
readout electronics. The UFFO Data Acquisition system (UDAQ) is responsible for the
overall function and operation of the observatory and the communication with the satellite
main processor. In this paper we present the design and implementation of the electronics
of UBAT and SMT as well as the architecture and implementation of UDAQ.
The UFFO (Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory) is a GRB detector on board the Lomonosov
satellite, to be launched in 2013. The GRB trigger is provided by an X-ray detector,
called UBAT (UFFO Burst Alarm & Trigger Telescope), which detects X-rays from the GRB
and then triggers to determine the direction of the GRB and then alerts the Slewing Mirror
Telescope (SMT) to turn in the direction of the GRB and record the optical photon fluxes.
This report details the calibration of the two components: the MAPMTs and the YSO crystals
and simulations of the UBAT. The results shows that this design can observe a GRB within a
field of view of ±35° and can trigger in a time scale as short as 0.2 – 1.0 s
after the appearance of a GRB X-ray spike.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space observatory for optical follow-ups of
gamma ray bursts (GRBs), aiming to explore the first 60 seconds of GRBs optical emission.
UFFO is utilized to catch early optical emissions from GRBs within few sec after trigger
using a Gimbal mirror which redirects the optical path rather than slewing entire
spacecraft. We have developed a 15 cm two-axis Gimbal mirror stage for the UFFO-Pathfinder
which is going to be on board the Lomonosov satellite which is to be launched in 2013. The
stage is designed for fast and accurate motion with given budgets of 3 kg of mass and 3
Watt of power. By employing stepping motors, the slewing mirror can rotate faster than 15
deg/sec so that objects in the UFFO coverage (60 deg × 60 deg) can be targeted in
~1 sec. The obtained targeting resolution is better 2 arcmin using a close-loop
control with high precision rotary encoder. In this presentation, we will discuss details
of design, manufacturing, space qualification tests, as well as performance tests.
We report production of a self-injected, collimated (8 mrad divergence), 600 pC bunch of electrons with energies up to 350 MeV from a petawatt laser-driven plasma accelerator in a plasma of electron density ne = 1017 cm−3, an order of magnitude lower than previous self-injected laser-plasma accelerators. The energy of the focused drive laser pulse (150 J, 150 fs) was distributed over several hot spots. Simulations show that these hot spots remained independent over a 5 cm interaction length, and produced weakly nonlinear plasma wakes without bubble formation capable of accelerating pre-heated (~1 MeV) plasma electrons up to the observed energies. The required pre-heating is attributed tentatively to pre-pulse interactions with the plasma.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the requirement for dietary crude protein (CP) in growing blue-breasted quail (BBQ). In Experiment 1, 300 1-day-old quails were randomly assigned to 10 groups according to a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments with two metabolisable energy (ME) levels (12.13 and 13.39 MJ/kg) and five CP concentrations (160, 190, 220, 250 and 280 g/kg) for 8 weeks. In Experiment 2, 300 1-day-old quails were subjected to a different factorial arrangement of treatments with two ME levels (11.51 and 12.13 MJ/kg) and five CP concentrations (210, 220, 230, 240 and 250 g/kg) for 28 days. Experiment 1 revealed that an interaction existed in weight gain between ME and CP levels in weeks 1 to 4. In both ME groups, quails receiving CP of 160 g/kg showed the least weight gains (P < 0.05). No differences (P > 0.05) existed in weight gain between the ME groups in which quails ingested CP of 250 and 280 g/kg, whereas quails consuming CP of 220 g/kg with an ME of 13.39 MJ/kg had smaller weight gain than did those ingesting higher CP concentrations (P < 0.05). Of main effects for weeks 1–4, quails treated with an ME of 12.13 MJ/kg consumed more feed than did those receiving another ME level, whereas quails in both ME treatments showed similar feed efficiencies. For weeks 5 to 8, no difference (P > 0.05) in weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency was seen regardless of ME levels, and no interaction existed between ME and CP levels. In Experiment 2, the best weight gain and feed efficiency were achieved when the dietary CP concentration was more than 210 g/kg, and quails treated with 11.51 MJ/kg showed better weight gain and feed efficiency (P < 0.05) than did those that received 12.13 MJ/kg. Furthermore, the weight gains and protein intakes on the basis of per MJ from the two experiments were pooled together to estimate the protein intake necessary for the best growth performance by two mathematic models; they were then converted to dietary CP concentrations of 204 (minimum) and 233 g/kg (maximum) when ME was 11.51 MJ/kg. In conclusion, BBQ will achieve good growth performance with dietary CP of more than 204 g/kg on the basis of an ME of 11.51 MJ/kg in weeks 1 to 4.
The aim of this study was to investigate protein requirements for the maintenance and growth of blue-breasted quail (Excalfactoria chinensis) from 7 to 21 days of age. A total of 180 quails, 7 days old, were randomly assigned to 36 cages and for 2 weeks were fed diets with a metabolisable energy concentration of 12.13 MJ/kg and a dietary CP concentration of 125, 150, 175, 200, 225 or 250 g/kg. The average BW per cage and the feed intake per cage were recorded daily. The results showed that quails fed 125 g/kg CP could not maintain their BW and had negative feed efficiency. There were linear and quadratic relationships between CP level and response criteria, including BW, weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, final body nitrogen mass and body nitrogen accretion (P < 0.05). The dietary CP requirements, as calculated using a one-slope quadratic broken-line model, were 211 and 202 g/kg according to weight gain and feed efficiency, respectively. The regression equations, on the basis of metabolic BW, of daily weight gain on daily protein intake according to the model were Y = 0.137−2.128(0.113−X) if X < 0.113 and Y = 0.137 if X ⩾ 0.113 (R2 = 0.96, P < 0.001), which meant that the protein requirement for maintenance was 0.049 times the metabolic BW and that to gain 1 g weight quails needed to ingest an extra 0.47 g protein after the maintenance requirement was satisfied. The regression equations, on the basis of metabolic BW, of daily body nitrogen accretion on daily protein intake according to the model were Y = 5.667−76.700(0.119−X) if X < 0.119 and Y = 5.667 if X ⩾ 0.119 (R2 = 0.95, P < 0.001), which meant that quails had to receive an amount of protein equal to their metabolic BW multiplied by 0.045 to satisfy the requirement for maintenance and then ingest an extra 13 g protein to accrete 1 g body nitrogen. In conclusion, growth or protein accretion rates should be regulated according to dietary CP for specific experimental purposes via apportioning protein requirements for maintenance v. growth.
Autistic-like traits (ALTs), that is restrictions in intuitive social interaction, communication and flexibility of interests and behaviors, were studied in two population-based Swedish twin studies, one in children and one in adults: (1) to examine whether the variability in ALTs is a meaningful risk factor for concomitant attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, conduct problems, depression and substance abuse, and (2) to assess whether common genetic and environmental susceptibilities can help to explain co-existence of ALTs and traits associated with such concomitant problems.
Two nationwide twin cohorts from Sweden (consisting of 11 222 children and 18 349 adults) were assessed by DSM-based symptom algorithms for autism. The twins were divided into six groups based on their degree of ALTs and the risk for concomitant mental health problems was calculated for each group. Genetic and environmental susceptibilities common to ALTs and the other problem types were examined using bivariate twin modeling.
In both cohorts, even the lowest degree of ALTs increased the risk for all other types of mental health problems, and these risk estimates increased monotonically with the number of ALTs. For all conditions, common genetic and environmental factors could be discerned. Overall, the phenotypic correlation between ALTs and the traits examined were less pronounced in adulthood than in childhood and less affected by genetic compared with environmental factors.
Even low-grade ALTs are relevant to clinical psychiatry as they increase the risk for several heterotypical mental health problems. The association is influenced partly by common genetic and environmental susceptibilities. Attention to co-existing ALTs is warranted in research on a wide range of mental disorders.
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating a continuous core from Lake Gun Nur, northern Mongolia, shows a period between 10 and 8 ka BP that could not be dated accurately. Further dating on alkali-insoluble residue and humic acid from the same samples in the Gun Nur core suggest that this AMS 14C date anomaly is neither analytical nor material related. We hypothesize that the 14C anomaly may be derived from increasing production rates of 14C caused by diminished solar activity, a low 14CO2/14CO ratio in the atmosphere, or an unstable 14C flux in the lower atmosphere caused by changing geomagnetic field strength. Our results imply that the 14C data used for 14C age calibration cannot correct the age-depth regression between 8 and 10 ka BP to fit the age-depth model along with other time intervals.
National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Taiwan, is currently constructing the civil buildings and utility system of the Taiwan Photon Source. The air conditioning (AC) system of the storage ring tunnel was designed based on those of existing Taiwan Light Source and some international advanced accelerators. To predict the air temperature variation and flow pattern in tunnel more precisely, we applied 3D computational fluid dynamics scheme and built up a one-cell mock-up equipped with AC system. In the 3D numerical model, effects of magnets of the booster and the storage ring, girders, cable trays, front ends and the supplied air wind duct are all taken into account. The temperature variations and flow pattern were shown through the numerical simulation. Measured air temperature data in the one-cell mock-up were also collected.
Numerous in vitro studies have shown that volatile anaesthetics react with desiccated carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbents to produce carbon monoxide (CO). The effects of anaesthetic concentration, fresh gas flow rate, and the hydration of absorbent or the excretion of CO2 by patients on CO production have also been investigated. This work aims to identify the most significant one of these factors on CO concentration in a low-flow anaesthesia system, without control of the hydration of the absorbents.
A simulated clinical circle anaesthetic breathing system was used to study the CO concentration under various conditions. Desflurane was used at three different concentrations. Two CO2 flow rates and three fresh gas flow rates were used. The absorbent temperatures and hydration were measured simultaneously.
Desflurane degraded to produce CO in the breathing tube, when the CO2 absorbents were not dried beforehand. In this imitation clinical low-flow setting, fresh gas flow affected the CO production more than the CO2 did (31.7% vs. 9.5%). The actual desflurane partial pressure was not a significant factor. The CO2 flow rate explained 18.2% and 54.0% of the variation of the absorbent hydration changes (%) and temperature, respectively.
In clinical practice, the CO2 production varies among patients and is uncontrollable, but markedly affects CO production. The only controllable factor is the fresh gas flow rate if the ultimate goal is to reduce the undesirable exposure of patients to CO from the breathing tube according to this bench model without counting the oxygen consumption.