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One of the primary uses for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is to measure diffraction pattern images in order to determine a crystal structure and orientation. In nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED), we scan a moderately converged electron probe over the sample to acquire thousands or even millions of sequential diffraction images, a technique that is especially appropriate for polycrystalline samples. However, due to the large Ewald sphere of TEM, excitation of Bragg peaks can be extremely sensitive to sample tilt, varying strongly for even a few degrees of sample tilt for crystalline samples. In this paper, we present multibeam electron diffraction (MBED), where multiple probe-forming apertures are used to create multiple scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) probes, all of which interact with the sample simultaneously. We detail designs for MBED experiments, and a method for using a focused ion beam to produce MBED apertures. We show the efficacy of the MBED technique for crystalline orientation mapping using both simulations and proof-of-principle experiments. We also show how the angular information in MBED can be used to perform 3D tomographic reconstruction of samples without needing to tilt or scan the sample multiple times. Finally, we also discuss future opportunities for the MBED method.
To understood the influence of group psychotherapy to crisis frangibility and coping style in community residents,seek the methods and value of community psychological coping intervention,and provide the basis of psychological theory and practice for the work of community mental health.
The scale of crisis frangibility and BCQ were employed to evaluate and compare the mental state before and after intervention.
1) Crisis frangibility of residents was negatively correlated with positive coping,positively correlated with negative coping.
2) After group psychotherapy,scores of scale for crisis vulnerability and negative coping droped.
3) Through the regression model analysis, the linear relationship between positive coping factor and the crisis vulnerable is closest.
9 Group psychotherapy in community is a effective method to reduce resident's crisis frangibility,and the setup of experimental model has provided the theory and the practice basis for development psychology counseling in community.
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection has been a major public health threat globally. Monitoring and prediction of CT epidemic status and trends are important for programme planning, allocating resources and assessing impact; however, such activities are limited in China. In this study, we aimed to apply a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to predict the incidence of CT infection in Shenzhen city, China. The monthly incidence of CT between January 2008 and June 2019 in Shenzhen was used to fit and validate the SARIMA model. A seasonal fluctuation and a slightly increasing pattern of a long-term trend were revealed in the time series of CT incidence. The monthly CT incidence ranged from 4.80/100 000 to 21.56/100 000. The mean absolute percentage error value of the optimal model was 8.08%. The SARIMA model could be applied to effectively predict the short-term CT incidence in Shenzhen and provide support for the development of interventions for disease control and prevention.
Previous chapters in this book have focused on domestic (or municipal) law within Hong Kong. This chapter examines the interface between Hong Kong law and international law and Chinese law (PRC law). It looks at the distinct international legal personality that Hong Kong possesses, Hong Kong’s engagement with international entities and the application of international law in Hong Kong. Previous chapters have discussed certain aspects of the interface between Hong Kong and the PRC legal system, and this chapter builds on this by focusing on mutual legal assistance between the two legal systems, access to the Mainland market for legal services from Hong Kong and cross-border crime.
With the increasing popularity of alternative methods of resolving disputes to lessen the burden on courts, a separate chapter must be dedicated to this topic. One may not typically think of alternative methods of resolving disputes as part of the legal system, but this chapter shows otherwise. Particularly with the Civil Justice Reform, alternative dispute resolution has played and will continue to play an even larger role in solving legal disputes in Hong Kong. The two main methods of alternative dispute resolution, namely mediation and arbitration, are examined.
This chapter looks at law at an abstract level and the fundamental questions of ‘What is law?’ and ‘Why have laws?’ are explored by discussing the functions and concepts of law. This chapter examines the macro and micro functions of law, as well as the major perspectives of law including natural law, legal positivism, sociology of law and critical legal theory. It concludes by exploring various classifications of legal systems and the way in which the law is divided within them, such as the difference between the common law and civil law systems, national and international law, substantive and procedural law, and public and private law.
While legislation is enacted by the Legislative Council (or under its authority), the courts have a role in the interpretation of legislation. This chapter discusses the various common law approaches to statutory interpretation that are likely to be adopted by Hong Kong courts. Moreover, this chapter goes through the aids to interpretation within an ordinance, external aids to interpretation, presumptions which protect basic values, interpretation of the Basic Law and resolving conflicts found in bilingual legislation. A case study is used to illustrate how the courts balance different interpretive considerations. Recognising how judges interpret laws will help hone the skills of legal reasoning (thinking like a judge).
Where do lawyers look to when they wish to ascertain what the law is on a particular matter? This chapter goes over the various sources of law in Hong Kong. It starts at the top with the Basic Law, which is sometimes referred to as the ‘mini-constitution’ of Hong Kong. It covers the five interpretations of the Basic Law by the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress (NPCSC). It then takes readers through legislation, including primary and secondary legislation, and through the different parts of a statue. Case law is then examined, along with the different parts of a reported case, highlighting the parts of a judgment that constitute law. Lastly, Chinese customary law and national laws of the People’s Republic of China that are applied in Hong Kong are discussed.
This chapter outlines the system and structure of the courts in Hong Kong and discusses the concept of judicial precedent. It leads readers through the hierarchical structure of the courts and its historical development during the pre- and post-1997 periods. The different levels of the courts are examined including the Court of Final Appeal (CFA), the High Court, the District Court and Magistrates’ Courts. Different tribunals that exercise judicial power are also reviewed. The second section of this chapter deals with judicial precedents, an essential feature of the common law. The doctrine of precedent as it applies in Hong Kong is detailed, taking readers through vertical and horizontal stare decisis for each level of the courts. The status of English and overseas decisions, including Privy Council decisions in present-day Hong Kong, is discussed.
This chapter provides a general picture of the criminal justice system in Hong Kong. It highlights the roles and powers of key criminal justice agencies including the Hong Kong Police Force (HKPF), the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) and the prosecution. It includes discussion of police powers and prosecutorial decision-making. This chapter also goes through the criminal procedure, drawing attention to key decision points such as bail, court venue, the plea and the standard of proof. It concludes by looking at the various sentencing options at the court’s disposal.
This chapter provides an overview of the system of governance in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). It introduces readers to the fundamental concepts of ‘one country, two systems’ and ‘high degree of autonomy’ under the Basic Law, which provide the framework for the allocation and exercise of responsibilities over Hong Kong by the central authorities and the Hong Kong government. Within the sphere of Hong Kong’s autonomy, the Basic Law provides for the exercise of governmental powers by three arms of government: the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. The powers and functions of these three arms are outlined in this chapter, together with discussion of the doctrine of ‘separation of powers’.
This chapter discusses how laws are made in Hong Kong by studying the process of legislation. Issues are discussed surrounding how the Basic Law limits the scope of certain legislation and who has the authority to create legislation. Readers are taken through the step-by-step process of lawmaking in Hong Kong from the proposal to how a bill achieves status as law in Hong Kong. Both the passage of primary legislation and secondary legislation are illustrated. The interactions and balance between branches of government and between governments (the HKSAR and the PRC) are exemplified in the process of legislation.
The first chapter outlines the aims of the book, which is to provide an introduction to the Hong Kong legal system especially for first-year law students, but also for students of other disciplines, and practitioners and scholars from other jurisdictions who are looking for a comprehensive and user-friendly overview of Hong Kong’s legal system. It also highlights the key elements of that system, discussing its rules and principles, namely the rule of law, separation of powers and the independence of the judiciary, as well as legal institutions and legal personnel. This chapter traces the historical development of Hong Kong’s legal system, from the acquisition of Hong Kong by the British and the importation of English law (including common law) into colonial Hong Kong to the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1997 and the present-day legal framework under ‘one country, two systems’.
This chapter focuses on the civil justice system in Hong Kong. It provides readers with an overview of civil litigation and its processes, from starting an action to remedies. Key stages of civil procedure, such as summary and default judgment, discovery and injunctions, are highlighted and discussed. The drawbacks to civil litigation are also examined. The second part of this chapter looks at the Civil Justice Reform that occurred in Hong Kong in 2009, discussing the changes that were implemented in order to enhance efficiency, cost-effectiveness and fairness for individuals going through the civil justice system in Hong Kong.