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Recent advances in techniques to generate static ultra-high pressure (>100 GPa) in the diamond anvil cell have significantly enhanced our understanding of the properties of solids under these extreme conditions. In order to characterize the structure of solids at these pressures, X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation has become an invaluable tool. Since the highest pressures are attained at the expense of sample volume (~ 100 μm3) , it is best to use the intense radiation available from a synchrotron to study the very small samples used in ultra-high pressure studies. Even with the intense x-ray beams currently available, it is still often desirable to focus the x-ray beam to increase the available flux. We have developed a focusing system which uses multilayer coated spherical mirrors. With this system, intense x-ray beams with sizes smaller than 10 μm by 10 μm can be achieved at a synchrotron radiation beamline. Previously, we used the focusing system for x-ray microprobe experiments.
We propose that the formation of low mass stars in molecular clouds takes place in four stages. The first stage is the formation of slowly rotating cloud cores through the slow leakage of magnetic (and turbulent) support by ambipolar diffusion. These cores asymptotically approach quasistatic states resembling singular isothermal spheres, but such end states cannot actually be reached because they are unstable. The second phase begins when a condensing cloud core passes the brink of instability and collapses dynamically from “inside-out,” building up a central protostar and nebular disk. The emergent spectral energy distributions of theoretical models in the infall stage are in close agreement with those of recently found infrared sources with steep spectra. As the rotating protostar gains mass, deuterium will eventually ignite in the central regions and drive the star nearly completely convective if its mass is less than about 2 M⊙. This initiates the next step of evolution - the bipolar outflow phase - in which a stellar wind pushes outward and breaks through the infalling envelope. The initial breakout is likely to occur along the rotational poles, leading to collimated jets and bipolar outflows. The intense stellar wind eventually widens to sweep out gas in nearly all 4π steradian, revealing the fourth stage - a T Tauri star with a surrounding remnant nebular disk. Radiation from a disk adds an infrared excess to the expected spectral energy distribution of the revealed source. The detailed shape of this infrared excess depends on whether the disk is largely passive and merely reprocesses stellar photons, or is relatively massive and actively accreting. Both extremes of spectral shapes are observed in T Tauri stars; the amount of circumstellar material in the form of disks around nearly formed stars may be related to the dual issues of the origins of binary-star and planetary systems.
The problem of gravitational collapse and star formation is entirely different when the ratio of the mass of a molecular cloud Mcl to its magnetic flux Φ is high than when it is low. Magnetically-diluted overall collapse of a large dense core and the formation of an OB association or a bound cluster are the likely outcomes in the former case; quasi-static contraction of many small cores and their ultimate collapse to form a T association, in the latter. In our picture, the birth of a T association in a dark cloud like Taurus proceeds by ambipolar diffusion on a time-scale of ∼ 107 years. As magnetic and turbulent support is gradually lost from a small condensing core, it approaches a state resembling a slowly rotating singular isothermal sphere which, when it passes the brink of instability, collapses from “inside-out,” building up a central protostar and nebular disk. The emergent spectral energy distributions of theoretical models in this stage of protostellar evolution resemble closely those of recently found sources with steep spectra in the infrared. The protostellar phase is ended by the reversal of the infall by an intense stellar wind, whose ultimate source of energy derived from the differential rotation of the star. We argue that the initial breakout is likely to occur along the rotational poles, leading to collimated jets and bipolar outflows. The stellar jet eventually widens to sweep out gas in nearly all 4π steradian, revealing at the center a T Tauri star and a remnant nebular disk. We give rough scaling relations which must apply if an analogous process is to succeed for producing high mass stars.
Retreatment of tuberculosis (TB) often fails in China, yet the risk factors associated with the failure remain unclear. To identify risk factors for the treatment failure of retreated pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients, we analyzed the data of 395 retreated PTB patients who received retreatment between July 2009 and July 2011 in China. PTB patients were categorized into ‘success’ and ‘failure’ groups by their treatment outcome. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between treatment outcome and socio-demographic as well as clinical factors. We also created an optimized risk score model to evaluate the predictive values of these risk factors on treatment failure. Of 395 patients, 99 (25·1%) were diagnosed as retreatment failure. Our results showed that risk factors associated with treatment failure included drug resistance, low education level, low body mass index (<18·5), long duration of previous treatment (>6 months), standard treatment regimen, retreatment type, positive culture result after 2 months of treatment, and the place where the first medicine was taken. An Optimized Framingham risk model was then used to calculate the risk scores of these factors. Place where first medicine was taken (temporary living places) received a score of 6, which was highest among all the factors. The predicted probability of treatment failure increases as risk score increases. Ten out of 359 patients had a risk score >9, which corresponded to an estimated probability of treatment failure >70%. In conclusion, we have identified multiple clinical and socio-demographic factors that are associated with treatment failure of retreated PTB patients. We also created an optimized risk score model that was effective in predicting the retreatment failure. These results provide novel insights for the prognosis and improvement of treatment for retreated PTB patients.
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) is a naturally stress-tolerant plant, a major reserve crop and a model for panicoid grasses. The recent completion of the S. italica genome facilitates identification and characterization of WRKY transcription factor family proteins that are important regulators of major plant processes, including growth, development and stress response. The present study identified 103 WRKY transcription factor-encoding genes in the S. italica genome. The genes were named SiWRKY1–SiWRKY103 according to their order on the chromosomes. A comprehensive expression analysis of SiWRKY genes among four different tissues was performed using publicly available RNA sequencing data. Eighty-four SiWRKY genes were more highly expressed in root tissue than in other tissues and nine genes were only expressed in roots. Additionally, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to comprehensively analyse the expression of all SiWRKY genes in response to dehydration. Results indicated that most SiWRKY genes (over 0.8) were up-regulated by drought stress. In conclusion, genome-wide identification and expression profiling of SiWRKY genes provided a set of candidates for cloning and functional analyses in plants’ response to drought stress.
During the period, work on the problem of the Earth’s rotation has continued to expand and increase its scope. The total number of institutions engaged in the determination of the Earth’s rotation parameters (ERP) by different techniques has been increased significantly. The rotation of the Earth is currently measured by classical astrometry, Doppler and laser satellite tracking, laser ranging of the Moon, and radio interferometry. Several long time series of the ERP are available from most of these techniques, in particular, those made during the Main Campaign of the MERIT project. The various series have been intercompared and their stability, in the time frame of years to days, has been estimated for the purposes of establishing a new conventional terrestrial reference system (COTES). On the other hand, the difficulties of maintaining a regular operation for laser ranging to the Moon (LLR) have been recognized. It resulted in the proposal to organize an one-month campaign of observations in 1985 in order to complement the COTES collocation program and to allow additional intercomparisons with other techniques.
To evaluate the chance of improvement and risk of decline in olfaction among patients with post-traumatic olfactory loss.
This study comprised 80 patients. Changes in olfaction were determined using a visual analogue scale and the ‘Sniffin’ Sticks' test. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors for olfactory changes.
Olfactory changes were observed in 9–35 per cent of patients. The rates of improvement and decline according to visual analogue scale scores were 35 per cent and 10 per cent respectively, whereas those in the Sniffin’ Sticks test were 9 per cent and 11 per cent respectively. There was a predictive link between non-anosmia and decline in Sniffin’ Sticks test scores (odds ratio = 16.61, p = 0.003). A positive correlation was observed between the scores in the first and last examinations (rho = 0.532, p < 0.001).
Patients should be informed that they may experience an improvement or decline in olfaction following post-traumatic olfactory dysfunction. This study provides evidence to support comprehensive counselling regarding prognosis as an integral part of management strategies.
To estimate the incidence of tympanogenic labyrinthitis ossificans.
The records of patients treated with mastoidectomy for various tympanogenic aetiologies from January 2007 to December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients whose high-resolution computed tomography scans showed evidence of labyrinthine calcification of the temporal bone were enrolled. Patients with a history of head and neck cancer, meningitis, and otosclerosis, and patients with cochlear implants, were excluded from this study.
A total of 195 patients were enrolled in this study; 4 of the patients presented with calcification in the inner ear. Therefore, the incidence of tympanogenic labyrinthitis ossification was 2 per cent. The computed tomography findings revealed: (1) cochlear calcifications of the basal and middle turn in two patients; and (2) vestibular, superior semicircular canal, posterior semicircular canal and lateral semicircular canal calcification in one, four, three and two patients, respectively.
The incidence of tympanogenic labyrinthitis ossification in patients who had undergone a mastoidectomy was 2 per cent.
Vaccination against rumen methanogens offers a practical approach to reduce methane emissions in livestock, particularly ruminants grazing on pasture. Although successful vaccination strategies have been reported for reducing the activity of the rumen-dwelling organism Streptococcus bovis in sheep and S. bovis and Lactobacillus spp. in cattle, earlier approaches using vaccines based on whole methanogen cells to reduce methane production in sheep have produced less promising results. An anti-methanogen vaccine will need to have broad specificity against methanogens commonly found in the rumen and induce antibody in saliva resulting in delivery of sufficiently high levels of antibodies to the rumen to reduce methanogen activity. Our approach has focussed on identifying surface and membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across a range of rumen methanogens. The identification of potential vaccine antigens has been assisted by recent advances in the knowledge of rumen methanogen genomes. Methanogen surface proteins have been shown to be immunogenic in ruminants and vaccination of sheep with these proteins induced specific antibody responses in saliva and rumen contents. Current studies are directed towards identifying key candidate antigens and investigating the level and types of salivary antibodies produced in sheep and cattle vaccinated with methanogen proteins, stability of antibodies in the rumen and their impact on rumen microbial populations. In addition, there is a need to identify adjuvants that stimulate high levels of salivary antibody and are suitable for formulating with protein antigens to produce a low-cost and effective vaccine.
A review of the annual prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a regional hospital in Taiwan revealed a significant increase in the incidence of extensive drug-resistant P. aeruginosa (XDRPA) from 2·1% in 2003 to 5·8% in 2007. The first XDRPA isolate was recovered in 2001 from the emergency ward. The widespread dissemination of XDRPA isolates to more than 10 other wards was discovered the following year. Six pulsotypes of 67 XDRPA isolates from 2006 onwards were identified and 91% were a single strain, suggesting the existence of a hidden outbreak. Prior to the recognition of the outbreak, the majority of cases were not considered to be healthcare-associated infections until molecular evidence was provided. A cohort measure was launched by the infection control practitioners that effectively controlled the outbreak. Patients with XDRPA were mostly referred from neighbouring long-term care facilities, which may have been the reservoir of the XDRPA clone.
A local domain-free discretization-immersed boundary method (DFD-IBM) is presented in this paper to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the primitive variable form. Like the conventional immersed boundary method (IBM), the local DFD-IBM solves the governing equations in the whole domain including exterior and interior of the immersed object. The effect of immersed boundary to the surrounding fluids is through the evaluation of velocity at interior and exterior dependent points. To be specific, the velocity at interior dependent points is computed by approximate forms of solution and the velocity at exterior dependent points is set to the wall velocity. As compared to the conventional IBM, the present approach accurately implements the non-slip boundary condition. As a result, there is no flow penetration, which is often appeared in the conventional IBM results. The present approach is validated by its application to simulate incompressible viscous flows around a circular cylinder. The obtained numerical results agree very well with the data in the literature.
The charge transport properties critically depend on the degree of ordering of the chains in the solid state as well as on the density of chemical or structural defects. In general, goodelectronic performance requires strong electronic coupling between adjace nt molecules in the solid-state that yield strong intermolecular π-overlap. Herein, we newly designed and synthesized organic semiconducting materials having both aryl (Ar) and perfluoroaryl (FAr) as substituents for organic electronics along with molecular packing control. Regarding this molecular design, we hypothesized and expected that the Ar and FAr substituents would induce well-defined π-π stacking structure of charge transport units for high performance organic electronics devices.
Background: This study examined the use of low doses of antipsychotic medications (300 mg/day CPZeq or less) in older Asian patients with schizophrenia and its demographic and clinical correlates.
Methods: Information on hospitalized patients with schizophrenia, aged 55 years or older, was extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns (REAP) study (2001–2009). Data on 1,452 patients in eight Asian countries and territories including China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, India, and Malaysia were analyzed. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and antipsychotic prescriptions were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure.
Results: The prescription frequency for low doses of antipsychotic medications was 40.9% in the pooled sample. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the whole sample showed that patients on low doses of antipsychotic medications were more likely to be female, have an older age, a shorter length of illness, and less positive symptoms. Of patients in the six countries and territories that participated in all the surveys between 2001 and 2009, those in Japan were less likely to receive low doses of antipsychotics.
Conclusion: Low doses of antipsychotic medications were only applied in less than half of older Asian patients with schizophrenia.
Folate plays an important role in the synthesis and methylation of DNA as a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism. Inadequate folate intake has been linked to adverse health events. However, comparable information on dietary folate intake across European countries has never been reported. The objective of the present study was to describe the dietary folate intake and its food sources in ten countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 36 034 participants (aged 35–74 years) who completed a single 24 h dietary recall using a computerised interview software program, EPIC-Soft® (International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon). Dietary folate intake was estimated using the standardised EPIC Nutrient DataBase, adjusted for age, energy intake, weight and height and weighted by season and day of recall. Adjusted mean dietary folate intake in most centres ranged from 250 to 350 μg/d in men and 200 to 300 μg/d in women. Folate intake tended to be lower among current smokers and heavier alcohol drinkers and to increase with educational level, especially in women. Supplement users (any types) were likely to report higher dietary folate intake in most centres. Vegetables, cereals and fruits, nuts and seeds were the main contributors to folate intake. Nonetheless, the type and pattern of consumption of these main food items varied across the centres. These first comparisons of standardised dietary folate intakes across different European populations show moderate regional differences (except the UK health conscious group), and variation by sex, educational level, smoking and alcohol-drinking status, and supplement use.
From transmission experiments in the mid infrared region the optical interband transitions between electric subbands in the valence and conduction band of the PbTe wells embedded in Pb1−xEuxTe barriers (x = 2.6% to 3.0%) were determined and compared with calculations based on the envelope function approximation. The frequency dependence of the absorption constant α was calculated, taking the in-plane dispersion of the multiquantum well band structure into account. The frequency dependence of the refractive index n(ω) was derived from α(ω) using a Kramers-Kronig transformation and it exhibits several extrema which coincide with the onset of the various interband transitions. Experimentally the onset of these transitions was also observed in photoconductivity experiments. The changes in n(ω) are as large as 15 % and therefore important for the optical confinement in quantum well lasers grown with these materials.
Fibrous type I collagen possesses unique physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties which are useful for biomedical applications. Our research in applying collagen materials for various tissue repair has led to the development of a resorbable collagen based implant for meniscal tissue regeneration applications. We discuss here the design and development of this resorbable collagen based implant. The results of safety and efficacy studies indicate that the collagen based implant, if designed properly, can be a safe and effective template to support meniscal tissue regeneration in the knee joint.
We study the effect of stress on the behavior of magnetostrictive films. Our approach is different from the conventional one which neglects the strain compatibility. Here, we include the kinematic constraint in our micromagnetic model and proposed to use the average to calculate the stress-induced magnetic field. The analytic formulation of magnetostrictive energy is derived which enables us to perform simulation at a large scale with few iteration steps. The simulation results show that the conventional approach is insufficient to predict magnetic domain patterns for materials with large magnetostriction, and the effect of intrinsic stress cannot be neglected.
An anisotropic solution adaptive method based on unstructured quadrilateral meshes for inviscid compressible flows is proposed. The data structure, the directional refinement and coarsening, including the method for initializing the refined new cells, for the anisotropic adaptive method are described. It provides efficient high resolution of flow features, which are aligned with the original quadrilateral mesh structures. Five different cases are provided to show that it could be used to resolve the anisotropic flow features and be applied to model the complex geometry as well as to keep a relative high order of accuracy on an efficient anisotropic mesh.