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The KIDMED questionnaire was published in 2004 to evaluate adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) in children and adolescents. In the last 14 years, several respected official dietetics and health organizations have recommended appropriate dietary habits, including eating whole grains and consuming whole fruit rather than fruit juice. We propose an update of the KIDMED questionnaire.
Based on the scientific evidence, the present commentary suggests some changes to the KIDMED questionnaire.
We suggest deleting ‘or fruit juice’ from the first question of the questionnaire, rewording the question as ‘Takes a fruit every day’, and assigning a positive value of +1. We suggest adding ‘whole-grain’ to the eighth question of the questionnaire, rewording the question as ‘Consumes whole-grain pasta or whole-grain rice almost every day (5 or more times per week)’, and assigning a positive value of +1. Further, we propose to add ‘whole cereals or whole grains’ to the ninth question of the questionnaire, reword the question as ‘Has whole cereals or whole grains (whole-meal bread, etc.) for breakfast’, and assign a positive value of +1.
The present commentary examines some signs of a paradigm shift about fruit juice and whole grains after the development of the KIDMED questionnaire. The changes are of paramount importance in order to make the questionnaire an updated tool to evaluate adherence to the MD.
There is a high incidence of scoliosis in patients who have undergone cardiothoracic surgery for correction of congenital cardiac disease, this risk being 10 times higher than in the general population.
Materials and methods
So as to analyse the surgical and postoperative complications, we designed a retrospective study to include every child who underwent spinal orthopaedic surgery, and who had previously undergone cardiothoracic surgery because of a congenital cardiac malformation. We excluded those patients who had syndromes associated with the development of scoliosis.
We identified 18 patients with surgically treated congenital cardiac disease who had undergone surgery for scoliosis over a period of 7 years. This group came from a total number of 87 patients undergoing spinal fusion over the same period. Of those with congenitally malformed hearts, 61% had acyanotic lesions, with ventricular septal defect being the most frequent single lesion, present in 40%. All the patients needed blood transfusions during the surgery, with aprotinin used in 73% to reduce the bleeding, and inotropes needed for 4 children. During the immediate postoperative period, 1 patient died in the first 24 hours, while 7 (39%) had different complications, pneumonia in 4, pleural effusions in 2, and rhabdomyolysis in the other, as opposed to a rate of complications of 27% in patients without heart disease.
The surgical and postoperative complications in these patients depend on the specific cardiac lesion. A multidisciplinary team with experience in the treatment of congenitally malformed hearts is essential for appropriate management of these patients.
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