Two children born with birth defects after intrauterine exposure to valproic acid are reported. The mothers took the drug throughout pregnancy as sole treatment for primary generalized epilepsy. The first baby showed facial dysmorphism, arachnodactyly and triphalangeal thumbs. The second had facial dysmorphism, severe laryngeal hypoplasia, tracheomalacia and an aberrant innominate artery that caused tracheal compression. A left superior vena cava, abnormal pulmonary lobulation, and unilateral hydronephrosis were also found at autopsy. Valproic acid has probable teratogenic potential in humans but the number of reported cases is few and the spectrum of anomalies is broad so it is not possible to delineate a definite fetal valproate syndrome.