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The importance of the hippocampus and amygdala for disrupted emotional memory formation in depression is well-recognized, but it remains unclear whether functional abnormalities are state-dependent and whether they are affected by the persistence of depressive symptoms.
Thirty-nine patients with major depressive disorder and 28 healthy controls were included from the longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sub-study of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Participants performed an emotional word-encoding and -recognition task during fMRI at baseline and 2-year follow-up measurement. At baseline, all patients were in a depressed state. We investigated state-dependency by relating changes in brain activation over time to changes in symptom severity. Furthermore, the effect of time spent with depressive symptoms in the 2-year interval was investigated.
Symptom change was linearly associated with higher activation over time of the left anterior hippocampus extending to the amygdala during positive and negative word-encoding. Especially during positive word encoding, this effect was driven by symptomatic improvement. There was no effect of time spent with depression in the 2-year interval on change in brain activation. Results were independent of medication- and psychotherapy-use.
Using a longitudinal within-subjects design, we showed that hippocampal–amygdalar activation during emotional memory formation is related to depressive symptom severity but not persistence (i.e. time spent with depression or ‘load’), suggesting functional activation patterns in depression are not subject to functional ‘scarring’ although this hypothesis awaits future replication.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
Background: CNS innate immune cells, microglia and macrophages (MMs), are the largest component of the inflammatory infiltrate in glioblastoma (GBM). They initially participate in tumor surveillance, but are subverted by GBM. Immunotherapies have proven incredibly successful in cancers such as melanoma, but not against GBM in part because GBM-associated MMs are not well understood. We hypothesized the content and inflammatory phenotype of MMs in GBM is variable between patients. We suspect MMs in IDH-wildtype and –mutant GBMs display divergent inflammatory phenotypes that helps explain the latter's better prognosis. Understanding GBM-associated MM heterogeneity will allow for better immunotherapy development and selection. Methods: MMs were isolated from untreated human IDH-wildtype and -mutant GBMs using flow cytometry and cultured for collection of conditioned media and analysis of secretory products. Automated segmentation with a high-content analysis system was used to quantitate MM content and inflammatory phenotype in frozen sections. New bioinformatics techniques allowed the comparison of MM profiles in publicly available single-cell RNA-sequencing databases with IDH-wildtype and -mutant GBMs. Results: Surprisingly marked variation in MM content exists between GBMs ranging from ~0-70%. A mixture of pro- and anti-inflammatory MMs are found in each GBM. Interestingly, IDH-mutant GBM-associated MMs were more activated than MMs in IDH-wildtype GBMs. Conclusions: Taken together, the highly variable MM content and phenotype of GBMs suggests the success of immunotherapies hinges on taking a precision medicine approach. MM-rich GBMs would benefit more from therapies that target them. MM activation in IDH-mutant GBMs may contribute to better patient prognoses.
What might the contemporary performing body look like when it seeks to communicate and to cultivate the need to live well within the natural environment, whether the context of that living well is framed and set upon either by long-standing cultural traditions or by diverse modernizing forces over time? The Singapore performance and visual artist Tang Da Wu has engaged with a present and a region fractured by the predations of unacceptable cultural norms – the consequences of colonial modernity or the modern nation state taking on imperial pretensions – and the subsumption of Singapore society under capitalist modernization. Tang's performing body both refuses the diminution of time to the present, as is the wont of the forces he engages with, and undertakes interventions by sometimes elusive and ironic means – unlike some overdetermined contemporary performance art – that reject the image of the modernist ‘artist as hero’. Part of the cause for this distinctive art committed to historicity and a deliberate ordinariness is that artistic communication to him means provoking self-reflexive thought rather than immediate action. Over the years this has resulted in collaborative artistic workshops, in which he has imaginatively transferred art making from his body to the realm of ordinary people. These workshops become his particular extension of the neo-avant-garde's breaching of art's infrastructures.
The hydrocarbon systems of the Mesozoic, inverted West Netherlands Basin have been analyzed using 2-D forward modelling. Three source rocks are considered in the modelling: Lower Jurassic oil-prone shales, Westphalian gas-prone coal deposits, and Lower Namurian oil-prone shales. The Lower Namurian hydrocarbon system of the basin is discussed for the first time.
According to the modelling results of the Early Jurassic oil system, the oil accumulations were filled just after the main inversion event. Their predicted locations are in agreement with exploration results. Modelling results of the Westphalian gas system, however, show smaller and larger sized accumulations at unexplored locations. The gas reservoirs were filled during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting phase. Results of modelling of the Lower Namurian oil system indicate that gas formed by secondary cracking of the oils can have mixed with the Westphalian coal-derived gas. Such a mixing is inferred from geochemical analyses. The existence of a Lower Namurian hydrocarbon system in the West Netherlands Basin implies that hydrocarbons are possibly trapped in the Westphalian and Namurian successions. These potential traps in the basin have not yet been explored.
Feedback learning is essential for behavioral development. We investigated feedback learning in relation to behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Children aged 6–13 years diagnosed with TBI (n = 112; 1.7 years post-injury) were compared with children with traumatic control (TC) injury (n = 52). TBI severity was defined as mild TBI without risk factors for complicated TBI (mildRF− TBI, n = 24), mild TBI with ⩾1 risk factor for complicated TBI (mildRF+ TBI, n = 51) and moderate/severe TBI (n = 37). The Probabilistic Learning Test was used to measure feedback learning, assessing the effects of inconsistent feedback on learning and generalization of learning from the learning context to novel contexts. The relation between feedback learning and behavioral functioning rated by parents and teachers was explored.
No evidence was found for an effect of TBI on learning from inconsistent feedback, while the moderate/severe TBI group showed impaired generalization of learning from the learning context to novel contexts (p = 0.03, d = −0.51). Furthermore, the mildRF+ TBI and moderate/severe TBI groups had higher parent and teacher ratings of internalizing problems (p's ⩽ 0.04, d's ⩾ 0.47) than the TC group, while the moderate/severe TBI group also had higher parent ratings of externalizing problems (p = 0.006, d = 0.58). Importantly, poorer generalization of learning predicted higher parent ratings of externalizing problems in children with TBI (p = 0.03, β = −0.21) and had diagnostic utility for the identification of children with TBI and clinically significant externalizing behavior problems (area under the curve = 0.77, p = 0.001).
Moderate/severe pediatric TBI has a negative impact on generalization of learning, which may contribute to post-injury externalizing problems.
Coblation tonsillectomy can be controversial. This study assessed post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage outcomes for patients operated on by a single experienced coblation-trained ENT surgeon.
A retrospective audit of coblation tonsillectomies was performed using the Flinders modification of Stammberger criteria for post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage.
Case note review, interview and database interrogation were utilised to obtain the dataset. Haemorrhage results were compared to reports in the current literature.
Of those who underwent coblation tonsillectomy, 3.4 per cent were readmitted to hospital with haemorrhage and 1.3 per cent returned to the operating theatre (0.4 per cent primary haemorrhage and 0.9 per cent secondary haemorrhage). Younger children had a lower risk of returning to the operating theatre than older children or adults (0.3 per cent under the age of 12 years vs 2.0 per cent aged 12 years or older).
Coblation can be a safe method for tonsillectomy with low complication rates when performed by an experienced ENT surgeon. The Flinders modification of the Stammberger criteria for post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage provides a simple system for data comparison.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating cause of progressive weakness, respiratory failure and death. To date there is no effective therapy to meaningfully extend survival but continuously emerging targets and putative treatments are studied in clinical trials. Canadian epidemiological data on ALS is scarce and the socioeconomic impact of ALS on Canadian society is unclear. The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) is a national clinic-based registry of patients with neuromuscular diseases with the goal of facilitating the design and execution of clinical research.
We conducted a national stakeholder survey to assess interest for a Canadian ALS registry and an assessment of expected case ascertainment. A dataset derivation meeting was held to establish the registry medical dataset.
We report the results of the national stakeholder survey, case ascertainment assessment, and the derived dataset that have resulted in the current implementation of a Canadian registry of patients with ALS.
The development of this long sought-after resource is a significant step forward for the Canadian ALS patient and research communities that will result in more efficient clinical trial recruitment and advancements in our understanding of ALS in Canada.
The development of materials with high stability and high charge mobility is urgent for commercial application of blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLED). Silicon based inorganic-organic hybrid materials with ultra high glass transition temperature (over 150 °C) and high charge mobility (over 1.16 x 10-3 at 5 x 105 V/cm) were synthesized. These showed high external quantum efficiency of over 19%, and deep blue color coordinates of (0.15, 0.23), when they were used as a host materials in the PHOLED.
The origin of the above interesting properties was investigated by experimental measurements complemented by DFT calculations. Estimations of the structure-property relationship of a molecule in an amorphous thin film would be presented
Depression has been associated with limbic hyperactivation and frontal hypoactivation in response to negative facial stimuli. Anxiety disorders have also been associated with increased activation of emotional structures such as the amygdala and insula. This study examined to what extent activation of brain regions involved in perception of emotional faces is specific to depression and anxiety disorders in a large community-based sample of out-patients.
An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm was used including angry, fearful, sad, happy and neutral facial expressions. One hundred and eighty-two out-patients (59 depressed, 57 anxiety and 66 co-morbid depression-anxiety) and 56 healthy controls selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were included in the present study. Whole-brain analyses were conducted. The temporal profile of amygdala activation was also investigated.
Facial expressions activated the amygdala and fusiform gyrus in depressed patients with or without anxiety and in healthy controls, relative to scrambled faces, but this was less evident in patients with anxiety disorders. The response shape of the amygdala did not differ between groups. Depressed patients showed dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) hyperactivation in response to happy faces compared to healthy controls.
We suggest that stronger frontal activation to happy faces in depressed patients may reflect increased demands on effortful emotion regulation processes triggered by mood-incongruent stimuli. The lack of strong differences in neural activation to negative emotional faces, relative to healthy controls, may be characteristic of the mild-to-moderate severity of illness in this sample and may be indicative of a certain cognitive-emotional processing reserve.
The indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for organic light emitting diode (OLED) were made from an oxidised target with In2O3 and SnO2 in a weight proportion of 9:1 using the RF magnetron sputtering method. The comparable ITO anodes with different carrier concentrations were prepared by varying the hydrogen partial pressure during film deposition. The current-luminance-voltage characteristics of the devices indicated that a high carrier concentration in ITO plays a role in improving OLED performance. A maximum efficiency of 3.8 cd/A was achieved when an ITO anode with a higher carrier concentration of 9×1020 cm−3 was used in a fluorene based OLED. This efficiency is about 1.5 times higher than that of an identical device made with an ITO anode having a lower carrier concentration of 5×1020 cm−3. The increase in electroluminescent efficie ncy reflects an enhanced hole-injection in the device. We consider that enhanced hole injection is due to the reduced band bending in ITO when it has a high carrier concentration
A honeycomb-like SiC reconstructed surface with regular, periodic porosity in the nano-scale range has been used as an effective template for the formation of monodispersed Co nanoclusters. In-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to study the nucleation process of the Co nanoclusters on this template. The deposition of Co at different substrate temperature was investigated by STM. It is found that the failure in the deposition of Co nanoclusters on the SiC honeycomb template with substrate temperatures higher than room temperature (RT) might be due to the high desorption rate of the adsorbed Co atoms.
Tantalum (Ta) thin films of 35 nm thickness were investigated as diffusion barriers as well as adhesion-promoting layers between Cu and SiO2 using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After annealing at 600°C for 1h in vacuum, no evidence of interdiffusion was observed. However, XPS depth profiling indicates that elemental Si appears at the Ta/SiO2 interface after annealing. In-situ XPS studies show that the Ta/SiO2 interface was stable until 500°C, but about 32% of the interfacial SiO2 was reduced to elemental Si at 600°C. Upon cooling to room temperature, some elemental Si recombined to form SiO2 again, leaving only 6.5% elemental Si. Comparative studies on the interface chemical states of Cu/SiO2 and Ta/SiO2 indicate that the stability of the Cu/Ta/SiO2/Si system may be ascribed to the strong bonding of Ta and SiO2, due to the reduction of SiO2 through Ta oxide formation.
To counteract plasma instabilities like Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTM-modes) in nuclear fusion reactors (JET, ITER, DEMO) high power microwaves are used for the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) and for the plasma current drive (CD). The foreseen power level for ITER (Cadarache, France) is Ptot = 24 MW at f = 170 GHz. Each transmission line is designed for a maximum of 2 MW power. The vacuum and tritium barrier to the ITER vacuum vessel is realized by a CVD diamond disk window assembly. Diamond has an extremely high thermal conductivity of about k = 2100 W/Km and a very low loss tangent of tan δ < 10-5 for this frequency and shows therefore a very small microwave absorption. The normalized absorbed power A=Pabs/P0 can be calculated as A = (f/c) • π • (1+εr‘) • tan δ • t (with the rule of thumb estimate: (f/c)=0.5 mm-1; π • (1+εr‘) = 20; tan δ =10-5; A=10-4 • t [mm]); i.e. each t = 1 mm thickness of diamond absorbs Pabs = 100 W of Po = 1 MW microwave power transmitted through the CVD diamond window with an effective tanδ of 10-5.
A new type of HF solution, HF-acetonitrile (MeCN), has been employed to produce 10-30 μm thick porous silicon (P-Si) layers by photoelectrochemical etching of different types of Si wafers, Si(100), Si(111) and polycrystalline Si, with different resistivities. A combined optical, surface and nuclear microscopic assessment of these P-Si layers was performed using photoluminescence (PL), Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The PL emission intensities, Raman line shapes and structural features are strongly dependent on the properties of the substrates such as the crystallinity and resistivity of the Si wafers used for forming P-Si. With increasing resisitivity of the Si(100) wafers, the resulting P-Si layers show a slight blue-shift of their visible light emission peak energy, an up-shift of the peak position and a narrowing of the band width of the dominant Raman band, and a decrease in the amount of residual elemental Si on the surface. Those Si(l 11) wafers, etched in HF-MeCN, showed no porous structures and no visible light emission.
The microstructure, defect structure and thermoelectric properties of Al-containing ReSi1.75 based silicides have been investigated. All the Al-containing alloys investigated contain four differently oriented domains accompanied by the twinned microstructure, as the binary alloy does. However, thin defect layers containing a kind of shear structure are locally and sporadically formed at some of twin boundaries. In the defect layer, shear occurs by the vector of  on either (1 09) or (107) planes. Binary ReSi1.75 exhibits nice thermoelectric properties as exemplified by the high value of dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) of 0.70 at 800 °C when measured along , although the ZT value along  is just moderately high. Al-containing Re silicides considerably increase the ZT value along  so that the maximum value of 0.95 is achieved at 150 °C for the ReSi1.75Al0.02 alloy. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity changes from of semiconductor for the binary alloy to of metal for the Al-added alloys and the value of electrical resistivity is significantly reduced when compared to the binary counterpart.
Surface spectroscopic techniques have been used to investigate aluminium deposition form tri-methyl aluminium (TMA) on Si(100), and the etching of InP by chlorine. Thermal reactions and processes stimulated by UV lamps and ion beams are examined. The results are interpreted in the light of the adsorption states which are formed and the surface transformations of chemical states which are observed to occur.
Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used to investigate Ti silicide formation mechanisms on a series of Ti on Si thin films annealed in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) at different temperatures and durations. The competition between oxygen diffusion and the silicide formation reaction (the socalled “snowplough” effect) is observed directly, as well as a Ti-Si-O layer. The results from these controlled experiments are compared with those from Ti silicide films formed under rapid thermal annealing (RTA) conditions in a production furnace, with and without a TiW barrier layer.
A series of CVD-grown 3C-SiC/Si(100) films of different growth times, and hence film thicknesses, are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). XPS showed that the surfaces of the samples consist of Si oxides (SiO2 and SiOx where x < 2) and unreacted C.H. Unreacted elemental Si is also present and its amount decreases with increasing growth time. This surface overlayer is further investigated by changing the photoelectron take-off angle and from chemical etching studies. Compositional variations of the SiC films are also studied using SIMS.