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To characterise multi-level obstruction in terms of prevalence, obstructive sleep apnoea severity and predictive factors, and to collect epidemiological data on upper airway morphology in obstructive sleep apnoea patients.
Retrospective review of 250 obstructive sleep apnoea patients.
On clinical examination, 171 patients (68.4 per cent) had multi-level obstruction, 49 (19.6 per cent) had single-level obstruction and 30 (12 per cent) showed no obstruction. Within each category of obstructive sleep apnoea severity, multi-level obstruction was more prevalent. Multi-level obstruction was associated with severe obstructive sleep apnoea (more than 30 events per hour) (p = 0.001). Obstructive sleep apnoea severity increased with the number of obstruction sites (correlation coefficient = 0.303, p < 0.001). Multi-level obstruction was more likely in younger (p = 0.042), male (p = 0.045) patients, with high body mass index (more than 30 kg/m2) (p < 0.001). Palatal (p = 0.004), tongue (p = 0.026) and lateral pharyngeal wall obstructions (p = 0.006) were associated with severe obstructive sleep apnoea.
Multi-level obstruction is more prevalent in obstructive sleep apnoea and is associated with increased severity. Obstruction at certain anatomical levels contributes more towards obstructive sleep apnoea severity.
Hoarseness is common and can have a major impact on patients’ quality of life. We report a rare case of hoarseness secondary to haemodialysis.
A 62-year-old man described developing transient hoarseness after haemodialysis sessions, which he underwent three times weekly. Fibre-optic nasendoscopy showed incomplete glottis closure due to bowing of the vocal folds. A computed tomography scan of the neck and thorax was unremarkable. Speech therapy was unhelpful. The renal physicians concluded that no change could be made to his dialysis regime. The patient subsequently underwent injection laryngoplasty with calcium hydroxylapatite, with marked improvement of his symptoms.
A literature search found one relevant article reporting that 60 per cent of patients suffered post-dialysis hoarseness and decreased vocal fold thickness. It is postulated that dialysis causes dehydration of Reinke's space, affecting vocal fold thickness and the patient's voice.
Hoarseness caused by haemodialysis is uncharted territory. Further research is required to determine its prevalence and contributing factors.
Flexible nasoendoscope is an important tool in otorhinolaryngology practice. The endoscope needs to be decontaminated prior to use in the next patient. The 2005 ENT-UK guidance for cleaning fibre-optic laryngoscopes stated that the ideal disinfecting agent and process should be effective and have low capital and maintenance costs.
To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of chlorine dioxide wipes versus automated washer, for decontamination of flexible nasendoscopes.
A sequential cohort, in vitro study was performed to test the efficacy of chlorine dioxide wipes and automated washer. Costs were also calculated.
After deliberate bacterial contamination of the nasendoscope and subsequent decontamination, swab samples from the endoscope showed Staphylococcus epidermidis growth in 2 per cent (1/50 swabs) of the chlorine dioxide wipe group and in 28 per cent (14/50 swabs) of the automated washer group (p = 0.00). Based on a projected 10-year cost calculation, the automated washer was cheaper.
Further studies are required to test whether these results are replicable. A similar study should be performed using real patients, to check the significance of improper decontamination.
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