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Differences in how individuals cope with stressful conditions (e.g. novel/unfamiliar environment, social isolation and increases in human contact) can explain the variability in data collection from nutrient digestibility trials. We used the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), which is under process of domestication and shows high individual behavioral distinctiveness in reactions toward humans, to test the hypothesis that behavioral differences play a role in nutrient digestibility. We assessed the individual behavioral traits of 24 adult male collared peccaries using both the ‘behavioral coding’ and the ‘subjective ratings’ approaches. For the behavioral coding assessment, we recorded the hourly frequency of behaviors potentially indicative of stress during the 30-day habituation period to the experimental housing conditions. The subjective ratings were performed based on the individuals’ reactions to three short-term challenge tests (novel environment, novel object and threat from a capture net) over a period of 56 days. During the last 26 days, the collared peccaries were fed diets either high (n = 12) or low (n = 12) in dietary fiber levels, and we determined the total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients. The individual subjective ratings showed consistency in the correlated measures of ‘relaxedness’, ‘quietness’ and ‘satisfaction’ across the three challenge tests, which were combined to produce z score ratings of one derived variable (‘calmness’). Individual frequency of BPIS/h and calmness scores were negatively correlated and both predicted the total tract digestibility of acid detergent fiber (ADF), which ranged from 0.41 to 0.79. The greater the calmness z scores (i.e. calmer individuals), the greater the total tract digestibility of ADF. In contrast, the higher the frequency of BPIS/h, the lower the total tract digestibility of ADF. Therefore, our results provide evidence that by selecting calmer collared peccaries, there will be an increase in their capacity to digest dietary fiber.
Knowing how energy intake is partitioned between maintenance, growth and egg production (EP) of birds makes it possible to structure models and recommend energy intakes based on differences in the BW, weight gain (WG) and EP on commercial quail farms. This research was a dose-response study to re-evaluate the energy partition for Japanese quails in the EP phase, based on the dilution technique to modify the retained energy (RE) of the birds. A total of 300 VICAMI® Japanese quail, housed in climatic chambers, were used from 16 weeks of age, with averages for BW of 185 g and EP of 78%, for 10 weeks. To modify the RE in the bird’s body, a qualitative dilution of dietary energy was used. Ten treatments (metabolisable energy levels) were distributed in completely randomised units, with six replicates of five quails per experimental unit. Metabolisable energy intake (MEI), egg mass (EM) and RE were expressed in kJ/kg0.67. The utilisation efficiency (kt) was estimated from the relationship between RE and MEI. The metabolisable energy for maintenance was given by RE = 0. The net energy requirement for WG was obtained from the relationship between RE in the BW as a function of the BW. The utilisation efficiency for EP (ko) was obtained from the relationship between EM and RE corrected MEI for maintenance and WG. Based on these efficiencies, the requirements for WG and EM were calculated. The energy intake by Japanese quails was partitioned according to the model: MEI = 569.8 × BW0.67 + 22 × WG + 13 × EM. The current study provides procedures and methods designed for quails as well as a simple and flexible model that can be quickly adopted by technicians and poultry companies.
The description of the growth of the Japanese quails is necessary to characterize the genetic potential of these birds raised in different countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the genetic potential of Japanese quails by conducting a meta-analysis considering studies conducted in different countries. Only data about the subspecies Coturnix coturnix japonica were considered; studies regarding Coturnix coturnix coturnix were not examined. The criteria investigated were BW (W), age (t), year of publication and location of the study. Each set of genetic material within a publication was coded as one study. The Gompertz function was used to interpret the growth of laying quails; thus, each study was represented by Gompertz parameters. The W and t data were applied to estimate the values of Gompertz growth parameters, including BW at maturity (Wm), BW at birth (Wi), maturity rate (B) and inflection point (IP). The age at which the maximum growth rate was achieved (t*) was calculated considering the parameters Wm, Wi and B. To estimate these parameters, random regression was used to randomize the parameter Wm. The parameters estimated for each assay were used in exploratory, grouping, and principal component analyses. The values of Wi ranged from 4.1 to 11.6 g. The values of B ranged from 0.0393 to 0.1039/day, and consequently, the values of t* and IP ranged from 14 to 31 days and 9.21 to 31.03 g, respectively. These results show that there is considerable variability in the growth potential of Japanese quails. To better understand this variation, two groups were examined: Brazil and other countries, according to the grouping of Wi, Wm, B and t*; parameter B was the variable that presented the highest specificity, indicating that both groups modified the maturity rate. For the principal component analysis, the year of publication showed a relationship with the growth parameters but only for studies performed in Brazil. For studies carried out in other countries, the changes in growth parameters were not related to the year of publication. In Brazilian studies, there was a decrease in the maturity rate, but the weight at maturity was higher. Therefore, it appears that different strategies of genetic selection were adopted in Brazil compared to other countries.
Psychosocial Rehabilitation is actually understood as essential to promote the effective improvement of quality of life of mental ill people. Recovery is view as a process where individual plays an active role, choosing their own way. In this process, readiness is the interest, desire and motivation of the individual in his rehabilitation, being ready to change.
Develop a methodology to assess readiness of people with mental illness, and known the opinion of health professionals about this methodology.
Using the results of different studies, a methodology to assess readiness was developed and described. This description was after submitted to a focus group with six professionals and to a Delphi panel of 25 professionals, all evaluating the methodology to be used with people with schizophrenia.
The methodology developed includes several steps to apply with mentally ill people. The focus group discusses the methodology and the results agree with the conclusions of other studies and with theoretical constructs about this topic. The Delphi panel yields an agreement rate exceeding 90% and suggests the application of the methodology to people with schizophrenia.
The methodology developed to assess readiness of mentally ill people to change and define their own recovery process seems to be useful and provide a more deep understanding of individual differences linked to the process of recovery. Also seems to provide a translation into quantitative indicators and to identify the overall level of readiness, being a practical tool to support the definition of rehabilitation projects.
Insight and treatment adherence in serious mental illness, namely psychotic disorders, are well recognized as strong predictors of prognosis; several psychometric instruments have been developed for their evaluation.
Objectives and aims
To analyze the relation between self and hetero-evaluated insight and treatment attitudes in a clinical sample of psychiatric patients, besides assessing it's clinical correlates and relevance.
60 patients with serious mental illness (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychotic features) were assessed using the Portuguese versions of the ‘Insight Scale' (IS), ‘Medication Adherence Rating Scale’ (MARS) and ‘Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire’ (ITAQ). General psychopathology and functioning scales were also applied, such as the BPRS, BDI-II and FAST. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical variables were also obtained. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS version 19.
Self-reported insight using the IS was not correlated with the insight subscale of the ITAQ, a hetero-evaluation instrument. Similarly, we found no correlation regarding attitudes to treatment when comparing self-report (MARS) and hetero- evaluation (treatment attitudes subscale of the ITAQ). Nonetheless, patients with a history of medication non-compliance and worse clinical outcomes had significantly lower (p< .05) scores in hetero-evaluation measures of insight and treatment attitudes (ITAQ), yet exhibited no differences in the self-evaluation measures of those dimensions.
Discussion and conclusions
Insight and treatment attitudes assessments can be valuable in clinical practice, contributing to decisions in both in- and outpatient settings involving treatment planning and level of monitoring. Clinician-rated instruments are probably more reliable, with clearer prognostic relevance.
To investigate in non-depressed perinatal women, whichBeck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Postpartum Postpartum DepressionScreening Scale (PDSS) scores and proportions of symptomatic items significantlydiffer through the perinatal period.
273 women were assessed with the Diagnostic Interviewfor Genetic Studies, BDI-II and the PDSS at the third trimester of pregnancy/T0(mean age =29.42±7.159 years; mean weeks gestation=32.6±3.61),three/T1, six/T2 and twelve/T3 months postpartum.
Significantlyhigher scores in T0 than in T1/T2/T3 and in T1 than in T2/T3 were found for: Total PDSS, Sleeping-Eating Disturbances, Emotional Liability, Total BDI-II andits dimension Somatic-Anxiety. Only T0 and T1/T2 didnot significantly differ in Anxiety/Insecurity, Mental Confusion, and Loss of Self. In Guilty/Shame only T1 was significantly higher than T3. Suicidalthoughts were significantly higher in T0 than T1 and lower in T1 than T2/T3.
Theproportions of symptomatic items systematically and significantly decreased fromT0 to T3 in changes of sleep, loss of interest in sex, feeling overwhelmed. Significantlyhigher symptomatic proportions in T0 than in all post-partum moments were foundfor: loss of energy, irritability, fatigue, changes in appetite, crying, indecisiveness and worthlessness (these last three also higher in T1 than inT3). Agitation was significantly higherin T1 than in T0. All the cognitive-affective symptoms from BDI-II and PDSSdid not differ.
From pregnancy to the twelfth month postpartum the depressivesymptomatology, particularly somatic-affective symptoms, significantlydecreased. However even for the women who are not clinically depressed, theperinatal period requires considerable psychological adjustment.
Factors associated with postpartum/PPT anxiety have been insufficiently investigated.
To identify correlates of PPT anxiety.
201 3-months postpartum women completed the Portuguese versions of Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS), Beck Depression Inventory/BDI-II, Profile of Mood States, Difficult Infant Temperament Questionnaire/DITQ, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and questions on sociodemographic variables, Lifetime history of insomnia/LTHD, Lifetime history of depressive symptomatology/LTHDS, Current insomnia, Health perception/HP, Stress perception/SP, Perceived social support/PSS, Quality of life/QOL, Health problem/complication postpartum, Sensibility to hormonal fluctuations, Type of delivery and Type of feeding. Postpartum anxiety was measured with the Anxiety/Insecurity (AI) subscale of the PDSS.
AI significantly correlated with LTHDS (rS=.32), LHI (rS=.18), Current insomnia (rS=.32), BDI-II (r=.76), SP (rS=.38), PSS (rS=.25), Perceived QOL (rS=.37), Health perception (rS=.29), Health problem in the postpartum (rS=.26), Negative Affect/NA (r=.66), Positive Affect/PA (r=.58), Conditional Acceptance/CA (r=.29) and DIT (r=.38) (all p< .01). Mean comparisons revealed that women with vs. without LHDS, with vs. without LTHI, good sleepers vs. with insomnia syndrome, high vs. low SP, low vs. high PSS, bad/very bad vs. good/very good QOL, bad/very bad vs. good/very good HP, high (< M+1DP) vs. low (>M-1DP) DIT, CA, NA and low vs. high PA had significantly higher mean scores in AI (all p< .01). Linear regression model composed of all correlated variables explained 53.7% of AI variance and showed that NA, PA and DIT are significant (p< .05) predictors of AI.
Our findings are in accordance with previous research and contribute to the progress on this topic.
Postpartum depressive symptomatology is highly prevalent and has negative impact in the entire family.
To identify correlates of postpartum depressive symptomatology.
201 3-months postpartum women completed the Portuguese versions of Postpartum Depression Screening Scale/PDSS, Profile of Mood States, Difficult Infant Temperament Questionnaire/DITQ, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and questions on sociodemographic variables (marital status, work status, educational level, parity), Lifetime history of insomnia/LTHD, Lifetime history of depressive symptomatology /LTHDS, Current insomnia, Sleep needs, Health perception/HP, Stress perception/SP, Perceived social support/PSS, Quality of life/QOL, Health problem/complication postpartum, Sensibility to hormonal fluctuations, Type of delivery and Type of feeding.
Total PDSS significantly correlated with LTHDS (rs=.35), LHI (rs=.22), Current insomnia (rs=.37), SP (rs=39), PSS (rs=.25), Perceived QOL (rs=.31), Health perception (rs=.28), Health problem or complication in the postpartum (rs=.16), Negative Affect/NA (r=.59), Positive Affect/PA (r=-.67), Conditional Acceptance/CA(r=.29) and DIT (r=.40) (all p< .01). Mean comparisons revealed that women with vs. without LHDS, with vs. without LTHI, good sleepers vs. with insomnia syndrome, high vs. low SP, bad/very bad vs. good/very good QOL, bad/very bad vs. good very good HP, high (< M+1DP) vs. low (>M-1DP) DIT, CA, NA and low vs. high PA had significantly higher mean scores in AI (all p< .01). Linear regression model composed of all correlated variables explained 53.9% of depressive symptomatology variance and showed that NA, PA, DIT and HP are significant (p< .05) predictors of AI.
These results are in line with previous findings and contribute to the progress on this topic.
Watkins and Moulds (2005) adapted the Positive Beliefs aboutRumination Scale (PBRS; Papageorgiou and Wells, 2001) to reduce confounds with mood states. The items keep the meaningthat recurrent thinking about feelings would be helpful, but direct mentions ofrumination, depression and negative mood or events were omitted.
To investigate thepsychometric properties of the PBRS-Adapted Portuguese version.
Acommunity sample of 552 university students (425 girls; 80.3%; mean age=19.72±1.147) answered the Portuguesepreliminary version of the PBRS-A, and the validated Portuguese versions ofother self-reported questionnaires: Perseverative ThinkingQuestionnaire/PTQ-15; Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire/RNT-10; The Metacognitions Questionnaire-30/MCQ-30;Profile of Mood States/POMS. To study the temporal stability, 242 (207girls; 85.5%) respondents answered the MCQ-30 again after approximately six weeks.
The PBRS-A Cronbach alpha was 'very good” (a=.80). All the itemscontribute to the internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficientwas high, positive and significant (.64; p< .001); there was not significantdifference between test and re-test scores [25.89±5.384 vs. 24.64±5.444, t (218)=4.014,p=.114]. Following Kaiser and Cattel Scree Plot criteria, only one factor wasextracted, meaning that the scale is unidimensional.
PBRS-Asignificantly, positively and moderately correlated with RNT-10, PTQ-15, MCQ-30and all their dimensions (all r>.35;p<.01) as well as with all the negative mood states from POMS (all r@.20; p<.01).
The Portuguese version of PBRS-Ahas good reliability and validity. As a transdiagnostic measure, it could be veryuseful to assess individuals with several emotional disorders, both in clinicaland research contexts.
Suicidality has a multifactorial determination and is clinically under-diagnosed. Self-reported poor health, negative affect and sleep difficulties are associated with psychological distress, including suicidality.
To analyze the association between lifetime SRH, sleep difficulties, negative affect (NA) and suicidal ideation in pregnancy (T0) and post-partum (T1) and if they are predictors of suicidal ideation.
397 pregnant women completed the Portuguese version of POMS, PDSS and a set of items evaluating SRH, and sleep difficulties in the last trimester of pregnancy an three months of post-partum.
In pregnancy, suicidal ideation was significantly associated with lifetime SRH (p < .05), NA (p < .01) and difficulties of initiating sleep (DIS) (p < .01). In post-partum, suicidal ideation was also associated with DIS (p < .01), NA (p < .01), but not with SRH. In pregnancy, the predictors of the probability of having or not suicidal ideation are both SRH and DIS. In postpartum the suicidal ideation predictor was only DIS. However when NA was introduced in the regression model, NA was the only predictor of suicide ideation in both pregnacy and postpartum.
Difficulties of initiating sleep should be considered an indicator of suicidal ideation during the perinatal period. However NA might explain this association.
Postpartum depression (PPD) can occur through all the perinatal period and it is a public health problem. Positive and negative affect (at pregnancy and previous postpartum moments) are protective and risk factors for PPD. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) factor structure at pregnancy and three months postpartum has already been explored.
to explore the POMS factor structure at six and 12 months postpartum.
336 women (mean age=30,3; SD = 4,09; range=19-42 years) and 276 women (mean age=30,5; SD=3,99; range=19-41 years), respectively, filled in the Profile of Mood States (POMS), at six and 12 months postpartum.
A principal components analysis revealed, at six months postpartum, three components that explained 54,12% of the total variance: F1 Depression-Hostility (21 items; 39,5% explained variance/EV); F2 Anxiety-Anger/fatigue (14 items; 10,1% EV) and F3 Vigor-Activity (12 items; 4,8% EV); at 12 months postpartum, revealed also three components, that explained 46,16% of the variance: F1. Anxiety-anger/fatigue (13 items; explained 30,4% of the variance); F2. Depression-Hostility (6 items; 11,2% VE); F3. Vigor-Activity (14 items; 2,9% EV). At both postpartum moments, F1 and F2 can be summed to calculate Negative Affect (Cronbach Alpha, α=0,968 at six months and α=0,948 at 12 months). F3 corresponds to Positive Affect (α=0,863; α=0,875, respectively, at six months and 12 months).
The POMS factor structure at six and 12 months is robust, meaningful and can now be used to explore different aspects of the postpartum experience, at these postpartum moments.
It has been shown that perfectionism constitutes a risk factor both for insomnia and postpartum depression.
To analyse the relationship between perfectionism, depressive symptoms and insomnia in the postpartum.
201 3-months postpartum women (M=12.27 ± .91 weeks postpartum) completed the Portuguese versions of Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) and Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS). Three MPS dimensions derived by factorial analysis with data from this sample were used: Self-Oriented Perfectionism/SOP, Social Prescribed Perfectionism-Conditional Acceptance/SPP-CA and SPP-Others Highs Standards/OHS. Women also answered 5 questions about sleep, considering the previous month, based on which three insomnia groups were formed: Good Sleepers/GS (women without insomnia symptoms or daytime impairment); Insomnia Symptoms Group (women with at least one insomnia symptom but no daytime impairment); Insomnia Syndrome Group/ISG (women with at least one insomnia symptom and sleep related daytime impairment).
Insomnia and PDSS were correlated (r = .39, pr < .01). SOP was not correlated with insomnia neither with PDSS total score. SPP-CA was significantly correlated with insomnia and with PDSS (rr > .25, pr < .01). SPP-OHS was only significantly correlated with insomnia (r = .14, pr < .05). SPP-CA mean scores were significantly higher in ISG than in GS (23.45 ± 3.032 vs. 18.98 ± 8.81, p = 002). Considering insomnia as a quantitative variable, linear regression showed that SPP-CA (β = .20, p = .005) and PDSS (β = .17, p = .021) were both significant predictors of insomnia, explaining 8.7% of variance (pr < .001). The mediation analysis revealed that SPP-CA partially mediated the relationship between PDSS and insomnia (IC 95% .008-.005).
SPP-C is a relevant correlate of postpartum insomnia.
Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the relationship between perfectionism and eating behaviors in overweight/obese women is very scarce.
To investigate the relationship between perfectionism, eating behaviors and affect in overweight women.
The Portuguese validated versions of the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire/EDEQ, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Questionnaire and the Profile of Mood States were administered to an outpatient sample of 276 women (Mean age = 43.85 ± 11.89; Mean BMI = 32.82 ± 5.43) attending a weight loss treatment in a public hospital.
Correlations between Social Prescribed Perfectionism/SPP and EDEQ total (T) and its dimensional scores (Weigh and Shape Concern and Dissatisfaction/WSCD, Eating Concern/EC, Restraint) were all moderate (r > .30) and significant (p > .001). Self-Oriented Perfectionism/SOP was also significantly correlated with EDEQ-T, WSCI and Restraint (r = .20). Positive affect/PA was negatively correlated and Negative affect/NA was positively correlated with all EDEQ dimensions (r > .25; p > .001). SPP, but not SOP, was significantly correlated with PA (r = −.27) and NA (r = .34). Participants with high (>M+SD) vs. low (< MSD) SOP and SPP had significantly higher means in EDEQ-T, WSCI, EC and Restraint (all p < .001). Linear regression showed that SPP, PA and NA were predictors of EDEQ-T and WSCI; SPP and NA were predictors of EC; NA was the unique predictor of Restraint (all p < .001). Controlling for NA/PA, SPP still being a significant predictor of all EDEQ, WSCD and EC, accounting for significant increments of variance (4.4%, 2.9% and 4.3%, respectively; p < .001).
As in studies with other type of samples, SPP is related to disordered eating in overweight women.
In comparison with postnatal depressive symptoms, few studies considered antenatal depressive symptoms risk factors/correlates.
In a multidimensional work our aim was to explore the associations/predictive role of lifetime and current pregnancy variables for antenatal depressive symptoms.
Two hundred and thirty six women (M = 30.5; SD =4.02; variation = 19-41), at the third pregnancy trimester were interviewed with the DIGS/OPCRIT (to make lifetime/current depression diagnoses) and answered a booklet about sociodemographic variables, lifetime/current insomnia, current stress perception, perception of being an anxious person, gynecological variables, past health perception and pregnancy health problems, among others. They filled in the Profile of Mood States to assess anxious symptoms, Negative and Positive affect and the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) to assess antenatal depressive symptoms at pregnancy. Women with a depression diagnosis (DSM-IV/ICD-10, n =5) and on sleep medication at pregnancy were excluded from the analyses.
We found significant associations between antenatal depressive symptoms (PDSS total score), current job situation, perception of being an anxious person, lifetime history of depression (DSM-IV/ICD-10), past health perception, health problems at current pregnancy, stress perception at pregnancy, lifetime and current insomnia, anxious symptoms at pregnancy, Negative and Positive affect. In an hierarquical multiple regression past health perception, negative affect, positive affect and current insomnia were significant predictors of antenatal depressive symptoms.
Past health perception, negative affect (anxious and depressive symptoms) and insomnia at current pregnancy seem to be risk factors/correlates for the outcome. Positive affect seems to work as a protective correlate.
To investigate the symptom dimensions of psychosis using factor analyses/FA of lifetime symptoms of a sample of Portuguese psychotic patients.
FA of the OPCRIT items (56 signs and symptoms) of 684 patients
- Schizophrenia/Sz (73.8%), Other non-organic psychotic disorders/ONPD (6.0), Schizoaffective disorders/SzA (1.4%), Bipolar disorders/BP (18.1%) and Severe depression with psychosis/SDP (.8%) – assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies.
Delusions of poverty, guilty delusions, nihilistic delusions, primary delusional perception, and somnolence, problems with appetite and weight and grandiosity were excluded from the final solution, as each were present in less than 10% of patients and did not load at any factor.
Following the Kaiser and the Cattel's Scree Plot criteria, a four factors structure was selected, which explained variance (EV) was of 60.25%. Based on items content, the meaningful four factors were denominated as follows: F1 Depression (EV 21.77%; a=.97); F2 Mania (5.72%; a=.97); F3 Delusions and hallucinations (2.97%; a=.92); F4 Disorganization and Negative symptoms (2.07%; a=.90). Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that the symptom dimensions that distinguished better between Dx categories were Delusions and hallucinations (only SDP vs. BP and Sc vs. SzA did not significantly differ) and Disorganization and Negative symptoms (only SDP vs. BP and SDP vs. ONPD did not significantly differ), with Sz patients presenting the highest scores.
This factorial structure is in accordance with other reports. Given the Schizophrenia (Sz) and Bipolar disorder (BP) heterogeneity and overlap, the present study contribute to phenotypic refinement and formulation of alternative psychosis phenotypes.
In Portugal there are no national epidemiologic registers on the prevalence/incidence of suicidal ideation and attempts. Although there is no evidence that suicide is higher in University students than in other people of the same age, it is a cause of premature death.
To analyze the prevalence and characteristics of suicidality in university students
549 University students (80.1% females) filled in a booklet of questionnaires that included the Suicidal Behaviour Section of the Diagnostic Interview of Genetic Studies (Azevedo et al, 1993; Nurnberger et al., 1994), which was slight modified.
0.4% reported lifetime poor psychological health and 1.3% reported lifetime hospitalizations due to emotional/behavioural problems. Lifetime thoughts of death, lifetime active suicidal ideation, and lifetime suicidal attempts were described by 20.4%, 11.9% and by 2.3% of the students, respectively. Regarding the more severe lifetime suicide attempt (N=15) the method used was predominantly self-poisoning (medication) (9/13), 40% (6/15) were hospitalized after this attempt, 53.3% (8/15) reported death wishes when the act was performed, and 60% (9/15) considered that death could be the consequence of the act. During last month suicidal ideation occurred in 1.9% of the students. During the last two weeks suicidal ideation without planning was found in 2.2% and 0.2% refereed they are going to attempt suicide if they will have an opportunity.
In university students recent, frequent and severe suicide ideation might occur. Results highlighted the need for suicidality prevention/early intervention and that Health University Care Services should screen systematically suicidal ideation.
The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDEQ; Fairburn & Beglin, 1994) is a widely used measure composed of 28 items derived from the EDE Interview. The questionnaire has been considered an adequate measure of eating related psychopathology, including with overweight samples. EDEQ also assesses frequencies of eating disordered behaviors in terms of the number of episodes in the past four weeks (6 items not contributing to scores).
To investigate reliability and factorial structure of the EDEQ in a large sample of Portuguese overweight women.
The EDEQ was administered to an outpatient sample of 276 women (Mean age = 43.85 ± 11.89; Mean BMI = 32.82 Kg/m2 ± 5.43) attending a weight loss treatment consultation in a public medical center.
The EDEQ Cronbach a was .88. All items contributed to the internal consistency. A three factors structure (variance explained = 50.37%) was selected: Factor (F) 1 “Weight and shape concern/dissatisfaction” (a = .91); F2 “Eating concern” (a = .71) and F3 “Restraint” (a = .63). The mean total score was 2.36 (± 1.07). The regular occurrence of overeating episodes, selfinduced vomiting, laxative misuse and excessive exercise was reported by 10%, 1.5%, 4.1%, and 8.9% of participants, respectively.
The EDEQ Portuguese version showed adequate psychometric properties in a sample of overweight women. Its factorial structure, mean scores and specific eating disorder behaviors frequencies are in accordance with other studies with obese participants. The EDEQ Portuguese version could be very useful to clinical and epidemiological purposes in a broad range of eating disturbances.
(1) to identify the proportion of families that have at least one first degree relative (FDR) with major unipolar depression (MUD), across bipolar (BP) and schizophrenic (SC) multiplex families;
(2) to assess if there are significant demographic/clinic differences between these two groups.
The sample included 120 families with at least one first or second degree proband relatives diagnosed with BP or SC disorders. We selected BP and SC probands’ families that had at least one FDR with MUD, according to DSM-III-R. All families have been evaluated with Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies and selected according to the diagnostic definitions of DSM-III-R, based on the Operational Criteria Checklist. T-tests and chi-square tests used to analyze demographic and clinical differences between the two groups.
Out of the 60 BP families, 38.3% had at least one FDR with MUD; depressed relatives were predominantly female (68.7%) - sisters (35.5%), mothers (29%), daughters (3.2%). The average age of onset and length of illness was 35 and 15 years, respectively. Out of 60 SC families, 31.6% had at least one FDR with MUD; the majority of depressed relatives were females (81.8%) - sisters (42.9%), mothers (38%) daughters (4.8%). The average age of onset and length of illness was 30 and 19 years, respectively. There was no significant statistical differences between BP and SC families.
These results may support the thesis of a common genetic vulnerability to MUD, and the continuum viewpoint of affective and psychotic disorders.
Perfectionism has been associated to Perseverative Negative Thinking [PNT]. Both are transdiagnostic processes. PNT (in the form of worry and rumination) is a prime candidate when investigating negative components of perfectionism (Macedo et al., 2013).
To investigate if PNT mediates the relationship between perfectionism and negative affect [NA].
344 university students (68.4% girls) were evaluated using Portuguese validated versions of the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (two subscales:’Repetitive Thought’ [RT] and’Cognitive Interference and Unproductiveness’ [CIU]), Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Profile of Mood States and Perceived Stress Scale, with an additional item to evaluate perceived social support [PSS]. Only variables significantly correlated with the outcomes [NA] were entered in the hierarchic multiple regression models. Mediation analyses using Preacher and Hayes bootstrapping methodology were performed.
Perceived Stress [PS] ((=.245), PSS ((=-.257), Self-Oriented Perfectionism [SOP] ((=-.126), Self-Prescribed Perfectionism [SPP] ((=.122; p=.011), Concern over Mistakes [CM] ((=.102), Doubts about Actions [DA] ((=.115) and CIU ((=.110) were significant predictors (all p<.05) of NA. Controlling for PS and PSS, the perfectionism variables still predict depression, accounting for a significant increment of 16.7% (p<.01). The CIU, introduced in the model after the Perfectionism variables, significantly increments the NA variance in 1.6% (p<.01). CIU was a total mediator in the relationship between SOP and NA (IC95% .025-.229) and a partial mediator in the relationship between SPP (.176-.456), CM (.142-.855), DA (.143-.863) and NA.
PNT potentiates the relationship between negative perfectionism and NA. Positive perfectionism is associated with NA, only in the presence of PNT.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the neurobehavioral disorder most common in school-age children. It is estimated to persist into adulthood in about 65% of cases, causing significant impact on job performance, social functioning and overall quality of life.
Assess functional and quality of life impact in young adults diagnosed with ADHD as children/adolescent.
Cross-sectional study between January and March 2013 with telephone interviews to patients aged over 18 years previously diagnosed with ADHD and followed in a pediatric consultation. We analyzed sociodemographic variables, co-morbidities, performance at school/work, interpersonal relationships and risk taking activities. Statistical analysis done using SPSS.
40 young adults were included, the mean age 20 years. 42.5 % were still students and 20% were unemployed. about 12–18% of cases had a problematic relationship with superiors. In some cases we found risk taking habits, mainly tobacco, alcohol and drug use. A minority of them reported being evolve in some sort of crime or violence. There was no statistically significant association between that and the duration of use of medication. Only 12.5 % of cases were followed in adult psychiatry.
As described in literature, there's a high rate of unemployment and tobacco, alcohol and drug use. It is possible that this sample is not representative of the population with ADHD as doesn’t include severe cases (followed by child psychiatrists). Most patients didn’t have followup showing the importance a better transition of care from adolescence to adulthood.