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Family history is a long-standing and readily obtainable risk factor for schizophrenia (SCZ). Low-cost genotyping technologies have enabled large genetic studies of SCZ, and the results suggest the utility of genetic risk scores (GRS, direct assessments of inherited common variant risk). Few studies have evaluated family history and GRS simultaneously to ask whether one can explain away the other.
We studied 5959 SCZ cases and 8717 controls from four Nordic countries. All subjects had family history data from national registers and genome-wide genotypes that were processed through the quality control procedures used by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Using external training data, GRS were estimated for SCZ, bipolar disorder (BIP), major depression, autism, educational attainment, and body mass index. Multivariable modeling was used to estimate effect sizes.
Using harmonized genomic and national register data from Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden, we confirmed that family history of SCZ and GRS for SCZ and BIP were risk factors for SCZ. In a joint model, the effects of GRS for SCZ and BIP were essentially unchanged, and the effect of family history was attenuated but remained significant. The predictive capacity of a model including GRS and family history neared the minimum for clinical utility.
Combining national register data with measured genetic risk factors represents an important investigative approach for psychotic disorders. Our findings suggest the potential clinical utility of combining GRS and family history for early prediction and diagnostic improvements.
Generalizing the secular perturbation theory of Milani and Knežević (1990), we have determined in the a — e — I proper elements space the locations of the secular resonances between the precession rates of the longitudes of perihelion and node of a small body and the corresponding eigenfrequencies of the secular perturbations of the four outer planets. We discuss some implications of the results for the dynamical evolution of small solar system bodies. In particular, our findings include: (i) the fact that the g = g6 resonance in the inner asteroid belt lies closer than previously assumed to the Flora region, providing a plausible dynamical route to inject asteroid fragments into planet-crossing orbits; (ii) the possible presence of some low-inclination “stable islands” between the orbits of the outer planets; (iii) the fact that none of the secular resonances considered in this work exists for semimajor axes > 50 AU, so that these resonances do not provide a mechanism for transporting inwards possible Kuiper–belt comets.
This study aimed to examine tinnitus prevalence in patients with different types of headache and the relationship between tinnitus and the pericranial muscle tenderness and cervical muscle tenderness scores.
A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1251 patients with migraine and/or myogenous pain, arthrogenous temporomandibular joint disorders and tension-type headache. Standardised palpation of the pericranial and cervical muscles was carried out and univariable and multivariable analysis was used to measure the odds ratio of suffering tinnitus by the different diagnoses and muscular tenderness grade.
A univariable analysis showed that myogenous pain, pericranial muscle tenderness and cervical muscle tenderness scores, sex, and age were associated with tinnitus. When a multivariable model including only age, sex and a headache diagnosis was used, myogenous pain, migraine and age were found to be associated with tinnitus. When muscle tenderness scores were also included, only the cervical muscle tenderness and pericranial muscle tenderness scores were found to be significantly associated with tinnitus.
In a population of patients with headache and craniofacial pain, tinnitus was related to increased cervical muscle tenderness and pericranial muscle tenderness scores, rather than to any particular form of headache.
We report Raman spectroscopy measurements on Ge nanocrystals with average radii ranging from about 65 Å down to 10 Å (with a size dispersion lower than 20 %).
Ge has been deposited by UHV evaporation on an amorphous substrate, kept at such a temperature as to produce the Ge nanodroplets nucleation in the liquid phase.
A nanocrystalline size dependence of the Raman spectra has been observed and explained in the framework of a phonon confinement model. We have observed the softening of the TO Raman peak predicted by the theory when the dimensions of the particles are decreased. Moreover the observed inhomogeneous broadening of the Raman lines has been correlated with the size distribution of the particles in the samples.
Our results provide a characterization of Ge nanoparticles exhibiting a good crystalline nature, down to about 10 Å, and in conditions of substantial absence of perturbations of the environment.
In his address to the Commission, the outgoing president A. Milani explained what he considers have been done well in the past triennium, what has been done only in part, and what has not been done at all. Among the things in which the performance was rated good, he mentioned the successful sponsorship and/or co-sponsorship of four meetings (IAU Colloquia 196 and 197, and Symposia 229 and 236) which have been held in the previous period, as well as of the Symposium on exoplanets to be held next year in China. The only failure in this respect was the proposed meeting in India, which failed already at the proposal definition stage. Also, Milani expressed his satisfaction with the triennial report which has been compiled for the occasion, and his gratitude to the collaborating authors.
The orbital fits of multi-planetary systems from radial velocity data has proved to be a complex task. In some cases, different orbital solutions provide similarly good fits, especially when two planets are near mean-motion resonances. Ferraz-Mello et al (2005) and Goździewski et al (2005) showed that the published best fits of systems HD82932 and HD160691 are dynamically unstable, and re-determined their orbital parameters with Monte Carlo and genetic algorithms. In both cases dynamically stable orbits were found with RMS similar to the published orbits. It was also shown that uncertainties in the stellar mass Ferraz Mello et al (2005) and the stellar jitter Gozdziewski et al (2005) can significantly affect the orbital determination. Ford (2005) used a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique to quantify the orbit uncertainties. For some planetary systems he found a strong correlation between the orbital elements and/or significant non-Gaussian error distribution in the parameter space. As a consequence, the actual uncertainties in the orbital fits can be much larger (or smaller) than those published.
The use of the Soft X-ray Contact Microscopy technique is discussed
as a possible new tool to get information on dopant distribution in the
core of single-mode optical fibers with 50 nm spatial resolution.
Performances and advantages of different high-resolution microscopy techniques are compared. These include Soft X-ray Contact Microscopy (SXCM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). It is shown that they allow complementary approaches to imaging of biological objects. These techniques have been used to image the same type of cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) thus providing a common benchmark. In particular it is shown that the novel FIB technique allows easy target cell selection, fast operation, high resolution, 3D imaging and sample manipulation during imaging.
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