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The continual rise of anthropogenic disturbance of ecosystems has been associated with an increasing incidence of emerging diseases. The largest amount of data on emerging diseases relates to bacterial and viral pathogens, but there is a lack of parasite data, especially from wildlife. Monitoring wildlife parasitic diseases should be considered a priority, especially in high biodiversity regions with strong anthropogenic impacts, like Mexico, where the wildlife/livestock/human interface is associated with increased risk of disease transmission. Mexico belongs to the top-ten megadiverse countries and is located between two biogeographic regions. This situation makes Mexico a favourable region for the spillover of animal pathogens to human beings, causing pandemics, such as the one recently caused by influenza virus A (H1N1). The current state of knowledge of Mexican wildlife parasites is scarce and focuses mainly in Neotropical fauna. Moreover, this knowledge is heterogeneous for different parasite groups, especially concerning their pathologic effects and epidemiology. The goals of this review are to compile information on Mexican wildlife parasites and to identify knowledge gaps in order to stimulate research on pending epidemiological, public health, ecological and pathological areas, and to encourage the creation of more specialized groups from the perspective of the One-Health concept.
In the industry, the titanium nitride (TiN) coating is widely used in cutting tools, decorative and corrosion protection film, but unfortunately, this coating presented a poor performance under some work condition. For that, different studies have been dedicated to improving its properties with the inclusion of a third element that modifies the film structure, chemical and mechanical properties. In this work, TiN layers with/without of Al, B, and Cr inclusion were studied in order to analyze their effect in the film tribological performance. These were deposited using cathodic arc PVD technic on AISI-M2 steel. They were chemical and structural characterized using EDX and XRD, respectively. While the film thickness was determinate using a ball-cratering technique. Their tribological performance was studied using a sliding reciprocating movement in dry conditions, under three loads, at 30 min against Al2O3 ball as counterbody. The resulting wear tracks were studied using optical microscopy in order to study the wear mechanism. Raman spectroscopy was used to determinate the chemical changes produced on wear zones and the lost material was measured with a stylus profilometer. As result, the structure and morphology were modified with the inclusion of the third element. The TiN with the inclusion of Al and B presented a higher friction force and wear rate than TiN films. While the TiN with Cr inclusion film presented the best tribological performance with lower wear rate and friction coefficient. The Raman studies did not showed considerable changes on the damage coted surface areas, except for TiAlN coating that show the M2 tool steel Raman spectra on the areas where the film was removed.
This study assessed milk productivity, demographic characteristics and workload distribution on a single high-yield dairy ewe farm in Spain (Avila, Spain; continental climate, latitude of 40.90 N, altitude of 900 m) over a 7-year period considering a transition from a herd management system involving five lambings per year (5LY) to a system involving 10 lambings per year (10LY). The 5LY system was practiced on the farm from 2010 to 2012 and the 10LY system from 2014 to 2015, with 2009 and 2013 being considered transition years. During this period, 27 415 lactations were recorded from an average of 3746 Lacaune sheep/year. Several productivity parameters were higher in 2014 to 2015 than in 2010 to 2012: milk yield/lactation (370±156 v. 349±185 l), lactation length (218±75 v. 192±75 days) and dry period length (53.5±38.3 v. 69.1±34.8 days) (all P<0.0001). During 2014 to 2015, investment in new lambing facilities was possible, workload was distributed more uniformly throughout the year, workload per worker was smaller, rate of ewe culling was lower (35.39±0.53% v. 42.51±7.51%), ewe longevity was greater and higher-order lactations were more numerous (P<0.0001). On the other hand, during 2010 to 2012, daily production was higher (1.73±1.66 v. 1.70±0.62 l/day; P=0.038), the interlambing period was shorter (283±50 v. 302±44 days; P<0.0001) and lambings/ewe per year were greater (1.42±0.01 v. 1.30±0.01; P<0.05). These results suggest that a 10LY herd management system can be compatible with profitability, productivity and good animal and worker’s welfare on a high-yield dairy farm, and may even be associated with better outcomes than a 5LY system.
The effect of heavy metal in fish has been the focus of extensive research for many years. However, the combined effect of heavy metals and nanomaterials is still a new subject that needs to be studied. The aim of this study was to examine histopathologic alterations in the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to determine possible effects of lead (Pb), carbon nanotubes, and Pb+carbon nanotubes on their histological integrity, and if this biological system can be used as a tool for evaluating water quality in monitoring programs. For this, tilapia were exposed to Pb, carbon nanotubes and Pb+carbon nanotubes for 4 days. The main alterations observed were epithelial structure, hyperplasia and displacement of epithelial cells, and alterations of the structure and occurrence of aneurysms in the secondary lamella. The most severe alterations were related to the Pb+carbon nanotubes. We conclude that the oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes enhanced the acute lead toxicity in Nile tilapias. This work draws attention to the implications of carbon nanomaterials released in the aquatic environment and their interaction with classical pollutants.
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) from diethyl ether, butanol, hexane and ethyl acetate. A quartz tube with a stainless steel tube catalyst core with 0.019 m diameter and 0.6 m large formed the reactor. To avoid combustion, argon was used as the carrier gas. Time process ranged 30 to 60 min. The range of CNTs synthesis temperature was 680-850 °C for different precursors. Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs have demonstrated tangled CNTs growth in all samples, thus presenting difficult length measurement. The CNTs diameters from diethyl ether are 45-200 nm, butanol diameter range from 55-230 nm, hexane diameter range is 50-130 nm and ethyl acetate range from 100 to 300 nm. Carbon content for all samples was higher than 93 %, CNTs from butanol showed carbon concentration up to 99%. FTIR, Raman and X-Ray Spectroscopies spectra for all samples demonstrated the characteristics signals present in carbon nanotubes. This research proposes a simple, effective and innovative method to synthesize CNTs by CVD on iron stainless steel catalyst in combination with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and hexane as precursors by applying the principles of green chemistry, sustainability and its ease to be scaled.
The Institute provides facilities for school and group visits and these have also included “Astronomical Weeks” (held on more than one of the islands in the group) and yearly open days. In 1985 the formal opening of the Institute engendered so much publicity that at the first open day at the Rocque de los Muchachos Observatory, 15 000 people attended. (The island’s total population is 80 000.) During 1986, a special event organized at a beach on Tenerife was attended by an estimated 70 000 people, thousands more being prevented by an enormous traffic jam. A month later, the inhabitants of La Palma switched off all private and street lights throughout the island for a period of 3 hours. Because of the interest and demand from local people and tourists, additional visitors’ centres are planned.
The objectives were to assess the following: (1) the relationship between sward height and chemical composition of four pasture types in association with grazing behaviour and body condition score (BCS) of dairy cows, and (2) the possibility of developing predictive equations of the nutrient intake and grazing behaviour within a continued grazing system. Pasture type had a significant (p < 0.01) effect on nutrient supply from January to June for all pastures investigated. Ryegrass–white clover pasture (RW) had the highest metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy, followed by kikuyu pasture (KP), which was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than native pastures 1 and 2 (NP1 and NP2). The highest values for effective grazing time, bite rate and BCS were found when dairy cows grazed RW followed by KP, NP2 and NP1. The results suggested that pasture type and sward height influenced grazing behaviour and BCS of dairy cows during the dry season. In the same vein, RW showed higher effective grazing time, bite rate, nutrient intake and BCS than the other three pastures suggesting that RW pastures that appear to be more expensive than native pastures could result in superior cow performance.
Several experimental efforts related to the concrete improvement are focused to increase its flexural strength to complement the high compressive strength, which is usually developed by materials of this nature. The flexural strength or modulus of rupture of the concrete is important in civil engineering applications such as infrastructure projects, pavements and buildings. This work proposes an alternative to optimize concrete flexural strength through the functionalization of the 9 Angstrom (Å) Tobermorite using Carbon Nanotubes (CNT). A complete ab-initio, 3D Atomistic Model of the 9Å Tobermorite is presented as the basis of the silicate cementitious hydrated products. In order to validate the model, some mechanical properties were computed using a Density Functional Theory (DFT) based program. Afterwards, a functionalization based on CNTs with different diameters was carried out to improve the flexural strength of the concrete.
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR BSI) reduction programme and healthcare workers' compliance with recommendations. A 3-year surveillance programme of CR BSIs in all hospital settings was implemented. As part of the programme, there was a direct observation of insertion and maintenance of central venous catheters (CVCs) to determine performance. A total of 38 education courses were held over the study period and feedback reports with the results of surveillance and recommendations were delivered to healthcare workers every 6 months. A total of 6722 short-term CVCs were inserted in 4982 patients for 58 763 catheter-days. Improvements of compliance with hand hygiene was verified at the insertion (87·1–100%, P < 0·001) and maintenance (51·1–72·1%, P = 0·029) of CVCs; and the use of chlorhexidine for skin disinfection was implemented at insertion (35·7–65·4%, P < 0·001) and maintenance (33·3–45·9%, P < 0·197) of CVCs. There were 266 CR BSI incidents recorded with an annual incidence density of 5·75/1000 catheter-days in the first year, 4·38 in the second year [rate ratio (RR) 0·76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·57–1·01] and 3·46 in the third year (RR 0·60, 95% CI 0·44–0·81). The education programme clearly improved compliance with recommendations for CVC handling, and was effective in reducing the burden of CR BSIs.
Few randomised clinical trials have examined the efficacy of an
intervention aimed at improving psychosocial functioning in bipolar
To examine changes in psychosocial functioning in a group that has been
enrolled in a functional remediation programme 1 year after baseline.
This was a multicentre, randomised, rater-masked clinical trial comparing
three patient groups: functional remediation, psychoeducation and
treatment as usual over 1-year follow-up. The primary outcome was change
in psychosocial functioning measured by means of the Functioning
Assessment Short Test (FAST). Group×time effects for overall psychosocial
functioning were examined using repeated-measures ANOVA (trial
There was a significant group×time interaction for overall psychosocial
functioning, favouring patients in the functional remediation group
(F = 3.071, d.f. = 2, P =
Improvement in psychosocial functioning is maintained after 1-year
follow-up in patients with bipolar disorder receiving functional
Functional remediation is a novel intervention with demonstrated efficacy at improving functional outcome in euthymic bipolar patients. However, in a previous trial no significant changes in neurocognitive measures were detected. The objective of the present analysis was to test the efficacy of this therapy in the enhancement of neuropsychological functions in a subgroup of neurocognitively impaired bipolar patients.
A total of 188 out of 239 DSM-IV euthymic bipolar patients performing below two standard deviations from the mean of normative data in any neurocognitive test were included in this subanalysis. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted to assess the impact of the treatment arms [functional remediation, psychoeducation, or treatment as usual (TAU)] on participants’ neurocognitive and functional outcomes in the subgroup of neurocognitively impaired patients.
Patients receiving functional remediation (n = 56) showed an improvement on delayed free recall when compared with the TAU (n = 63) and psychoeducation (n = 69) groups as shown by the group × time interaction at 6-month follow-up [F2,158 = 3.37, degrees of freedom (df) = 2, p = 0.037]. However, Tukey post-hoc analyses revealed that functional remediation was only superior when compared with TAU (p = 0.04), but not with psychoeducation (p = 0.10). Finally, the patients in the functional remediation group also benefited from the treatment in terms of functional outcome (F2,158 = 4.26, df = 2, p = 0.016).
Functional remediation is effective at improving verbal memory and psychosocial functioning in a sample of neurocognitively impaired bipolar patients at 6-month follow-up. Neurocognitive enhancement may be one of the active ingredients of this novel intervention, and, specifically, verbal memory appears to be the most sensitive function that improves with functional remediation.
Logic Forms (LF) are simple, first-order logic knowledge representations of natural language sentences. Each noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition and conjunction generates a predicate. LF systems usually identify the syntactic function by means of syntactic rules but this approach is difficult to apply to languages with a high syntax flexibility and ambiguity, for example, Spanish. In this study, we present a mixed method for the derivation of the LF of sentences in Spanish that allows the combination of hard-coded rules and a classifier inspired on semantic role labeling. Thus, the main novelty of our proposal is the way the classifier is applied to generate the predicates of the verbs, while rules are used to translate the rest of the predicates, which are more straightforward and unambiguous than the verbal ones. The proposed mixed system uses a supervised classifier to integrate syntactic and semantic information in order to help overcome the inherent ambiguity of Spanish syntax. This task is accomplished in a similar way to the semantic role labeling task. We use properties extracted from the AnCora-ES corpus in order to train a classifier. A rule-based system is used in order to obtain the LF from the rest of the phrase. The rules are obtained by exploring the syntactic tree of the phrase and encoding the syntactic production rules. The LF algorithm has been evaluated by using shallow parsing with some straightforward Spanish phrases. The verb argument labeling task achieves 84% precision and the proposed mixed LFi method surpasses 11% a system based only on rules.
Little is known about the clustering patterns of lifestyle behaviours in adult populations. We explored clusters in multiple lifestyle behaviours including physical activity (PA), smoking, alcohol use and eating habits in a sample of adult population. A cross-sectional and multi-centre study was performed with six participating groups distributed throughout Spain. Participants (n 1327) were part of the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study and were aged between 20 and 80 years. The lifestyle and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors were analysed using a clustering method based on the HJ-biplot coordinates to understand the variables underlying these groupings. The following three clusters were identified. Cluster 1: unhealthy, 677 subjects (51 %), with a slight majority of men (58·7 %), who were more sedentary and smokers with higher consumption of whole-fat dairy products, bigger waist circumference as well as higher TAG levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and CVR. Cluster 2: healthy/PA, 265 subjects (20 %), including 24·0 % of males with high PA. Cluster 3: healthy/diet, including 29 % of the participants, with a higher consumption of olive oil, fish, fruits, nuts, vegetables and lower alcohol consumption. Using the unhealthy cluster as a reference, and after adjusting for age and sex, the multiple regression analysis showed that belonging to the healthy/PA cluster was associated with a lower waist circumference, body fat percentage, SBP and CVR. In summary, the three clusters were identified according to lifestyles. The ‘unhealthy’ cluster had the least favourable clinical parameters, the ‘healthy/PA’ cluster had good HDL-cholesterol levels and low SBP and the ‘healthy/diet’ cluster had lower LDL-cholesterol levels and clinical blood pressure.
The present study determined the mineralogy and thermal properties of kaolin from Acoculco (Puebla), at the eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and compared it with the nearby deposits of Agua Blanca (Hidalgo) and Huayacocotla (Veracruz). The mineralogy of the kaolins was determined by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thermal behaviour was studied by differential thermal analysis, dilatometry and hot-stage microscopy. The Acoculco deposit is composed mainly of kaolinite and SiO2 minerals. In the case of Agua Blanca and Huayacocotla, alunite is abundant in places and minor anatase is also present locally. The Acoculco kaolins are Fe-poor and relatively rich in some potentially toxic elements (Zr, Sb, Pb). They undergo a relatively small amount of shrinkage (∼3–4 vol.%), during firing at 20–1300°C and cooling down to 20°C, except when >10 wt.% alunite is present. These kaolins are a suitable raw material for the ceramics industry. Other applications (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics) would require an enrichment process to eliminate impurities such as Fe oxides.
This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the effective closure rate for spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks with functional endoscopic sinus surgery and identify patient characteristics that may be associated with a need for additional therapy.
A retrospective analysis of patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks was performed. Data on the nature of presentation, patient body mass index, defect location and size, intracranial pressure, clinical follow up, and complications were collected.
Twenty-five patients had spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks with evidence of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The most common sites were the cribriform plate, followed by the ethmoid roof and sphenoid lateral pterygoid recess. All patients underwent endonasal endoscopic surgery to repair the defect. Post-operatively, all patients underwent lumbar drainage and acetazolamide therapy.
Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks represent a surgical challenge because of their high recurrence rates. The most important factor for obtaining a successful repair in these patients is reducing their intracranial pressure through nutritional, medical or surgical means.
The effects of thermal treatments on the thermoluminescent (TL) signal of NaCl (ACS reagent) induced by gamma radiation were investigated. Samples of NaCl were thermally treated at 500, 800 and 1000 °C and characterized by X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. After their exposure 0.1 to 150 Gy of gamma radiation from a gamma-ray source of 60Co, a TL curve for each temperature of treatment was obtained. We observed a different TL behavior on the irradiated samples as a function of the temperature applied during the thermal treatments. For the sample treated at 500 °C, three peaks centered at 102, 133 and 228 °C were observed. Samples treated at 800 and 1000 °C showed two main peaks at 128 and 220 °C and 136 and 219 °C, respectively; however, the highest TL intensity signal was observed for the sample at 800 °C. All samples showed a linear dependency of the integrated TL intensity from the signal emitted as function of the irradiation time. This is an important advantage because NaCl could be applied as a very low cost thermoluminescent dosimetric material. A comparison between the TL signal induced by gamma radiation in pure and Eu doped NaCl is also reported.
In this paper we obtain a sharp height estimate concerning compact hypersurfaces immersed into warped product spaces with some constant higher-order mean curvature and whose boundary is contained in a slice. We apply these results to draw topological conclusions at the end of the paper.