We present the results of a randomized double-blinded placebo controlled, multicenter trial, of low-dose mitoxantrone (MX), after one year, in 25 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, who had serial enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment groups were balanced for age, gender, duration of illness and neurological disability. Five of the 13 MX patients and 10 of the 12 placebo patients had exacerbations during treatment (p < 0.02). The mean change in the extended disability status scale was not significantly different between the MX and placebo treatment groups. Serial Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI detected no significant difference between the MX treated and placebo groups in the mean total number of new, enlarging, or Gadolinium-DTPA enhancing lesions; there was a trend toward a reduction of new, enlarging and Gadolinium-DTPA enhancing lesions in MX patients. Despite this ameliorating effect, the results indicate that serial Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI, performed over one year in a limited number of patients, could not provide conclusive evidence for a role of MX therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.