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The present study aimed to examine the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) separately among parents and their adolescents.
Parents and adolescents completed the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) survey through the National Cancer Institute. The survey assessed daily intake frequencies of food/beverage groups, psychosocial, parenting and sociodemographic factors. Generalized linear models were run for both parents and adolescents, for a total of six models (three each): (i) sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) psychosocial factors; (iii) parent/caregiver factors.
Parent participants (n 1542) were predominantly 35–59 years old (86 %), female (73 %), non-Hispanic White (71 %) or non-Hispanic Black (17 %), with household income <$US 100 000 (79 %). Adolescents (n 805) were aged 12–14 years (50 %), non-Hispanic White (66 %) and non-Hispanic Black (15 %). Parents consumed 2·9 cups fruits and vegetables (F&V) daily, while adolescents consumed 2·2 cups daily. Educational attainment (higher education had greater FVI) and sex (men consumed more than women; all P<0·001) were significant FVI predictors. Parents with greater autonomous and controlled motivation, self-efficacy and preferences for fruit reported higher FVI (all P<0·001). Similarly, adolescents with greater autonomous and controlled motivation, self-efficacy and knowledge reported higher FVI (all P<0·001). Parenting factors of importance were co-deciding how many F&V teens should have, rules, having F&V in the home and cooking meals from scratch (all P<0·05).
Findings suggest factors that impact FVI among parents and their adolescent(s), which highlight the importance of the role of parent behaviour and can inform tailored approaches for increasing FVI in various settings.
Domestic sheep have a strong social tendency. However, the nature of social relationships varies with season, breed, and size of enclosure. Ewes occupy a smaller home-range, with larger subgroup sizes, in the winter compared with the summer months (Lawrence and Wood-Gush, 1988a). Domestication has apparently led to a reduction in nearest neighbour (NN) distances from feral (Soay) sheep, who do not have strong flocking behaviour, to Merinos with NN distances of less than 2 m (Arnold, 1985). The social choices made by ewes affect their foraging behaviour and may have significant effects on production (Lawrence and Wood-Gush, 1988b). The aim of this study was to examine the social choices of a hill and a lowland breed of ewe when grazing two different environments in spring and summer of 1995 and 1996. The influence of lamb genotype on the behaviour of the ewes was also investigated.
As financial pressures on UK beef farms increase, each beef industry stockman will be expected to look after more animals. Consequently, labour availability around calving will be reduced in future years. In order to enable limited human assistance to be targeted towards those cows and calves that need it, a sound understanding of the time course of the natural calving process is needed. The objective of this study was to detail the time dynamics of the major externally visible calving events in unassisted spring calving suckler cows housed in a straw bedded yard, typical of UK practice.
Perinatal lamb mortality remains a major economic and welfare concern in sheep farming with 80-90% of pre-weaning lamb losses occur in the immediate postnatal period (Haughey, 1993). One of the predominant factors in the death of neonatal lambs is failure of ewe-lamb bonding leading to delay or lack of sucking. Successful sucking requires the co-ordinated expression of appropriate behaviour from both the ewe and lamb. Previously we have demonstrated an interaction between ewe and lamb breed in the rate of successful sucking (Dwyer et al., 1996) with Blackface lambs having a higher rate than Suffolk lambs but also a higher rate with Suffolk ewes than with Blackface ewes. In the present study we investigated the role of ewe responses to lamb sucking attempts in determining the sucking success of neonatal lambs.
Prenatal undernutrition can have a permanent ‘programming’ effect on offspring growth, health, behaviour and reproductive ability that persists into adulthood (Meaney et al., 2007; Bell, 2006). However, whether different genotypes are equally affected is unknown. Relatively slower growing breeds of sheep, that are adapted to poorer food availability in pregnancy (such as the Scottish Blackface) may be better able to buffer their developing foetuses from the effects of undernutrition in utero than faster growing breeds, such as the Suffolk. In this experiment we investigated whether a 25% reduction in food intake for the first 90 days of gestation would result in differential responses in these two breeds of sheep.
The behavioural development of precocious mammals contributes to their survival in the neonatal period. In the sheep, neonatal behavioural progress is known to be affected by breed and birthweight (Dwyer, 2001), and is related to lamb survival (Dwyer et al., 2001). Lambs that are slow to stand and suck may be less mature at birth than lambs that stand quickly. Foetal cortisol plays an important role in the preparation of the lamb for postnatal life (Liggins, 1994) and may also play a role in the development of behavioural competency at birth. In this study differences in behavioural develoment and plasma cortisol were measured in two breeds of sheep known to differ in behavioural competency at birth. In addition, ability to maintain body temperature was also investigated.
In the ewe maternal care begins at parturition with grooming of the neonate and cooperation with early sucking attempts (e.g. Shillito-Walser 1978). Subsequently maternal care is expressed through sucking interactions, a close ewe-lamb association and a tendency to seek absent lambs (e.g. Hinch et al 1987). The ewe increasingly controls sucking interactions using a ‘head-up’ posture to signal when the lamb may approach and suck (Lawrence 1984).
Two breeds of sheep, Suffolk and Scottish Blackface, are known to differ in their initial maternal behaviour. Blackface ewes spend longer grooming their lambs, show more cooperation with sucking attempts and less negative behaviour such as aggression and rejection, when compared to Suffolk ewes (Dwyer & Lawrence 1998). The aim of this study was to examine whether these breed differences in the expression of maternal care persist throughout the lactation period.
Lamb vigour at birth (i.e. time to stand after delivery) is known to be affected by a number of maternal factors, such as parity and litter size (Dwyer, 2002), as well as lamb breed (Dwyer et al., 1996), and is related to subsequent lamb survival (Dwyer et al., 2001). It is likely that these factors act before birth to influence lamb development and may exert their effects through differences in placental development and function. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of ewe parity, litter size and ewe breed on placental components, and relate these to lamb behavioural development at birth.
Mt Veniaminof is a large active stratovolcano located on the Alaska Peninsula (56.2° N, 159° W). We present results of the first geophysical survey of the icefield that fills much of the 10 km×8 km caldera that was most recently modified during the last major eruption roughly 3700 BP. The subglacial topography and ice volume are derived from an 8MHz radio-echo sounding survey conducted in July 2005. Prominent internal reflectors are assumed to be isochronal ash/acid deposits related to local eruptions. Accumulation rates and basal melt rates are calculated using a Nye one-dimensional steady-state accumulation model applied at a location that approximates an ice divide and calibrated by matching internal reflectors with published records of recent local volcanic eruptions. The model yields order of magnitude estimates of the accumulation rate of 4ma–1 water equivalent and 2 ma–1 of basal melt. The subsequent geothermal flux of ∽19Wm–2 is similar to active hydrothermal vents in volcanic lakes. We suggest that these values represent an upper limit for the geothermal flux within the ice-covered regions of the main caldera. We also analyze likely subglacial meltwater flow paths to examine the implications of recent eruption activity at an active intra-caldera cinder cone. Two lava-producing eruptions from the cinder cone in 1983–84 and 1993–94 melted roughly 0.17km3 of ice. The lack of significant deformation of the internal stratigraphy to the south and east of the melt hole suggests that any subglacial drainage in those directions was entirely within subglacial deposits. We suggest that the more likely drainage route was northwest into a large outlet glacier.
Neonatal mortality in small ruminant livestock has remained stubbornly unchanging over the past 40 years, and represents a significant loss of farm income, contributes to wastage and affects animal welfare. Scientific knowledge about the biology of neonatal adaptation after birth has been accumulating but does not appear to have had an impact in improving survival. In this paper, we ask what might be the reasons for the lack of impact of the scientific studies of lamb and kid mortality, and suggest strategies to move forward. Biologically, it is clear that achieving a good intake of colostrum, as soon as possible after birth, is crucial for neonatal survival. This provides fuel for thermoregulation, passive immunological protection and is involved in the development of attachment between the ewe and lamb. The behaviour of the lamb in finding the udder and sucking rapidly after birth is a key component in ensuring sufficient colostrum is ingested. In experimental studies, the main risk factors for lamb mortality are low birthweight, particularly owing to poor maternal nutrition during gestation, birth difficulty, litter size and genetics, which can all be partly attributed to their effect on the speed with which the lamb reaches the udder and sucks. Similarly, on commercial farms, low birthweight and issues with sucking were identified as important contributors to mortality. In epidemiological studies, management factors such as providing assistance with difficult births, were found to be more important than risk factors associated with housing. Social science studies suggest that farmers generally have a positive attitude to improving neonatal mortality but may differ in beliefs about how this can be achieved, with some farmers believing they had no control over early lamb mortality. Facilitative approaches, where farmers and advisors work together to develop neonatal survival strategies, have been shown to be effective in achieving management goals, such as optimising ewe nutrition, that lead to reductions in lamb mortality. We conclude that scientific research is providing useful information on the biology underpinning neonatal survival, such as optimal birthweights, lamb vigour and understanding the importance of sufficient colostrum intake, but the transfer of that knowledge would benefit from an improved understanding of the psychology of management change on farm. Developing tailored solutions, on the basis of adequate farm records, that make use of the now substantial body of scientific literature on neonatal mortality will help to achieve lower neonatal mortality.
Financial incentives have become a core component of private lands conservation programmes because of their ability to motivate stewardship behaviour. Concern exists about the durability of stewardship behaviours after payments end. Payments for performance may impact farmers' current and future engagement with an incentive programme to protect an at-risk ground-nesting grassland bird. Farmer motivations for participating in the programme, as well as their intention to continue the programme if the financial incentive no longer existed, were quantified. Although farmers did not report a high level of current involvement in the programme, most reported they would continue at a similar or higher level of engagement if the payments ended. These outcomes were related to their perception that their participation was driven by their internal motivation to help rather than the desire to obtain the financial reward. The perception that their behaviour was self-directed was positively influenced by the flexibility surrounding landowners’ engagement with the programme, a feeling of competence and achievement, and a feeling of connectedness to the organization implementing the programme. The success of conservation incentive programmes over the long term can be enhanced by explicitly accounting for the needs of landowners in programme design and administration.
The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of pen size and parity on maternal behaviour of twin-bearing Small-Tail Han ewes. A total of 24 ewes were allocated to a 2×2 design (six per pen), with parity (primiparous or multiparous) and pen size (large: 6.0×3.0 m; small: 6.0×1.5 m) as main effects at Linyi University, Shandong Province, China. Behaviour was observed from after parturition until weaning. All ewes were observed for 6 h every 5 days from 0700 to1000 h and from 1400 to 1700 h. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviours: sucking, grooming and following as well as the frequency of udder accepting, udder refusing and low-pitched bleating. Oestradiol and cortisol concentrations in the faeces (collected in the morning every 5 days) were detected using EIA kits. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at weaning at 35 days of age. The small pen size significantly reduced following (P<0.005), grooming (P<0.001) and suckling durations (P<0.05), as well as the frequency of udder refusals (P<0.001). However, there was a significant interaction with ewe parity, with decreased grooming and suckling in the small pen largely seen in the multiparous ewes (P<0.001). Independent of pen size, multiparous ewes accepted more sucking attempts by their lambs (P<0.05) and made more low-pitched bleats than primiparous ewes (P<0.001). Multiparous ewes had higher faecal oestradiol concentrations than primiparous ewes (P<0.001), and ewes in small pens had higher faecal cortisol levels compared with ewes in larger pens (P<0.001). As lambs increased in age, the duration of maternal grooming, following and suckling as well as frequency of udder acceptance and low-pitched bleating all declined, and the frequency of udder refusing increased (P<0.001 for all). Ewe parity, but not pen size, affected lamb weight gain during the period of observation (P<0.001). This is the first study to show that pen size, interacting with parity, can affect the expression of maternal behaviour in sheep during lactation. The study is also the first to report on the maternal behaviour of Chinese native sheep breeds (Small-Tail Han sheep), with implications for the production of sheep in China.
The prenatal period is of critical importance in defining how individuals respond to their environment throughout life. Stress experienced by pregnant females has been shown to have detrimental effects on offspring behaviour, health and productivity. The sheep has been used extensively as a model species to inform human studies. However, in the farmed environment, the consequences for the lamb of the imposition of prenatal stresses upon the ewe have received much less attention. The stressors that pregnant ewes are most frequently exposed to include sub-optimal nutrition and those related to housing, husbandry and environment which may be either acute or chronic. A systematic review of the literature was adopted to identify material which had production-relevant maternal stressors and lamb outcomes. The current review focussed upon the lamb up to weaning around the age of 100 days and the results clearly demonstrate that stressors imposed upon the ewe have implications for offspring welfare and performance. Maternal under-nutrition (UN) in the last third of pregnancy consistently impaired lamb birth-weight and subsequent vigour and performance, while earlier UN had a variable effect on performance. Feeding the ewe above requirements did not have positive effects on lamb performance and welfare. Social and husbandry stressors such as transport, shearing, mixing and physiological treatments designed to mimic acute stress which would be considered disadvantageous for the ewe had positive or neutral effects for the lamb, highlighting a potential conflict between the welfare of the ewe and her lamb. This review also identified considerable gaps in knowledge, particularly in respect of the impact of disease upon the ewe during pregnancy and interactions between different stressors and the responses of ewe and lamb.
Whether there are differential effects of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) on the brain is currently debated. Although some studies report that FGAs reduce grey matter more than SGAs, others do not, and research to date is limited by a focus on schizophrenia spectrum disorders. To address this limitation, this study investigated the effects of medication in patients being treated for first-episode schizophrenia or affective psychoses.
Cortical thickness was compared between 52 first-episode psychosis patients separated into diagnostic (i.e. schizophrenia or affective psychosis) and medication (i.e. FGA and SGA) subgroups. Patients in each group were also compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 28). A whole-brain cortical thickness interaction analysis of medication and diagnosis was then performed. Correlations between cortical thickness with antipsychotic dose and psychotic symptoms were examined.
The effects of medication and diagnosis did not interact, suggesting independent effects. Compared with controls, diagnostic differences were found in frontal, parietal and temporal regions. Decreased thickness in FGA-treated versus SGA-treated groups was found in a large frontoparietal region (p < 0.001, corrected). Comparisons with healthy controls revealed decreased cortical thickness in the FGA group whereas the SGA group showed increases in addition to decreases. In FGA-treated patients cortical thinning was associated with higher negative symptoms whereas increased cortical thickness in the SGA-treated group was associated with lower positive symptoms.
Our results suggest that FGA and SGA treatments have divergent effects on cortical thickness during the first episode of psychosis that are independent from changes due to illness.
Childhood cardiovascular risk factors affect vascular function long before overt cardiovascular disease. Twin studies provide a unique opportunity to examine the influence of shared genetic and environmental influences on childhood cardiovascular function. We examined the relationship between birth parameters, markers of adiposity, insulin resistance, lipid profile and blood pressure and carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness in a healthy cohort of school-aged twin children.
PWV was performed on a population-based birth cohort of 147 twin pairs aged 7–11 years. Fasting blood samples, blood pressure and adiposity measures were collected concurrently. Mixed linear regression models were used to account for twin clustering, within- and between-twin pair associations.
There were positive associations between both markers of higher adiposity, insulin resistance, elevated triglycerides and PWV, which remained significant after accounting for twin birth-set clustering. There was a positive association between both diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and PWV in within-pair analysis in dizygotic, but not monozygotic twins, indicating genetic differences evident in dizygotic not monozygotic twins may affect these associations.
Increased blood pressure, triglycerides and other metabolic markers are associated with increased PWV in school-aged twins. These results support both the genetic and environmental contribution to higher PWV, as a marker of arterial stiffness, and reiterate the importance of preventing metabolic syndrome from childhood.