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This chapter presents evidence supporting the use of ultrasound to take the epidural catheterization and spinal injections away from being blind techniques, therefore aiming to help reduce the incidence of the potentially serious complications resulting from Central neuraxial blockade (CNB). CNB remains the gold standard technique of providing both analgesia and anesthesia in the obstetric population, a fact which is unlikely to change in the near future. Creating an ultrasound image is done in three steps: producing a sound wave, receiving the echoes and interpreting those echoes. Most diagnostic ultrasound transducers use artificial polycrystalline ferroelectric materials such as lead zirconate titanate. There is very little published data regarding the use of ultrasound for real-time visualization of epidural puncture for neuraxial blockade. Overall, the use of ultrasound in all aspects of regional anesthesia allows continual development and improvement of current techniques.
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