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To propose a new anthropometric index that can be employed to better predict percent body fat (PBF) among young adults and to compare with current anthropometric indices.
All measurements were taken in a controlled laboratory setting in Seoul (South Korea), between 1 December 2015 and 30 June 2016.
Eighty-seven young adults (18–35 years) who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used for analysis. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to develop a body fat index (BFI) using simple demographic and anthropometric information. Correlations of DXA measured PBF (DXA_PBF) with previously developed anthropometric indices and the BFI were analysed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted to compare the ability of anthropometric indices to identify obese individuals.
BFI showed a strong correlation with DXA_PBF (r = 0·84), which was higher than the correlations of DXA_PBF with the traditional (waist circumference, r = 0·49; waist to height ratio, r = 0·68; BMI, r = 0·36) and alternate anthropometric indices (a body shape index, r = 0·47; body roundness index, r = 0·68; body adiposity index, r = 0·70). Moreover, the BFI showed higher accuracy at identifying obese individuals (area under the curve (AUC) = 0·91), compared with the other anthropometric indices (AUC = 0·71–0·86).
The BFI can accurately predict DXA_PBF in young adults, using simple demographic and anthropometric information that are commonly available in research and clinical settings. However, larger representative studies are required to build on our findings.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
While most papers on high-entropy alloys (HEAs) focus on the microstructure and mechanical properties for structural materials applications, there has been growing interest in developing high-entropy functional materials. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief, timely review on select functional properties of HEAs, including soft magnetic, magnetocaloric, physical, thermoelectric, superconducting, and hydrogen storage. Comparisons of functional properties between HEAs and conventional low- and medium-entropy materials are provided, and examples are illustrated using computational modeling and tuning the composition of existing functional materials through substitutional or interstitial mixing. Extending the concept of high configurational entropy to a wide range of materials such as intermetallics, ceramics, and semiconductors through the isostructural design approach is discussed. Perspectives are offered in designing future high-performance functional materials utilizing the high-entropy concepts and high-throughput predictive computational modeling.
Background: CNS innate immune cells, microglia and macrophages (MMs), are the largest component of the inflammatory infiltrate in glioblastoma (GBM). They initially participate in tumor surveillance, but are subverted by GBM. Immunotherapies have proven incredibly successful in cancers such as melanoma, but not against GBM in part because GBM-associated MMs are not well understood. We hypothesized the content and inflammatory phenotype of MMs in GBM is variable between patients. We suspect MMs in IDH-wildtype and –mutant GBMs display divergent inflammatory phenotypes that helps explain the latter's better prognosis. Understanding GBM-associated MM heterogeneity will allow for better immunotherapy development and selection. Methods: MMs were isolated from untreated human IDH-wildtype and -mutant GBMs using flow cytometry and cultured for collection of conditioned media and analysis of secretory products. Automated segmentation with a high-content analysis system was used to quantitate MM content and inflammatory phenotype in frozen sections. New bioinformatics techniques allowed the comparison of MM profiles in publicly available single-cell RNA-sequencing databases with IDH-wildtype and -mutant GBMs. Results: Surprisingly marked variation in MM content exists between GBMs ranging from ~0-70%. A mixture of pro- and anti-inflammatory MMs are found in each GBM. Interestingly, IDH-mutant GBM-associated MMs were more activated than MMs in IDH-wildtype GBMs. Conclusions: Taken together, the highly variable MM content and phenotype of GBMs suggests the success of immunotherapies hinges on taking a precision medicine approach. MM-rich GBMs would benefit more from therapies that target them. MM activation in IDH-mutant GBMs may contribute to better patient prognoses.
Despite evidence linking regular nut consumption with reduced chronic disease risk, population-level intakes remain low. Research suggests nut-promoting advice from doctors facilitates regular nut consumption. However, there is no information on current nut recommendation practices of health professionals. The aim of the present study was to examine the advice provided by health professionals regarding nut consumption.
In this cross-sectional study, participants were invited to complete a survey including questions about their nut recommendation practices.
New Zealand (NZ).
The NZ Electoral Roll was used to identify dietitians, general practitioners and practice nurses.
In total 318 dietitians, 292 general practitioners and 149 practice nurses responded. Dietitians were more likely (82·7 %) to recommend patients increase consumption of nuts than general practitioners (55·5 %) and practice nurses (63·1 %; both P<0·001). The most popular nuts recommended were almonds, Brazil nuts and walnuts, with most health professionals recommending raw nuts. The most common recommendation for frequency of consumption by dietitians and practice nurses was to eat nuts every day, while general practitioners most frequently recommended 2–4 times weekly, although not statistically significantly different between professions. Dietitians recommended a significantly greater amount of nuts (median 30 g/d) than both general practitioners and practice nurses (20 g/d; both P<0·001).
Dietitians were most likely to recommend consumption of nuts in accordance with current guidelines, but there are opportunities to improve the adoption of nut consumption recommendations for all professions. This may be a viable strategy for increasing population-level nut intakes to reduce chronic disease.
With the association between increased carotenoid intake and lower risk of chronic diseases, the absorption of lutein from the diet becomes an important factor in its delivery and physiological action. The primary objective of this study was to gain an understanding of how a new formulation technology (mixture of mono- and diglycerides (MDG)), affected lutein absorption. Subjects (n 24) were randomised in a cross-over, double-blind study to receive a single dose of 6 mg lutein (FloraGLO 20 %) provided as capsules containing either high-oleic safflower (SAF) oil or a MDG oil. Subjects receiving a single dose of lutein in MDG showed a significantly greater change from baseline (0 h) to 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 336 h (P<0·05) and baseline adjusted AUC for plasma lutein at 48 and 336 h (P<0·001) as compared with subjects given lutein in SAF. Analysis of the 48 h absorption kinetics of lutein showed that the time to peak level of lutein (12 h) was the same for SAF and MDG groups, but the change in plasma lutein at 12 and 48 h were 129 and 320 % higher, respectively, for MDG compared with SAF. This difference continued as the adjusted AUC 0–48 and 0–336 h for the MDG group was 232 and 900 % higher, respectively, v. SAF. The study data show that by changing the lipid that is combined with a lutein supplement results in significant increases in lutein absorption in healthy adults.
Despite considerable evidence supporting the health benefits of regular nut consumption, nut intakes remain lower than recommended among many populations. Understanding how the general population perceives nuts could inform strategies to promote regular nut consumption and increase intakes among the general public.
Cross-sectional study. Participants were invited to complete a questionnaire which included information on nut consumption and knowledge and perceptions of nuts.
The study was set in New Zealand (NZ).
Participants (n 1600), aged 18 years or over, were randomly selected from the NZ electoral roll.
A total of 710 participants completed the questionnaire (response rate 44 %). More than half of the respondents believed that nuts are healthy, filling, high in protein and high in fat. The most common reason cited by consumers for eating nuts was taste (86 % for nuts, 85 % for nut butters), while dental issues was the most frequent reason for avoidance. About 40 % of respondents were not aware of the effects of nut consumption on lowering blood cholesterol and CVD risk.
Despite overall basic knowledge of the nutritional value of nuts, a substantial proportion of the general population was unaware of the cardioprotective effects of nuts. The present study identified common motivations for eating and avoiding nuts, as well as perceptions of nuts which could affect intake. These should guide the content and direction of public health messages to increase regular nut consumption. The public’s knowledge gaps should also be addressed.
The subcranial approach is a modification of traditional craniofacial resection. It provides similar broad access to the anterior skull base, but with lower mortality and morbidity. It has been the surgical technique of choice at our institution since 2006 for treating advanced stage sinonasal tumours (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III or above). This paper reports our experience and outcomes.
Method and results:
Eighteen patients underwent subcranial craniofacial resection over a seven-year period, this being combined with a second adjunctive procedure in 89 per cent of cases. Forty per cent of patients required reconstruction of the primary defect. No peri-operative deaths occurred. One patient had a transient cerebrospinal fluid leak. The major complication rate was 33 per cent, of which 67 per cent were directly related to soft tissue reconstruction. Tumour recurrence rate was 17 per cent and the five-year disease-free survival estimate was 40 per cent.
The subcranial approach is a safe and effective technique that may be used to successfully treat advanced sinonasal malignancies with anterior skull base extension.
Malaysia introduced graphic health warning labels (GHWLs) on all tobacco packages in 2009. We aimed to examine if implementing GHWLs led to stronger warning reactions (e.g., thinking about the health risks of smoking) and an increase in subsequent quitting activities; and to examine how reactions changed over time since the implementation of the GHWLs in Malaysia and Thailand where GHWL size increased from 50–55% in 2010. Data came from six waves (2005–2014) of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey. Between 3,706 and 4,422 smokers were interviewed across these two countries at each survey wave. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses (i.e., thinking about the health risks and being more likely to quit smoking), forgoing cigarettes, and avoiding warnings. The main outcome was subsequent quit attempts. Following the implementation of GHWLs in Malaysia, reactions increased, in some cases to levels similar to the larger Thai warnings, but declined over time. In Thailand, reactions increased following implementation, with no decline for several years, and no clear effect of the small increase in warning size. Reactions, mainly cognitive responses, were consistently predictive of quit attempts in Thailand, but this was only consistently so in Malaysia after the change to GHWLs. In conclusion, GHWLs are responded to more frequently, and generate more quit attempts, but warning wear-out is not consistent in these two countries, perhaps due to differences in other tobacco control efforts.
People interact with artifacts, either products or services, in their lives. These interactions are based on two-way communication between people and artifacts. The characteristics of artifacts that induce natural activities of people, affordances, play critical roles in making interactions successful and meaningful. The notion of affordance features, structural elements of artifacts that provide affordances, has been proposed earlier. In this paper, a methodological framework for design for affordances is proposed where repositories of affordance features are used. Affordances are identified through function–task interaction matrices or use activity observations. Using an affordance feature repository where many alternative structural elements for a specific affordance are stored together with corresponding design constraints and contexts, affordance features for those identified affordances are retrieved considering similarities between the target design constraints and those of the affordance features in the repositories. Using the clues given by such affordance features, a new affordance feature is to be designed through analogical reasoning. We present this design for affordance framework together with illustrative cases where various designers designed affordance features using affordance feature repositories.
Mangroves are unique plant species found in tropical and subtropical estuarine and nearshore marine regions worldwide. Mangrove species have several physiological adaptations to saline, water-saturated soils, including viviparous or cryptoviviparous seeds that disperse by water, and salt-exclusion or salt-excretion capabilities to cope with high salt concentrations in nearshore saturated soils and sediments. Many species also have specialized aerial roots, or pneumatophores, that enable oxygenation of roots in water-logged soils. Species restricted to tropical intertidal habitat have been defined as “true mangrove” species, while those not exclusive to this habitat are sometimes referred to as “mangrove associates” (Lugo & Snedaker, 1974). Others include as mangroves any tree, shrub, palm, or ground fern exceeding 0.5 m in height and which normally grows in the intertidal zone of tropical coastal or estuarine environments (Duke, 1992). In view of the global variety of mangrove types and their floristics, there are approximately 70 species of mangroves, which are quite taxonomically diverse, as they represent 17 families (Table 2.1). The Mangrove Reference Database and Herbarium provides a larger overview of all known species, subspecies and hybrids (Massó i Alemán et al., 2010).
The modified TiO2 nanoparticles were incorporated into the Bulk heterojunction system of P3HT:PCBM to improve the performance of P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. The organically-modified TiO2 nanoparticle compounds were synthesized in aqueous media at room temperature. These TiO2 compounds in various solution concentrations were deposited on the top of the P3HT:PCBM active layer by spin coating. The performance of organic solar cells was carefully investigated in the respect of the scattering and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) that couple strongly to the incident light. In addition to the device, P3HT:PCBM solar cells with the use of the TiO2 nanoparticles, enhanced Fill Factor (FF) due mainly to improved shunt resistance (Rsh). The TiO2 plays a critical role in improving the interface between P3HT:PCBM active layer and Al electrode.
Nanoparticle-based vectors are fast becoming the main choice for nucleic acid delivery. Fluorescent nanoparticles have the added advantage of tracking the delivery process and also of tracking cells transfected with nucleic acids for cell therapy. Fluorescent upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs) are ideal candidates for tracking since they are excited by NIR light and hence have very low phototoxicity, high signal-to-noise ratio and enable imaging in deep tissues. UCNs coated with a layer of silica and adsorbed with siRNA or siRNA loaded into the mesoporous silica coating on the UCNs have been used for siRNA delivery. However the loading of siRNA is very poor since the silica coating is negatively charged and it repels the negatively charged siRNA limiting the amount of siRNA that can be adsorbed on the surface of nanoparticles. Here we report the use of a layer-by-layer approach to coat the UCNs with Poly-L-Lysine (PLL) and use it for delivery. Highly monodispersed UCNs were synthesized with an average size of 50 nm. They were then modified with PLL and STAT-3 siRNA was adsorbed on to the surface of the modified UCNs. The loading of the siRNA was found to be 60 % more efficient by this approach as compared to silica coated UCNs alone. The PLL-coated UCNs also were minimally cytotoxic as shown by MTS assay. The siRNA coated UCNs also efficiently transfected B16F0 cells and knocked down STAT3 significantly and also enabled cell imaging. Thus, This method shows good promise for siRNA delivery and tracking and this could also be extended to in-vivo transfection and tracking.
Direct heteroarylation polymerization was employed to synthesize a novel low bandgap polymer, used as a p-type material of polymer photovoltaic cells. To achieve low bandgap of conjugated polymers, electron donor-acceptor (D-A) alternating strategy was used. The electron-donating 3-alkylthiophene and electron-withdrawing cyanothiophene were coupled to be polymerized via direct heteroarylation polymerization. The cyano moiety of the polymer backbone allowed a strong intermolecular interaction between neighboring chains and improved the structural perfection of the crystal structure on the substrate. The solar cell devices of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al were fabricated on ITO-coated glass substrate.