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This study examines the mediating role of subordinates’ perceived cost of feedback-seeking, which operates contingently upon their self-monitoring and the credibility of leader as a feedback source in the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) quality and subordinates’ feedback-seeking behavior. The authors tested this moderated mediation model using reports from 217 subordinates employed in five large banking institutions in Korea. Results showed that the relationship between LMX quality and subordinates’ feedback-seeking behavior was mediated via the perceived cost of feedback-seeking only for subordinates with low self-monitoring and when leader credibility was low. This conditional indirect effect provides an integrated understanding of how supervisor, subordinate, and dyadic characteristics influence subordinates’ decision of whether to seek performance feedback.
This paper, with its multilevel design including 90 work groups in South Korea, proposes and examines how distributive justice relates to job stress, and thus leading to turnover intention at the individual level, and how this relationship is affected by empowerment climate at the group level. The results of hierarchical linear modeling show that employees’ perception of distributive justice was negatively related to job stress. We also find that job stress partially mediated the influence of distributive justice on turnover intention. In addition, at the work group level, the empowerment climate decreased employees’ job stress, and the negative relationship between distributive justice and job stress at the individual level was moderated by the empowerment climate. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
In order to characterize the microstructure of oxide layers formed on Zircaloy-4 tubes during the breakaway transition, oxidation tests in a flowing steam environment were performed at 1000°C with a different oxidation time. It was found that breakaway oxidation occurred after the oxidation time of 3000s, and zirconium dioxide layers existed in two mixed crystallographic forms of the tetragonal and monoclinic phase in all samples. The zirconium oxide layers showed enhanced crystallinity, increase in grain size, and fine pores at the grain boundary after breakaway oxidation. We found that the initiation of breakaway-oxidation instability originated from these microstructural changes.
In the thin film transistor fabrication process, tin doped indium oxide (ITO) or zinc doped indium oxide (IZO) film can be easily exposed to hydrogen-containing plasma during the deposition of silicon nitride (SiNx) film. By this exposure, ITO or IZO can be easily reduced into its corresponding metallic element such as indium, which degrades the optical transmittance and the conductivity. In this study, SiNx was deposited onto ITO or IZO film, and the oxygen reduction of ITO or IZO during PECVD SiNx deposition was analyzed to clarify this phenomenon. The oxygen reduction during PECVD SiNx deposition is mainly induced by decomposed NH3 gas. However, the progress of ITO reduction is different from that of IZO reduction, due to the different atomic composition of In2O3 in the composite and the different critical temperature of reduction initiation between indium oxide, tin oxide, and zinc oxide.
p-i-n heterostructured quantum-dot electroluminescence (QD-EL) device was fabricated by soft-chemical process, which shows a low turn-on voltage comparable to OLEDs. To construct the multilayered device structure, p-type polymer semiconductor was deposited on the ITO glass by sequential process of coating and thermal curing, thereupon a few monolayers of QD was spin-coated. n-type metal-oxide film was deposited on top of the QD luminescence layer by sol-gel method, providing a facile and low-cost route for the ETL fabrication. Prior to solution-processed ETL construction, a post-treatment is performed using cross-linking agent, in order to chemically-immobilize the QDs. As a cathodic electrode, relatively air-stable aluminum was deposited. The constituent material as well as the electronic band structure of the integrated device guarantees operating stability in air and low turn-on voltage.
The algorithms of inverse kinematics based on optimality constraints have some problems because those are based only on necessary conditions for optimality. One of the problems is a switching problem, i.e., an undesirable configuration change from a maximum value of a performance measure to a minimum value may occur and cause an inverse kinematic solution to be unstable. In this paper, we derive sufficient conditions for the optimal solution of the kinematic control of a redundant manipulator. In particular, we obtain the explicit forms of the switching condition for the optimality constraintsbased methods. We also show that the configuration at which switching occurs is equivalent to an algorithmic singularity in the extended Jacobian method. Through a numerical example of a cyclic task, we show the problems of the optimality constraints-based methods. To obtain good configurations without switching and kinematical singularities, we propose a simple algorithm of inverse kinematics.
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