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A wide variety of surgical strategies are used in tetralogy of Fallot repair. We sought to describe the international contemporary practice patterns for surgical management of tetralogy of Fallot.
Surgeons from 18 international paediatric cardiac surgery centres (representing over 1800 tetralogy of Fallot cases/year) completed a Research Electronic Data Capture-based survey. Participating countries include: China (4), India (2), Nepal (1), Korea (1), Indonesia (1), Saudi Arabia (3), Japan (1), Turkey (1), Australia (1), United States of America (2), and Canada (1). Summary measures were reported as means and counts (percentages). Responses were weighted based on case volume/centre.
Primary repair is the prevalent strategy (83%) with variation in age at elective repair (range). Approximately 47% of sites use patient age as a factor in determining the strategy, with age <3 months being the common cut-off for staged repair. In addition, patient weight of <3 kg is an indication for staged repair in 80% of participating institutions. Trans-atrial ventricular septal defect closure is the preferred approach in 62% of sites. Approximately 70% of responders reported using pulmonary valve z-score to guide right ventricular outflow tract management technique with the most prevalent cut-off for annulus preservation being a z-score of −3. Estimated incidence of annulus preservation is 53%. Minimal trans-annular incision is performed in >90% of all trans-annular repairs.
In this cohort representing 11 countries, there is variation in tetralogy of Fallot surgical management with no consensus on standard of practice. A large international prospective cohort study would allow analysis of impact of underlying anatomy and repair strategy on early and late outcomes.
To determine the feasibility and safety of the Conquest Pro wire as an alternative to radiofrequency wire for perforation of atretic pulmonary valve and subsequent balloon dilatation and patent ductus arteriosus stenting in patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum.
Radiofrequency valvotomy and balloon dilatation has become the standard of care for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum in many institutions today.
We report eight consecutive patients in whom we used the Conquest Pro coronary guidewire, a stiff wire normally reserved for revascularisation of coronary lesions with chronic total occlusion, for perforation of atretic pulmonary valve and subsequent balloon dilatation, and stenting of the patent ductus arteriosus.
Perforation of atretic pulmonary valve was successful in seven out of eight cases. Radiofrequency valvotomy was employed after failure of perforation by the Conquest Pro wire in one case where the right ventricular outflow tract was broad based and tapered towards the pulmonary valve, and was heavily trabeculated. Failure of the Conquest Pro wire to perforate the pulmonary valve plate was mainly attributed by the failure to engage the wire at the correct position.
The Conquest Pro wire for perforation and subsequent interventions in the more straightforward cases of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum is effective and safe, simplifying the entire procedure. However, the radiofrequency generator and wires remain essential tools in the paediatric interventional catheter laboratory.
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