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Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for many patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), but predictors of treatment outcome are lacking, and little is known about its neural mechanisms. We recently identified longitudinal changes in neural correlates of conscious emotion regulation that scaled with clinical responses to CBT for MDD, using a negative autobiographical memory-based task.
We now examine the neural correlates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during viewing of emotionally salient images as predictors of treatment outcome with CBT for MDD, and the relationship between longitudinal change in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses and clinical outcomes. Thirty-two participants with current MDD underwent baseline MRI scanning followed by 14 sessions of CBT. The fMRI task measured emotional reactivity and emotion regulation on separate trials using standardized images from the International Affective Pictures System. Twenty-one participants completed post-treatment scanning. Last observation carried forward was used to estimate clinical outcome for non-completers.
Pre-treatment emotional reactivity Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal within hippocampus including CA1 predicted worse treatment outcome. In contrast, better treatment outcome was associated with increased down-regulation of BOLD activity during emotion regulation from time 1 to time 2 in precuneus, occipital cortex, and middle frontal gyrus.
CBT may modulate the neural circuitry of emotion regulation. The neural correlates of emotional reactivity may be more strongly predictive of CBT outcome. The finding that treatment outcome was predicted by BOLD signal in CA1 may suggest overgeneralized memory as a negative prognostic factor in CBT outcome.
This research addresses two separate but related questions. First, to what extent are sociological theories proposed to explain legal behavior in Western societies applicable to non-Western contexts? And second, to what degree is Black's theory of law generalizable, as he contends, “across time and space?” Our research merges these questions by exploring the applicability of Black's theory in a Latin American context. Data collected from a nationally representative survey in Brazil suggest support for Black's propositions regarding the impact of vertical, horizontal, cultural, and normative status on the likelihood of mobilizing the law, as well as the feasibility of using his framework for understanding legal behavior in non-Western settings. Our discussion considers implications and directions for future analyses in both the Brazilian and cross-cultural contexts.
The vast mortuary complexes of the Xiongnu, the world’s first nomadic empire (c. 200 BC–AD 100), were important statements of elite power and ritual commemoration in Inner Asia. Very few of the features that accompanied the main tombs, however, have been fully excavated and investigated. This study is one of the first to assess completely the small archaeological features—and associated faunal remains—that surround the more monumental structures, features that intimate substantial investments in, and ritual activities around, these mortuary arenas. This research provides an important contribution to the understanding of the social politics of ritual practices and the development of complex institutions in steppe pastoral societies.
The ability of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) to record change in glaciers and icefields on seasonal to interannual time-scales is useful in maritime mountain regions where visible data are often obscured by clouds. A time series of RADARSAT and second European Remote-sensing Satellite (ERS-2) SAR images shows dramatic changes related to the onset and progression of glacier melting on the Juneau Icefield, southeast Alaska, U.S.A. Four “radar glacier zones” are interpreted from SAR images as snow that is dry during winter, an early snowmelt (M), a second phase of snowmelt (M2) and bare ice. These zones develop every year on the Juneau Icefield and other mid-latitude glaciers. Summer field observations on the Juneau Icefield during 1997 and 1998 constrain interpretations of the C-band radar glacier zones. Of the two zones that occur in melting snow (M, M2), M has low radar backscatter coefficients (σ° < −12), in contrast to the higher backscatter coefficients (σ° > −12) of the subsequent M2 zone. Snow moisture and surface roughness at the scale of the radar wavelength (5.6 cm) were measured to characterize the melt zones. Correlation length, wetness and grain-size in the two zones are not distinguishable in the late ablation season. Mean surface roughness, due to the presence of suncups, is higher in the M2 zone than in the M zone and probably causes the higher backscatter due to greater scattering.
The dynamical friction timescale for globular clusters to sink to the center of a dwarf elliptical galaxy (dE) is significantly less than a Hubble time if the halos have isothermal profiles and the globular clusters formed with the same radial density profile as the underlying stellar population. We examine the summed radial distribution of the entire globular cluster systems and the bright globular cluster candidates in 65 Virgo and Fornax Cluster dEs for evidence of dynamical friction processes. We find that the bright dE nuclei could have been formed from the merger of orbitally decayed massive clusters, but the faint nuclei are several magnitudes fainter than expected. These faint nuclei are found primarily in MV > −14 dEs which have high globular cluster specific frequencies and extended globular cluster systems. In these galaxies, the formation of new star clusters, high central dark matter densities, extended dark matter halos, or tidal interactions may act to prevent dynamical friction from collapsing the entire globular cluster population into a bright nucleus.
We present results from a study to identify the globular cluster systems of six of the brightest galaxies of the Sculptor Group. From Mosaic II CMR images of the area surrounding the galaxies NGC 45, NGC 55, NGC 247, NGC 253, NGC 300, and NGC 7793, we identify cluster candidates through their morphology, luminosity, and color. We show that many of the Milky Way's globular clusters would appear extended in our images if placed in the Sculptor Group; only in the two most distant galaxies, NGC 45 and NGC 7793, is the discrimination difficult. We find 50–100 candidates per galaxy with integrated properties similar to Milky Way clusters. Published spectroscopic identifications of candidates in NGC 253 lead us to expect that ∼50% of the candidates are true clusters, while the remainder are background galaxies. Study of the Sculptor Group galaxies increases the sample of late-type spiral and Magellanic-type galaxies with known globular cluster systems from 2 to ∼10.
We present preliminary results on the shape of the globular cluster luminosity function and the colors and inferred metallicities of the clusters in dwarf elliptical galaxies imaged with HST. The luminosity function (LF) of the GC candidates is consistent with a Gaussian-shaped LF similar to that in giant ellipticals. Also, with a mean color of (V - I) = 0.94, most of the GCs appear to be old and metal-poor ([Fe/H] = −1.4) like GCs in the Galaxy and in nearby giant ellipticals. This suggests that the bulk of the clusters were formed more than 10 Gyr ago.
We combine specific globular cluster frequencies (SN) with newly measured surface brightness profiles to identify dEs that may be stripped dIs. Luminous dEs generally have higher surface brightnesses and steep central light profiles. Conversely, fainter dEs have low surface brightnesses and flatter central light profiles. The most likely candidates for stripped dIs have low SN and low central surface brightnesses.
We present the results of a VLA D-configuration survey of a sample of Barred Magellanic type (SBm/IBm) galaxies. The data show that: (1) the HI is extended well beyond the optical diameter; (2) the HI distribution often has a different position angle than the optical distribution; (3) the bar morphology is typically manifested in the HI kinematics; (4) these galaxies not only tend to have gaseous companions, but they also tend to be strongly interacting systems; and (5) the companions have no obvious optical counterparts.
Skin preparation products contribute to surgical site infection (SSI) prevention. In a case-control study, diabetes was associated with increased SSI (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.74 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22–27.0]), while the use of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) plus isopropyl alcohol versus CHG alone was found to be protective (adjusted OR, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.12–6.20]).
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(12):1535–1538
Binocular rivalry (BR) is an intriguing phenomenon that occurs when two different images are presented, one to each eye, resulting in alternation or rivalry between the percepts. The phenomenon has been studied for nearly 200 years, with renewed and intensive investigation over recent decades. The rate of perceptual switching has long been known to vary widely between individuals but to be relatively stable within individuals. A recent twin study demonstrated that individual variation in BR rate is under substantial genetic control, a finding that also represented the first report, using a large study, of genetic contribution for any post-retinal visual processing phenomenon. The twin study had been prompted by earlier work showing BR rate was slow in the heritable psychiatric condition, bipolar disorder (BD). Together, these studies suggested that slow BR may represent an endophenotype for BD, and heralded the advent of modern clinical and genetic studies of rivalry. This new focus has coincided with rapid advances in 3D display technology, but despite such progress, specific development of technology for rivalry research has been lacking. This review therefore compares different display methods for BR research across several factors, including viewing parameters, image quality, equipment cost, compatibility with other investigative methods, subject group, and sample size, with a focus on requirements specific to large-scale clinical and genetic studies. It is intended to be a resource for investigators new to BR research, such as clinicians and geneticists, and to stimulate the development of 3D display technology for advancing interdisciplinary studies of rivalry.
Deformation experiments at temperatures between 300 and 750 K have been performed in situ in the transmission electron microscope to investigate dislocation interactions and reactions with grain boundaries and other obstacles. Dislocations, both partial and perfect, as well as deformation twins have been observed being emitted from grain boundaries and, in some cases, even the same grain boundary. The ejection of dislocations from the grain boundary can result in its partial or total annihilation. In the latter case, the disintegration of the grain boundary was accompanied by grain growth and a change in misorientation.