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This Research Communication describes the relationship between casein, free fatty acids (FFAs) and the storage period of ultra-high temperature-treated (UHT) whole milk observed for a period of 120 d of labelled shelf-life. Moreover, we aim to estimate the daily rate of casein degradation in UHT whole milk, and the total length of time estimated for its full degradation. With this aim, ten sets of samples were evaluated from batches of UHT milk manufactured by a dairy processing plant in Parana State, Brazil on 10 different days. Each set was comprised of one liter of raw milk and 12 units of 1 litre cartons of UHT milk, and represented one batch of production. Total mesophilic (TMC), psychrotrophic (TPC), and somatic cell counts (SCC) of raw milk were assessed. UHT milk was assessed for fat (%), sialic acid (mg/l), casein (%), and FFA contents. TMC ranged from 3·5 × 106 to 3·1 × 107 CFU/ml; TPC, from 106 UFC/ml and higher; and SCC, from 18 × 104 SC/ml to 4·83 × 105 CS/ml. Casein (r = −0·991; R2 = 0·9822) and FFA (r = 0·962; R2 = 0·9245) contents, and storage time of UHT milk were correlated (P < 0·05). The rate of casein hydrolysis was estimated as 0·021 g/100 g UHT whole milk/day. A complete breakdown of casein was estimated to occur by the 560th day post-manufacture. Although age gelation was not observed in our study, the report herein corroborates the understanding that the microbiological quality and SCC of raw milk are important components involving the integrity of casein and lipids of UHT milk during shelf-life.
Previous studies have established a model of atresia in preovulatory follicles after stimulation of immature rats with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). This gonadotropin recruits a follicular pool and the deprivation of preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge induces the atresia in preovulatory follicles. The present study investigated the occurrence of ovulation and provided some morphological features of granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis of atretic follicles at 0, 48, 72 and 120 h after eCG stimulation. Histological sections of ovaries from untreated animals (0 h) showed primordial, primary, secondary and early antral follicles. After 48 h ovaries showed large antral follicles. Preovulatory follicles were observed at 72 h, and two out of five rats displayed cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) in the oviducts. All animals exhibited corpora lutea after 120 h. We observed increased estradiol (E2) levels 48 h after eCG treatment that might trigger an endogenous preovulatory gonadotropin surge. Higher progesterone (P4) level, which is the hallmark of a functional corpus luteum, was observed at 120 h. Atresia in secondary and antral follicles was observed by pyknotic granulosa cell nuclei in histology and positive immunolabelling for cleaved caspase 3. We also observed macrophages in secondary and antral follicles in atresia. Transmission electron microscopy revealed GCs with compacted chromatin against the nuclear envelope, nuclear fragmentation, cell shrinkage and fragmentation. No preovulatory follicles showed apoptosis of GCs. In conclusion, our results suggested the occurrence of an endogenous gonadotropin surge, promoting ovulation and preventing atresia of preovulatory follicles.
Although there is a growing interest for the effects of intermittent fasting on energy balance, this study aimed to compare appetite, energy intake and food reward responses with an energy depletion induced either by 24-h food restriction or an equivalent deficit with exercise in healthy males. In all, twelve healthy lean males (21·5 (sd 0·5) years old; BMI: 22·5 (sd 1·7) kg/m2) participated in this study. Body composition, aerobic capacity, food preferences and energy intake were assessed. They randomly completed three conditions: (i) no depletion (CON); (ii) full 24-h energy restrictions (Def-EI); and (iii) exercise condition (Def-EX). Ad libitum energy intake and food reward were assessed at the end of each session. Appetite feelings were assessed regularly. Ad libitum energy intake was higher on Def-EI (7330 (sd 2975) kJ (1752 (sd 711) kcal) compared with that on CON (5301 (sd 1205) kJ (1267 (sd 288) kcal)) (P<0·05), with no difference between CON and Def-EX (6238 (sd 1741) kJ (1491 (sd 416) kcal) (P=0·38) and between Def-EX and Def-EI (P=0·22). There was no difference in the percent energy ingested from macronutrients. Hunger was lower on CON and Def-EX compared with Def-EI (P<0·001). Satiety was higher on CON and Def-EI compared with that on Def-EX (P<0·001). There was a significant interaction condition × time for food choice fat bias (P=0·04), showing a greater preference for high-fat v. low-fat food during Def-EI and Def-EX. Although 24-h fasting leads to increased energy intake at the following test meal (without total daily energy intake difference), increased hunger profile and decreased post-meal food choice fat bias, such nutritional responses are not observed after a similar deficit induced by exercise.
To evaluate resilience and frequency of behavioral symptoms in Haitian children internationally adopted before and after the earthquake of January 12, 2010.
We conducted a retrospective quantitative study in 40 Haitian children. Families were also asked to participate in a qualitative study (individual interview at 18-24 months after the earthquake) and to complete State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and STAI for children (STAI-C) questionnaires.
Demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in the group who experienced the earthquake (n=22) and in the group who did not (n=18). The families of 30 adoptees were interviewed. There was no statistical difference between the two groups for the STAI (P=0.53) and STAI-C (P=0.75) or for the frequency of behavioral problems. Plenary adoption was pronounced for 84.6% and 33.3% of the children adopted in the pre- and post-earthquake group, respectively (P=0.02). Children rarely talked about the experience of the earthquake, which, by contrast, was a stressful experience for the adoptive families.
Haitian children adopted after the earthquake did not express more stress or behavioral problems than those adopted before it. However, the possibility of a resurgence of mental disorders after age 10 should be borne in mind. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:450–454)
In this study, we isolate and analyse a new set of microsatellite loci for Cattleya walkeriana. Twenty-two primer pairs were screened for C. walkeriana (n = 32) and assessed for their transferability to Cattleya loddigesii (n = 12) and Cattleya nobilior (n = 06). All loci amplified for C. walkeriana; however, for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior, four and five primers, respectively, did not present amplification. The polymorphic loci presented between 2 and 13 alleles per locus for both C. walkeriana and C. loddigesii, with respective averages of 5.1 and 4.2. For C. nobilior, we found between two and five alleles per locus, with an average of 2.6. For C. walkeriana, observed heterozygosity varied from 0.100 to 0.966, whereas expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.097 to 0.900. The observed and expected heterozygosity for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior were also estimated. We found no significant linkage disequilibrium between any pair of loci, and evidence of null alleles at four loci (Cw16, Cw24, Cw30 and Cw31) for C. walkeriana. The combined power to exclude the first parent and combined non-exclusion probability of identity were 0.999 and 2.3 × 10−20, respectively. These new loci can be used in studies of germplasm resources, and assessments of genotypic and genetic diversity and population structure, thus improving the accuracy of such analyses and their applicability in the conservation and protection of these endangered species.
Dietary phytochemical supplementation may improve muscle recovery from exercise. In this study, we investigated the effect of mate tea (MT) consumption – a phenol-rich beverage – on muscle strength and oxidative stress biomarkers after eccentric exercise. In a randomised, cross-over design, twelve men were assigned to drink either MT or water (control; CON) for 11 d. On the 8th day, subjects performed three sets of twenty maximal eccentric elbow flexion exercises. Maximal isometric elbow flexion force was measured before and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after exercise. Blood samples were obtained before and at 24, 48 and 72 h after exercise and analysed for total phenolics, GSH, GSSG, GSH:GSSG ratio and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH). After eccentric exercise, muscle strength was significantly reduced over time, regardless of treatments. However, MT improved the rate of strength recovery by 8·6 % on the 1st day after exercise (P<0·05). Plasma concentration of total phenolic compounds was higher in MT than in CON at all time points (P<0·05) but decreased significantly at 72 h after exercise in both trials (P<0·05). Blood levels of GSH were significantly decreased at 48 and 72 h after exercise in CON (P<0·05) but did not change over time in MT. No significant changes were observed for GSSG, GSH:GSSG ratio and LOOH levels. MT intake did not influence muscle strength at all time points assessed but hastened the strength recovery over 24 h after exercise. MT also favoured the concentration of blood antioxidant compounds.
The study describes the representations of 453 Portuguese students about the present financial and economic crisis, examining the impact of the family financial situation on these representations, and the relationship between these representations and different factors likely to influence them. An initial word association task produced 2339 responses, from which 86.75% were classified into six classes by a downward hierarchical classification. Four classes (58.26% of the corpus) confirmed that the austerity measures implemented in Portugal affected the respondents with different degrees of severity: respondents described the consequences of the crisis in terms of misery, difficulties, or change, depending on their family’s income. More generally, the discourses (41.73% of the corpus) pointed out the factors that were viewed as responsible for the crisis as well as the geopolitical situation of Portugal. The answers given to opinion scales revealed a consistent pattern of results: respondents with a lower family income experienced less positive emotions toward the crisis (η2 = .03, p = .007), more negative emotions, stronger feelings of vulnerability and relative deprivation that resulted from comparison with others (all η2 ≥ .05, p < .001). However, the unequal consequences of the crisis were reflected neither in differences in the respondents’ expectations about their future situation, which they foresaw without great changes, nor in their lack of willingness to participate in protest actions against the austerity measures.
To determine the sensitivity and specificity of clinical and laboratory signs for the diagnosis of septic arthritis (SA).
Patients and methods
This prospective study included all adult patients with suspected SA seen in the emergency department or rheumatology department at the University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France, over a period of 18 months.
In total, 105 patients with suspected SA were included, 38 (36%) presenting with SA (29 [28%] with bacteriologically documented SA). In the univariate analysis, chills (p=0.015), gradual onset (p=0.04), local redness (p=0.01), as well as an entry site for infection (p=0.01) were most often identified in SA. A history of crystal-induced arthritis (p=0.004) was more frequent in non-SA cases. An erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)>50 mm (p=0.005), a C-reactive protein (CRP) level >100 mg/L (p=0.019), and radiological signs suggestive of SA (p=0.001) were more frequent in the SA cases. Synovial fluid appearance: purulent (p<0.001) and clear (p=0.007), synovial white blood cell (WBC) count >50,000/μL (p < 0.001), differentiated between SA and non-SA.
In multivariate analysis, only chills (odds ration [OR]=4.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–17.1), a history of crystal-induced arthritis (OR=0.09, 95% CI 0.01–0.9), purulent appearance of the joint fluid (OR=8.4, 95% CI 2.4–28.5), synovial WBC count >50,000/mm3 (OR=6.8, 95% CI 1.3–36), and radiological findings (OR=7.1, 95% CI 13–37.9) remained significant.
No clinical sign or laboratory test (excluding bacteriological test), taken alone, is conclusive for the differentiation between SA and non-SA, but the association of several signs, notably chills, history of crystal-induced arthritis, radiological findings, and the appearance and cellularity of joint fluid may be suggestive.
Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) are characterized by the capacity to recover a permanent deformation after being heated above a critical temperature called Final Austenite Temperature (Af). The Ni-Ti SMA are the most commercially used, however recent studies showed that the Cu-Al-Mn SMA present significant shape recovery and mechanical properties, showing a strong potential for developing new applications. In this context, the main goal of this work is to manufacture a Cu-Al-Mn SMA through a plasma melting process followed by injection molding of liquid metal and then characterize the samples, using the following techniques: Optical Microscopy (OM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Electrical Resistance as a function of Temperature (ERT) tests, Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and Microhardness (MH).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose–response effect of insulin, plus follicle-simulating hormone (FSH) at a fixed concentration, in a serum-free defined culture medium (DCM) on the in vitro maturation of bovine cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs). For oocyte nuclear maturation, the expression levels of GDF9, GLUT1, PRDX1 and HSP70.1 transcripts related to oocyte and embryo developmental competence were analysed. For in vitro maturation (IVM), cumulus–oocyte complexes from slaughterhouse ovaries were distributed into four groups based on insulin concentration added to serum-free DCM, which was composed of alpha minimum essential medium (α-MEM), as basal medium: (1) DCM control: 0 ng/ml; (2) DCM1: 1 ng/ml; (3) DCM10: 10 ng/ml; and (4) DCM100: 100 ng/ml. After IVM, the nuclear status of a sample of oocytes was analysed and the other oocytes were submitted for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC). Different concentrations of insulin did not affect significantly the nuclear maturation and cleavage rate (72 h post-insemination) across all groups. Blastocyst rate (192 h post-insemination) did not differ in DCM control (24.3%), DCM1 (27.0%) and DCM10 (26.3%) groups, but the DCM100 (36.1%) group showed a greater blastocyst rate (P < 0.05) than the DCM control. Insulin concentrations of 1, 10, or 100 ng/ml decreased the relative levels of GDF9 and HSP70-1 transcripts in oocytes at the end of IVM (P < 0.05). The transcripts levels of PRDX1 decreased (P < 0.05) only when 10 or 100 ng/ml insulin was added to the DCM medium. No difference in levels of GLUT1 transcripts (P > 0.05) was observed at the different insulin concentrations. The results indicated that insulin added to DCM influenced levels of transcripts related to cellular stress (HSP70-1 and PRDX1) and oocyte competence (GDF9) in bovine oocytes and at higher concentrations enhanced blastocyst production.
Sample preparation and imaging techniques for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of dehydrated dental samples can hinder the structural analyses. This study qualitatively evaluated images obtained with two different protocols of SEM preparation and analysis to assess the dentine adhesive interface. The crown and root dentine of 12 bovine incisors were subjected to cementation with the resin cement RelyX U100 or RelyX ARC/SBMP (n = 6). After storage for 7 days in a moist environment at 37 ± 1°C, the dentine samples were dehydrated in an ascending alcohol series, and three specimens from each group were coated with gold or carbon and examined in a high-vacuum (JEOL JSM—6360LV, 10 kV) or low-vacuum (FEI Quanta 200F, 15–30 kV) microscope. Images were obtained at magnifications between 50 and 2,000×, but with different working distances. The use of high vacuum for carbon and gold coating and SEM visualization led to cracks in the samples. A small number of cracks can be described in the specimens subjected to the low-vacuum technique. The protocol for SEM imaging in low vacuum was considered more appropriate for preservation of the integrity of the evaluated structures.
Desmapsamma anchorata has been recorded overgrowing Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis on two sites at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The records of D. anchorata overgrowing and killing T. coccinea and T. tagusensis showed that this native sponge could be an important competitor for the invasive corals.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the selection of immature bovine oocytes by brilliant cresyl blue dye (BCB) and expression of transcripts MATER and ZAR1. Cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) from slaughterhouse ovaries were exposed to BCB diluted in mDPBS and incubated for 60 min at 38.5 °C in humidified air. After exposure those COCs were distributed in two groups, according to their cytoplasm colour: BCB+ (coloured cytoplasm) or BCB− (colourless cytoplasm). The control group was submitted to in vitro maturation (IVM) immediately after morphological selection and holding control group COCs were exposed to mDPBS without BCB but in the same incubation conditions of BCB+ and BCB− group. The COCs of all groups were submitted to IVM, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC). Cleavage rate (72 h post-insemination) was similar between control (65.3%) and BCB+ (64.4%) groups, but greater than (p < 0.05) holding control (49.8%) and BCB− (51.3%) groups. Blastocyst rate (192 h post-insemination) was not different between BCB+ (18.5%) and control (16.3%) groups, but greater (p < 0.05) than BCB− (8.4%) group. No difference was found for blastocyst rate between holding control group (14.2%), control and BCB+ groups. The relative expression of MATER and ZAR1 genes was evaluated by real-time PCR in immature oocytes collected from the control, holding control, BCB+ and BCB− groups. Despite the relative expression of MATER in holding control, BCB+ and BCB− were down regulated in comparison to control group there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) in the relative expression of MATER and ZAR1 transcripts among groups. The results indicate that the BCB dye detects immature oocyte populations with different developmental competence, although no improvement in in vitro embryo production using oocytes exposed or not to BCB was observed. Development competence of immature oocytes exposed to BCB does not seem to be associated with variations in the expression of MATER and ZAR1 transcripts.
To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren from Aveiro, Portugal, according to two criteria: the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cut-offs.
Weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Using the BMI, gender- and age-specific prevalences of overweight and obesity were determined according to the IOTF cut-offs extrapolated from an adult BMI of 25 and 30 kg/m2 and the CDC cut-off values of 85th and 95th BMI percentile.
A random representative sample of 905 children (457 boys; 448 girls) aged 7–9 years.
The prevalence of excess weight (overweight and obesity) was lowest according to IOTF cut-offs compared to CDC (28·1 % v. 31·2 %), especially obesity (8·1 % v. 14·0 %). However, the CDC and IOTF criteria have a strong agreement (Cohen’s k = 0·755; P < 0·001). There were significant differences in excess weight between boys and girls according to the CDC (26·9 % v. 35·7 %; P = 0·003). Obese children are younger and the majority present abdominal obesity.
The present study shows a high prevalence of excess weight in Aveiro children, similar to other Portuguese regions and among the highest in Europe, especially in the female gender. The IOTF cut-off values give a lower prevalence of excess weight, namely obesity.
The present study aims to evaluate the vertical distribution of intertidal benthic organisms in different periods of the year, relating them to tide, air temperature, height and wave periodicity in breakwaters off the northern Rio de Janeiro State, and to compare the zonation at two sites (Pier and Barra) with distinct hydrodynamics, due to different wave swell. Quadrats of 400 cm2 were sampled by a photoquadrat method. The upper limit of the marine organisms was higher at the Barra site (intertidal zone of 3.8 m) than at the Pier site (intertidal zone of 2.2 m). The littoral fringe assemblage did not show significant differences between sites, but a larger range of this fringe and the upper eulittoral band at Barra was quite evident. This site was mostly characterized by species of more exposed areas such as Chaetomorpha sp. and Perna perna in the upper and lower eulittoral bands, and by C. teedii and Ulva fasciata in the sublittoral fringe. A seasonal difference was identified in the air exposure degree at the Pier site, which was higher in October 2005 and February 2006. The air temperature and wave height and periodicity differed significantly among the four studied periods. The typical seasonal species were F. clenchi (July 2005 and October 2005), Gigartina domingensis (July 2005), Grateloupia sp. (October 2005) and Porphyra acanthophora (October 2005 and February 2006). The intermediate benthic band of the intertidal zone occupied a narrow zone, changing its spatial location according to the season of the year. The hypothesis of annual variation of the benthic community zonation according to the seasonal variability of tides, air temperatures and wave's height and periodicity was accepted for the intermediate band of the intertidal zone, due to the taxonomic differences and the abundance of dominant species in the four seasons. The difference in the vertical distribution of the intertidal benthic assemblages of both breakwaters highlights a distinct wave exposure condition, and reflects the breakwaters' orientation and the wave swell at each site.
Increasing rates of habitat loss and human occupation are creating demands for optimum strategies that maximize conservation efforts, despite the lack of detailed data required for implementation. Broad scale biogeographical data may furnish initial guidelines for conservation planning in a hierarchical framework for establishing conservation priorities and helping guide future research programmes. This approach may be critical in regions for which few detailed data on diversity, abundance and distribution are available, such as in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil. We used a macroecological approach, based on the extent of occurrence of 127 species of terrestrial vertebrates endemic to the Cerrado, to design a regional network of potential areas that represent all species at least once. The final network has a total of 24 regions widely distributed throughout the biome. We also evaluated these regions in terms of their human occupation by adding a cost for each cell based on 23 variables expressing variation in agricultural, demographic and cattle-ranching patterns on the Cerrado. Our analyses showed that conservation efforts should be concentrated in the south and south-east of the biome. This macroecological approach can provide broad guidelines for conservation and define the focus for more local and realistic conservation efforts.
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