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This study integrated an experimental medicine approach and a randomized cross-over clinical trial design following CONSORT recommendations to evaluate a cognitive training (CT) intervention for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The experimental medicine approach was adopted because of documented pathophysiological heterogeneity within the diagnosis of ADHD. The cross-over design was adopted to provide the intervention for all participants and make maximum use of data.
Children (n = 93, mean age 7.3 +/− 1.1 years) with or sub-threshold for ADHD were randomly assigned to CT exercises over 15 weeks, before or after 15 weeks of treatment-as-usual (TAU). Fifteen dropped out of the CT/TAU group and 12 out of the TAU/CT group, leaving 66 for cross-over analysis. Seven in the CT/TAU group completed CT before dropping out making 73 available for experimental medicine analyses. Attention, response inhibition, and working memory were assessed before and after CT and TAU.
Children were more likely to improve with CT than TAU (27/66 v. 13/66, McNemar p = 0.02). Consistent with the experimental medicine hypotheses, responders improved on all tests of executive function (p = 0.009–0.01) while non-responders improved on none (p = 0.27–0.81). The degree of clinical improvement was predicted by baseline and change scores in focused attention and working memory (p = 0.008). The response rate was higher in inattentive and combined subtypes than hyperactive-impulsive subtype (p = 0.003).
Targeting cognitive dysfunction decreases clinical symptoms in proportion to improvement in cognition. Inattentive and combined subtypes were more likely to respond, consistent with targeted pathology and clinically relevant heterogeneity within ADHD.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To evaluate the ability of various techniques to track changes in body fluid volumes before and after a rapid infusion of saline. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Eight healthy participants (5M; 3F) completed baseline measurements of 1) total body water using ethanol dilution and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and 2) blood volume, plasma volume and red blood cell (RBC) volume using carbon monoxide rebreathe technique and I-131 albumin dilution. Subsequently, 30mL saline/kg body weight was administered intravenously over 20 minutes after which BIA and ethanol dilution were repeated. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: On average, 2.29±0.35 L saline was infused with an average increase in net fluid input-output (I/O) of 1.56±0.29 L. BIA underestimated measured I/O by −3.4±7.9%, while ethanol dilution did not demonstrate a measurable change in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe differed from I-131 albumin dilution measurements of blood, plasma and RBC volumes by +0.6±2.8%, −5.4±3.6%, and +11.0±4.7%, respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: BIA is capable of tracking modest changes in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe appears to be a viable alternative for the I-131 albumin dilution technique to determine blood volume. Together, these two techniques may be useful in monitoring fluid status in patients with impaired fluid regulation.
Postel Nunatak in the Patuxent Range has been previously mapped as Nelson Limestone but there was no biostratigraphic support for that interpretation until now. We confirm that limestone exposures at Postel Nunatak are at least partly correlated with the Nelson Limestone of the Neptune Range, 160 km north-east, and are not correlative with the lower Cambrian Schneider Hills Limestone of the Argentina Range. Upper beds have yielded the trilobites Suludella? davnii Palmer & Gatehouse, 1972 and Solenopleura pruina Palmer & Gatehouse, 1972, which provide a basis for assignment to Cambrian Series 3 (late middle Cambrian), within the Drumian or lower Guzhangian stages. Limestone beds were deposited in a shallow marine setting, ranging from supratidal to lagoonal facies with rare subtidal intervals. These settings contrast with deeper water facies of the Neptune Range. Despite limitations in sampling density, isotopic analysis indicates that a greater than +2.5‰ shift in δ13C is consistent with δ13C trends documented for the Drumian Stage. Because the upper and lower contacts at Postel Nunatak are covered by snow and ice, the relationship with rocks mapped as the Patuxent Formation in the Patuxent Range remains uncertain, but part of it may belong to the Precambrian Hannah Ridge Formation.
Early detection of an invading nonindigenous plant species (NIS) may be critical for efficient and effective management. Adaptive survey sampling methods may provide unbiased sampling for best estimates of distribution of rare and spatially clustered populations of plants in the early stages of invasion. However, there are few examples of these methods being used for nonnative plant surveys in which travelling distances away from an initial or source patch, or away from a road or trail, can be time consuming due to the topography and vegetation. Nor is there guidance as to which of the many adaptive methods would be most appropriate as a basis for invasive plant mapping and subsequent management. Here we used an empirical complete census of four invader species in early to middle stages of invasion in a management area to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of three nonadaptive methods, four adaptive cluster methods, and four adaptive web sampling methods that all originated from transects. The adaptive methods generally sampled more NIS-occupied cells and patches than standard transect approaches. Sampling along roads only was time-efficient and effective, but only for species with restricted distribution along the roads. When populations were more patchy and dispersed over the landscape the adaptive cluster starting at the road generally proved to be the most time-efficient and effective NIS detection method.
Overview on Wahhābism, colonialism and Sufi networks
Institutional Sufism from the nineteenth century to today can be assessed under three discrete but related rubrics: Sufi Africa, Sufi Asia (including the Middle East) and Sufi America. If this accent is locative, it is also temporal, marking the nineteenth–twentieth and now twenty-first centuries by Sufi developments in particular parts of the globe. Overarching and connecting these subsets is a common theme: Sufism/neo-Sufism intensifies Islamic loyalty, while also distinguishing Sufi from non-Sufi Muslims, by underscoring the unique status of the Prophet Muḥammad.
A single question demarcates Sufi from non-Sufi Muslims: is the Prophet Muḥammad alive or dead? For non-Sufi Muslims, the question is itself a mark of heretical intent. Of course, the Prophet is dead, and with his death in seventh-century Arabia there ceased to be any human mediator between the living and the dead. What the Prophet bequeathed to his followers was the Qurʾān and Ḥadīth, sayings that later became codified as Sunna, his own model of exemplary conduct. Sunna complemented, even as it amplified, the Qurʾān. Together the Qurʾān and the Sunna have been interpreted by the ʿulamāʾ. There is no authority in Islam apart from the books and the learned custodians of the books. To the extent that the Prophet lives, it is through his legacy in books, preserved and mediated by the ʿulamāʾ.
Federally funded projects must comply with a suite of environmental federal regulations, including the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 and the US Department of Transportation Act of 1966, which are addressed through the National Environmental Policy Act process. In this case study, we describe a Federal Highway Administration sidewalk improvement project implemented by the Georgia Department of Transportation in DeKalb County, Georgia, that used an innovative streamlined process under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 to evaluate and assess effects on historic resources and to comply with National Environmental Policy Act process. This project also represents a novel use of this Streamlined Section 106 Process, since it was used in a new sidewalk construction project that required right-of-way acquisition and easements as compared to previous projects where this streamlined process was used only in cases with existing sidewalks and no right-of-way acquisition. Additionally, we demonstrate how coordination under the National Environmental Policy Act addressed impacts on historic resources and resulted in the successful preservation of cultural resource features.
Few studies have investigated the role of gene × environment interactions (G × E) in speech, language, and literacy disorders. Currently, there are two theoretical models, the diathesis–stress model and the bioecological model, that make opposite predictions about the expected direction of G × E, because environmental risk factors may either strengthen or weaken the effect of genes on phenotypes. The purpose of the current study was to test for G × E at two speech sound disorder and reading disability linkage peaks using a sib-pair linkage design and continuous measures of socioeconomic status, home language/literacy environment, and number of ear infections. The interactions were tested using composite speech, language, and preliteracy phenotypes and previously identified linkage peaks on 6p22 and 15q21. Results showed five G × E at both the 6p22 and 15q21 locations across several phenotypes and environmental measures. Four of the five interactions were consistent with the bioecological model of G × E. Each of these four interactions involved environmental measures of the home language/literacy environment. The only interaction that was consistent with the diathesis–stress model was one involving the number of ear infections as the environmental risk variable. The direction of these interactions and possible interpretations are explored in the discussion.
Low electron energy cathodoluminescence (LEECL) was used to examine polishing-induced damage in a bulk high-pressure grown GaN single-crystal platelet. The Ga-polarity face of the platelet was mechanically polished; chemically-assisted ion-beam etching (CAIBE) to a depth of 200 nm was performed on a portion of this face. Low-temperature (15 K) CL spectra of the polished-only and polished+CAIBE regions of the Ga-face were taken at 2.8 kV, 5.4 kV, and 10.6 kV (corresponding to average electron penetration depths of 19 nm, 56 nm, and 170 nm). The low-temperature CL spectrum of the unpolished, N-polarity face was taken at 10.6 kV. In the near-band-edge region, all the CL spectra from the Ga-polarity face show a narrow peak near 3.47 eV, ascribed to donor-bound exciton recombination, and several overlapping peaks at lower energy (3.1 eV to 3.4 eV), ascribed to defect-related levels or to donor-acceptor pair recombination. Functional curve-fitting analysis enabled deconvolution of the spectra into the sum of an asymmetric peak (the donor-bound exciton) and several symmetric Gaussian peaks (the lower energy, defect-related or donor-acceptor peaks). The linewidth of the donor-bound exciton peak decreased with increasing penetration depth, and also decreased on going from the polished-only to the polished+CAIBE region. The relative intensity of a defect-related peak at ≈3.325 eV showed a similar decreasing trend with increasing penetration depth or with CAIBE treatment. The LEECL results suggest that the thickness of the polishing damage layer is approximately 400 nm; the 200 nm CAIBE step is thus insufficient to completely remove the damage.