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In a previous trial in Mali, we showed traditional pearl millet couscous and thick porridge delayed gastric emptying (~5 h half-emptying times) in a normal weight population compared to non-traditional carbohydrate-based foods (pasta, potatoes, white rice; ~3 h half-emptying times), and in a gastric simulator we showed millet couscous had slower digestion than wheat couscous. In light of these findings, we tested the hypothesis in a normal weight U.S. population (n=14) that millet foods would reduce glycaemic response (continuous glucose monitor), improve appetitive sensations (Visual Analog Scale ratings), as well as reduce gastric emptying rate (13C octanoic acid breath test). Five carbohydrate-based foods (millet couscous – commercial and self-made, millet thick porridge, wheat couscous, white rice) were fed in a crossover trial matched on available carbohydrate basis. Significantly lower overall glycaemic response was observed for all millet-based foods and wheat couscous compared to white rice (p≤0.05). Millet couscous (self-made) had significantly higher glycaemic response than millet couscous (commercial) and wheat couscous (p<0.0001), but as there were no differences in peak glucose values (p>0.05) an extended glycaemic response was indicated for self-made couscous. Millet couscous (self-made) had significantly lower hunger ratings (p<0.05) and higher fullness ratings (p<0.01) than white rice, millet thick porridge, and millet couscous (commercial). A normal gastric emptying rate (<3 h half-emptying times) was observed for all foods, with no significant differences among them (p>0.05). In conclusion, some traditionally prepared pearl millet foods show the potential to reduce glycaemic response and promote satiety.
We describe three vowel-harmony processes in Tommo So and their interaction with
morphological structure. The verbal suffixes of Tommo So occur in a strict linear
order, establishing a Kiparskian hierarchy of distance from the root. This distance
is respected by all three harmony processes; they ‘peter out’, applying with lower
frequency as distance from the root increases. The function relating application rate
to distance is well fitted by families of sigmoid curves, declining in frequency from
one to zero. We show that, assuming appropriate constraints, such functions are a
direct consequence of Harmonic Grammar. The crucially conflicting constraints are
Ident (violated just once by harmonised candidates) and a scalar version
of Agree (violated one to seven times, based on closeness of the target to
the root). We show that our model achieves a close fit to the data, while a variety
of alternative models fail to do so.
We define a saltatory phonological alternation as one in which sound A is converted to C, leaping over phonetically intermediate B. For example, in Campidanian Sardinian, intervocalic /p/ is realised as [β] – leaping over [b], which does not alternate. Based on experimental evidence, we argue that saltation is marked, i.e. a UG bias causes language learners to disprefer it. However, despite its marked status, saltation does occur. We survey its diachronic origins, and suggest that it is never introduced as a sound change, but arises only from a variety of historical accidents. For the formal analysis of saltation, we propose a new approach, based on Zuraw's (2007, 2013) *Map constraints and Steriade's (2001, 2009) P-map. This approach is more restrictive than previous proposals, and accounts for psycholinguistic evidence indicating an anti-saltation learning bias: saltation is disfavoured during learning because it is by definition not a P-map-compliant pattern.
The high cost of single-crystal III–V substrates limits the use of gallium arsenide (GaAs) and related sphalerite III–V materials in many applications, especially photovoltaics. However, by making devices from epitaxially grown III–V layers that are separated from a growth substrate, one can recycle the growth substrate to reduce costs. Here, we show damage-free removal of an epitaxial single-crystal GaAs film from its GaAs growth substrate using a laser that is absorbed by a smaller band gap, pseudomorphic indium gallium arsenide nitride layer grown between the substrate and the GaAs film. The liftoff process transfers the GaAs film to a flexible polymer substrate, and the transferred GaAs layer is indistinguishable in structural quality from its growth substrate.
Electronic devices made from single crystal thin films attached to inexpensive support substrates offer reduced material costs compared to wafer-based devices; however, scalable and inexpensive processes for producing these single crystal film structures have remained elusive. In this work, we describe a new approach for fabricating these structures. In our approach, an epitaxial film is grown on a single crystal template and is then separated from its growth surface via fracture along a weak heteroepitaxial interface between the single crystal film and its growth substrate. We show that epitaxial films of Si, Ge, and GaAs, with thicknesses ranging from 100 nm to 1 μm, grown on epitaxial CaF2 overlayers on Si <111> substrates, can be transferred to glass substrates by inducing fracture along the heteroepitaxial interface between the semiconductor film and CaF2, or between CaF2 and the Si wafer, assisted by the presence of water as in moisture-assisted cracking.
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following:
How and why journalists, as ‘knowledge workers’, share much in common with librarians, and should learn from librarians when seeking, sieving and processing raw ‘information’ into knowledge published as stories
How to strengthen and engage your critical faculties to ‘sift’ and ‘sort’ useful information from rubbish
How to start using social media sites such as Twitter and Facebook for journalism
How to conduct both online and offline searches that go beyond simply ‘Googling’ something
What entry points exist to help you venture into the ‘deep’ or ‘hidden’ web
… the unvarnished truth is that journalists do not happen by chance upon the news which is daily gathered together for public edification. It has to be anticipated, prepared for, and followed up, and the greatest virtue of all in a newsman is anticipation. That is what is really meant by the phrase ‘a nose for news’.
Carr & Stevens, Modern Journalism (1931)
Doing research for journalism usually involves using a combination of research skills, so unpacking them here is somewhat artificial. Much of what is described or suggested here might take seconds, or could develop into a major investigation taking days or even months. Throughout, however, it is vital to remember that you are a journalist and your core business is stories. This chapter introduces the research process upon which all good journalism relies. As information or ‘knowledge’ workers, journalists need a high level of information literacy.
News does not just fall into the lap of a journalist. This is true despite the endless tsunami of media announcements, press releases and tip-offs that pour into the newsroom every day. As the writers of Modern Journalism expressed it in 1931, most of this material is not really news at all; it is
‘too trivial in content to be so dignified’. A good reporter and a competent editor will know that all the information must be sifted, sorted and given an angle before it can become news; it has to be important or interesting – or preferably both: ‘News may be important without being interesting, and the converse applies,’ Modern Journalism tell us, but without our ability to know whether it is either, we will not know news even if it is right under our noses.
Together with the next three chapters (on defamation, ethics and professionalism), this chapter will introduce you to the following:
The social, legal and ethical contexts in which journalists operate on a daily basis
How the legal system interacts with and impacts on journalism and the news
Common law as it applies to the work of journalists
How to deal with the court system
How to recognise and avoid contempt of court
We cannot go past the law, so it is important for you to understand the legal implications in any relationship between journalists and the people with whom they deal during the course of their work. This chapter is an introduction only; the law is complex, and so is the world of journalism and news. We recommend that you read a good book on journalism and law relevant to where you are going to work.
You can’t plead ignorance
Ignorance of the law does not excuse a person from criminal responsibility for an act that would otherwise be an offence …
Queensland Criminal Code, s 48(1)
Words similar to those in Queensland’s Criminal Code operate or prevail in all jurisdictions. Ignorance of the law is no excuse. If it were, everyone could claim they didn’t know what they did was wrong and there would be no need for courts. It would probably be a pretty wild – even dangerous – place out there. Relying on what others say the law is – even those who should know – is no defence either. What this illustrates for the journalist, and everyone else, is simple: to do a professional job as a journalist, you have to know the law. And there is a great deal to know.
After reading this chapter, you should be confident about the following:
You know what defamation is – and understand the law
You can recognise defamatory statements and know why they are injurious to reputation
You know how to check to see if a defence makes publication possible
You know when you are protected by privilege and to what extent
Every journalist needs to understand the issues around defamation. The purpose must be to ‘get away with’ as much as possible – to use the law and the defences to defamation as a tool to publish, not as a brake on the flow of information that is in the public interest. This chapter is not a substitute for detailed study of the laws of defamation; it is a guide to keeping you (and your publication) out of trouble.
Reputation damage: A costly legal business
My initial response was to sue her for defamation of character, but then I realized that I had no character.
The basketball player Charles Barkley could dunk the ball and dribble; he also has a good sense of humour. Defamation laws protect people’s reputation – their good name (assuming they have one, of course). Wrongly harming or damaging a person’s reputation can be a serious problem too. What all this means is that while it may be possible to publish all kinds of material before the ‘course of justice’ has commenced or after it has concluded, and not be found to be in contempt, what you publish could still be defamatory. And someone may sue you. So even when there is no ‘course of justice’ running, you still need to be careful about the things you publish.
This chapter explores some issues about which beginning reporters might have questions, such as:
Whether journalism has a future in the age of user-generated content
Whether journalism is still essential to democracy
What kind of journalist you want to be
After reading the chapter, you should not only have a better idea about whether you want to be a journalist, you should also have a greater understanding of what it will take to succeed. Don’t be too worried if you find that you don’t want to be a reporter; everything you learn in a journalism course at university will provide you with valuable and transferable skills that are applicable in many professions and work situations.
In journalism, the ‘ism’ is more important than the ‘ist’. Journalism is a collection of practices that can be done by anyone – not just by a select few anointed by certain types of employers or degrees.
One of the most confusing questions we get asked most days is: What does it mean to be a journalist today? Is journalism just ‘a collection of practices that can be done by anyone’? Even 10 years ago, this was not really a question; the ‘news 2.0’ tsunami had not really hit the newsroom yet, and journalism was something that journalists did on behalf of everyone else. There was the journalist inside the news organisation and the audience outside. But then a whole new DIY style began to emerge. It had its powerful moment of creation during protests against the ‘new world order’ in Seattle in 1999. Anti-capitalist protestors wanted to demonstrate at the World Trade Organization (WTO) summit, and they also felt that their message would not be reported accurately (if at all) by the mainstream media. So, instead of relying on the mainstream media, the activists decided to create their own global media: the Indymedia movement was born. In the decade since, we have seen the rise of so-called ‘citizen journalism’ and do-it-yourself broadcasting in the form of YouTube, blogs and now Twitter.
News organisations want more from their reporters than just an ability to write news stories. They want people who can also write well– to satisfy those who want more from their news outlet than just the news. This chapter is about introducing some style and flair into your writing. This is not a licence to go ‘crazy’ and come over all ‘experimental’, but it is a form of permission to flex your writing muscle and exercise your imagination.
Writing well is not just writing
Good writing is all but invisible. You know it’s there only because what you are reading or hearing has a flow, a rhythm and a beat that make you want more. It holds your attention, but without drawing attention to itself. It is an artform. According to research findings presented a few years ago at an annual Journalism Education Association conference, both print and electronic media recruiters said they prized journalism graduates who could write well over those with a command of technology (Nankervis, 2005 ). Other research into the journalism job market also suggests that editors want reporters who can write for several media platforms and also for the time-rich reader – this is in line with international studies too.
This chapter will teach you the following skills and introduce the following issues:
How to write news copy clearly using the inverted pyramid style
How to integrate the news questions into your writing plan
Why news stories have a logical flow and structure
The importance of substance over style
Now you have begun to learn news-gathering skills, it is time to begin blending these with some writing practice. Along the way, we talk about words, illustrations, audio and video – each an important addition to your journalistic toolkit. But for now, it is words that matter most. In any form, journalism means clear writing. In a simple news story, this is to help the reader get the ‘news’ quickly and accurately. In a feature story, it means a narrative style that is engaging, enlightening and entertaining. For radio, good writing means painting a scene with words and sound effects (SFx), good intros and tight, flowing scripts. Television news and current affairs is about writing ‘to’ or ‘with’ the pictures. TV news editors often tell young reporters: ‘Don’t tell the news, show it.’ Even so, the script must convey information that the pictures don’t have. New styles of writing are emerging on the internet. Formats vary from the straight ‘inverted pyramid’ hard news brief to the newsblog and opinion, and all shades in between.
Provide an understanding of some basic issues of professionalism that all reporters and those in the news industry – or even savvy consumers of news – should be talking about
Open up a more intellectual discussion of what journalism is and who journalists are
Show that professionalism also includes behaving within the norms of the law and assessing what is and what is not ethical behaviour for a journalist (as discussed in previous chapters)
What does it mean to be professional?
Journalists of all schools of thought hold the theory that, like a poet, a journalist is born, not made. There is a certain amount of truth in this theory, but the scope of newspaper activity has been so widened by the march of events and the spread of education that real success in the profession can only be attained by a close study and a clear understanding of its technique.
H.A. Gwynne, in Carr & Stevens, Modern Journalism (1931)
This statement, in the Foreword to Modern Journalism, is perhaps the first articulation of how the profession of journalism was born (or, if you like, made). But the sub-title used by the authors in this 1931 edition was ‘A Complete Guide to the Newspaper Craft’. Throughout the twentieth century, journalism slowly made the transition from craft to trade to profession, and the education of young reporters – both inside and outside the newsroom – was a major factor in that change. Even in 1931, the English reporter was being exhorted to ‘respect his [sic.] profession’ and to ‘regard himself as a trustee for English language’. H.A. Gwynne wrote that these two principles were ‘the foundations of journalism’.
After reading this chapter, you should have a greater understanding of the following issues:
The similarities and differences between various news styles and formats
The relationships between text and multimedia elements in unplugged journalism
How technologies and the way we use them also shape writing and thinking about news
How writing news for the web and for online/mobile applications differs from print and broadcast writing
Why multimedia is important for online and mobile news applications
The continuing importance of the fundamentals of good and ethical reporting in online news
This chapter is about taking everything you know about journalism and news-writing and applying it to online media. It’s a racing certainty that you are familiar with the online world: the explosion of online, multimedia and mobile journalism in recent years has meant that this area of knowledge has expanded rapidly, and continues to do so. The best way to keep up is by following online debates and social media forums where these issues are being talked about. This chapter aims to introduce a newsy perspective to your online interaction.