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This article reviews the major paradigm shifts that have occurred in the area of the application of clinical and experimental neuropsychology to epilepsy and epilepsy surgery since the founding of the International Neuropsychological Society. The five paradigm shifts discussed include: 1) The neurobiology of cognitive disorders in epilepsy – expanding the landscape of syndrome-specific neuropsychological impairment; 2) pathways to comorbidities: bidirectional relationships and their clinical implications; 3) discovering quality of life: The concept, its quantification and applicability; 4) outcomes of epilepsy surgery: challenging conventional wisdom; and 5) Iatrogenic effects of treatment: cognitive and behavioral effects of antiepilepsy drugs. For each area we characterize the status of knowledge, the key developments that have occurred, and how they have altered our understanding of the epilepsies and their management. We conclude with a brief overview of where we believe the field will be headed in the next decade which includes changes in assessment paradigms, moving from characterization of comorbidities to interventions; increasing development of new measures, terminology and classification; increasing interest in neurodegenerative proteins; transitioning from clinical seizure features to modifiable risk factors; and neurobehavioral phenotypes. Overall, enormous progress has been made over the lifespan of the INS with promise of ongoing improvements in understanding of the cognitive and behavioral complications of the epilepsies and their treatment. (JINS, 2017, 23, 791–805)
In this article, Bruce Grant advocates an anthropological perspective for understanding resistance to early Soviet rule, given that not all anti-Soviet rebellions operated by the same cultural logic. Combining oral histories and archival evidence to reconstruct highly charged events in rural northwest Azerbaijan, where as many as 10,000 men and women joined to overthrow Soviet power in favor of an Islamic republic in 1930, Grant examines moral archetypes of banditry, religious frames of Caucasus life, magical mobility, and images of early nationalist struggle against communism. Exploring what it means to have been “average” in the Soviet Union of the 1930s, Grant invites readers to consider classic narrative framings of periods of great tumult.
Fossils and the science of paleontology provide a charismatic gateway to integrate STEM teaching and learning. With the new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), as well as the exponentially increasing use of three-dimensional (3-D) printing and scanning technology, it is a particularly opportune time to integrate a wider variety of fossils and paleontology into K–12 curricula. We describe a curricular prototype that integrates all four components of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) into authentic research using dentitions of the Neogene giant shark Megalodon (Carcharocles megalodon Agassiz, 1843). This prototype has been implemented in two middle and two high schools in California and Florida. Consistent with prior evidence-based research, student engagement increases when they have hands-on experiences with fossils, particularly with a charismatic species such as Megalodon. Access to museum specimens helps students understand big ideas in ‘Deep Time.’ In addition to engaging students in authentic STEM practices and scaffolding development of content knowledge, paleontology is an integrative science that connects and informs socially relevant topics, including long-term (macro-) evolution and climate change. The application of 3-D printing and scanning to develop curricula using fossils has immense potential in K–12 schools in the U.S.
Stigma towards individuals experiencing a mental illness is associated with a range of negative psychological, social and financial outcomes. Factors associated with stigma remain unclear; the relationship between stigma and various personal factors may depend on both the type of disorder being stigmatised and what type of stigma is assessed. Different forms of stigma include personal stigma (negative attitudes towards others), perceived stigma (perceived attitudes of others) and self-stigma (self-attribution of others’ negative attitudes).
Three hundred and fifty university students and members of the general public completed an online survey assessing contact with and knowledge of both depression and anxiety, age, gender, current depression and anxiety symptoms, and personal, perceived and self-stigma for both depression and anxiety.
Greater contact with, and knowledge of that illness predicted lower personal stigma for both anxiety and depression. Participants with greater levels of current depression symptomatology and females, reported higher perceived stigma towards depression. Males reported higher personal stigma for anxiety. For both anxiety and depression, higher current symptomatology was associated with greater levels of self-stigma towards the illness.
Findings confirm the role of contact and knowledge in personal stigma for both disorders, consistent with previous findings. This finding also supports evidence that interventions addressing these factors are associated with a decline in personal stigma. However, lack of relationship between contact with, and knowledge of a mental illness and perceived and self-stigma for either depression or anxiety suggests that these factors may not play a major role in perceived or self-stigma. The identification of symptomatology as a key factor associated with self-stigma for both anxiety and depression is significant, and has implications for community-wide interventions aiming to increase help-seeking behaviour, as well as individual treatment strategies for clinicians. Further research should examine whether these relationships hold for groups with clinically diagnosed depression and anxiety disorders.
Whilst debris discs orbiting main-sequence stars are well studied, very little is known regarding their fate when the star evolves onto the giant branch. For intermediate mass (A-type) stars, giants provide a unique opportunity to detect planets using the radial velocity technique, otherwise prohibited by high jitter levels and rotationally broadened lines in main-sequence intermediate mass (A-type) stars. Such stars can provide key insights into the structure of planetary systems around intermediate mass stars. In our Herschel OT1 program (PI Bonsor) we searched for the presence of debris discs orbiting a sample of 36 subgiants, half of which have RV detected companions. Our best detection is the resolved debris disc orbiting κ CrB.
The HR 8799 four-planet host is known to host a multi-component disk from Spitzer observations. We have obtained Herschel† observations of the disk which provide increased sensitivity and resolution of its outer components: the planetesimal belt and halo. We find that the two components cannot be discerned from the spectral energy distribution alone, but require resolved images to independently identify them. In the resolved images, the halo stands out for its steep radial profile and large radial extent to 2000 AU, a factor of two larger than was estimated from Spitzer data.
Using photometry at just two wavelengths it is possible to fit a blackbody to the spectrum of infrared excess that is the signature of a debris disc. From this the location of the dust can be inferred. However, it is well known that dust in debris discs is not a perfect blackbody. By resolving debris discs we can find the actual location of the dust and compare this to that inferred from the blackbody fit. Using the Herschel Space Observatory we resolved many systems as part of the DEBRIS survey. Here we discuss a sample of 9 discs surrounding A stars and find that the discs are actually located between 1 and 2.5 times further from their star than predicted by blackbody fits to the spectral energy distribution (SED). The variation in this ratio is due to differences in stellar luminosities, location of the dust, size distribution and composition of the dust.
Understanding the genetic and environmental contributions to measures of brain structure such as surface area and cortical thickness is important for a better understanding of the nature of brain-behavior relationships and changes due to development or disease. Continuous spatial maps of genetic influences on these structural features can contribute to our understanding of regional patterns of heritability, since it remains to be seen whether genetic contributions to brain structure respect the boundaries of any traditional parcellation approaches. Using data from magnetic resonance imaging scans collected on a large sample of monozygotic and dizygotic twins in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging, we created maps of the heritability of areal expansion (a vertex-based area measure) and cortical thickness and examined the degree to which these maps were affected by adjustment for total surface area and mean cortical thickness. We also compared the approach of estimating regional heritability based on the average heritability of vertices within the region to the more traditional region-of-interest (ROI)-based approach. The results suggested high heritability across the cortex for areal expansion and, to a slightly lesser degree, for cortical thickness. There was a great deal of genetic overlap between global and regional measures for surface area, so maps of region-specific genetic influences on surface area revealed more modest heritabilities. There was greater inter-regional variability in heritabilities when calculated using the traditional ROI-based approach compared to summarizing vertex-by-vertex heritabilities within regions. Discrepancies between the approaches were greatest in small regions and tended to be larger for surface area than for cortical thickness measures. Implications regarding brain phenotypes for future genetic association studies are discussed.
Shrines fill the Eurasian land mass. They can be found from Turkey in the west to China in the east, from the Arctic Circle in the north to Afghanistan in the south. Between town and country, they can consist of full-scale architectural complexes, or they may compose no more than an open field, a pile of stones, a tree, or a small mausoleum. They have been at the centers and peripheries of almost every major religious tradition of the region: Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. Yet in the formerly socialist world, these places of pilgrimage have something even more in common: they were often cast as the last bastions of religious observance when churches, mosques, temples, and synagogues were sent crashing to the ground in rapid succession across the twentieth century.
A review is presented describing our recent work to correlate the first hyperpolarizability, β, of organic materials with the molecular parameter bond length alternation (BLA). Donor-acceptor polyenes displaying a wide BLA range were synthesized. For a particular chromophore, BLA was fine-tuned by varying solvent polarity. The degree of BLA was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, 1H-NMR and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Non-resonant, solvent-dependent, electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) Measurements were performed to probe the variation in the second-order nonlinearity as a function of ground-state polarization. The resulting trend, which is fully consistent with theoretical predictions, identified chromophores possessing optimized positive and negative hyperpolarizabilities. An optimized chromophore was incorporated in a polymer matrix and poled. The resulting electro-optic coefficient was found to be significantly enhanced relative to the longer chromophore Disperse Red 1.
We examined maternal and paternal characteristics at 1 month postpartum as risk and protective factors for children's internalizing and externalizing problems at 2–3 years of age. In a sample of 70 couples and their children, fathers' depressive symptoms at 1 month postpartum predicted children's internalizing and externalizing problems at 2–3 years of age, and the interaction of fathers' and mothers' depressive symptoms predicted subsequent internalizing problems. Mothers' postpartum symptoms did not predict either type of children's behavior problems at age 2–3. When entered in the regression equations, mothers' depressive symptoms when the children were age 2–3 years accounted for all of the effects of paternal and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms. No evidence was found for the protective effects of marital satisfaction or social support, or for low levels of depressive symptoms in a spouse. We highlight directions for future risk and resilience research related to parental postpartum depression.