The propensity of diets of different composition to promote obesity is a current topic in feline medicine. The effects of three meals with different protein:fat ratios on hormones (insulin, acylated ghrelin and amylin) involved in the control of food intake and glucose metabolism were compared. Five lean (two females and three males, 28·6 (sd 3·4) % body fat mass (BFM), mean body weight (BW) 4590 g) and five obese (two females and three males, 37·1 (sd 4·1) % BFM, mean BW 4670 g) adult cats were studied. Only BFM differed significantly between obese and lean cats. The cats were fed a high-protein (HP), a high-fat and a high-carbohydrate diet in a randomised cross-over design. Food intake did not differ between cats fed on the different diets, but obese cats consumed significantly more energy, expressed as per kg fat-free mass, than lean cats. After a 6-week adaptation period, a test meal was given and blood samples were collected before and 0, 30, 60 and 100 min after the meal. Baseline concentrations of glucose, amylin and acylated ghrelin were higher in obese cats than in lean cats, and obese cats showed the highest postprandial responses of glucose and amylin. The HP diet led to higher postprandial amylin concentrations than the other diets, indicating a possible effect of amino acids on β-cell secretion. Postprandial ghrelin concentrations were unaffected by diet composition. The relationship between insulin, amylin and ghrelin secretion and their relevant roles in food intake and glucose metabolism in cats require further study.