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To estimate the effect of early, regular breast-milk pumping on time to breast-milk feeding (BMF) and exclusive BMF cessation, for working and non-working women.
Using the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II (IFPS II), we estimated weighted hazard ratios (HR) for the effect of regular pumping (participant defined) compared with non-regular/not pumping, reported at month 2, on both time to BMF cessation (to 12 months) and time to exclusive BMF cessation (to 6 months), using inverse probability weights to control confounding.
BMF (n 1624) and exclusively BMF (n 971) IFPS II participants at month 2.
The weighted HR for time to BMF cessation was 1·62 (95 % CI 1·47, 1·78) and for time to exclusive BMF cessation was 1·14 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·25). Among non-working women, the weighted HR for time to BMF cessation was 2·05 (95 % CI 1·84, 2·28) and for time to exclusive BMF cessation was 1·10 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·22). Among working women, the weighted HR for time to BMF cessation was 0·90 (95 % CI 0·75, 1·07) and for time to exclusive BMF cessation was 1·14 (95 % CI 0·96, 1·36).
Overall, regular pumpers were more likely to stop BMF and exclusive BMF than non-regular/non-pumpers. Non-working regular pumpers were more likely than non-regular/non-pumpers to stop BMF. There was no effect among working women. Early, regular pumpers may need specialized support to maintain BMF.
Graphene-covered copper surfaces have been exposed to borazine, (BH)3(NH)3, with the resulting surfaces characterized by low-energy electron microscopy. Although the intent of the experiment was to form hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on top of the graphene, such layers were not obtained. Rather, in isolated surface areas, h-BN is found to form μm-size islands that substitute for the graphene. Additionally, over nearly the entire surface, the properties of the layer that was originally graphene is observed to change in a manner that is consistent with the formation of a mixed h-BN/graphene alloy, i.e., h-BNC alloy. Furthermore, following the deposition of the borazine, a small fraction of the surface is found to consist of bare copper, indicating etching of the overlying graphene. The inability to form h-BN layers on top of graphene is discussed in terms of the catalytic behavior of the underlying copper surface and the decomposition of the borazine on top of the graphene.
Thermal rectification in nanostructured materials is an active topic of research and development. Here it is suggested that porous semiconductor materials can offer an unmatched tailoring of its structural properties, resulting in both the ability to study the effects of nanoscale morphology on thermal rectification phenomenon, and the perspective to achieve large thermal rectification over a wide temperature range in combination with other beneficial properties, such as a wide tunability of thermal conductivity, or optical transparency of the thermally rectifying structure. In this contribution we are presenting the first to our knowledge experimental demonstration of thermal rectification in mesoporous silicon. The influence of pore morphology controlled via Si substrate crystallographic orientation and etching conditions on thermal rectification are studied. The effect of oxidation of the porous material is presented as well. Experimental results are further compared with several recently published theoretical predictions of thermal rectification in similar structures.
We present results of modeling and experimental characterization of thermoelectric (TE) materials built on new fabrication principles, involving the coating of three-dimensionally structured quantum well super-lattice substrates with PbTe/PbSe. A new system for wafer-scale electrochemical deposition of such structures was specifically developed and will be described in this paper. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to measure film thickness and electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine film material concentration. By adjusting deposition parameters, we were able to build stoichiometric PbSe, PbTe and stacked PbSe/PbTe super-lattice films on planar and pre-structured surfaces. The films were thermoelectrically modelled using COMSOL and then characterized using an infrared Seebeck effect measurement system which measured surface heating of the film while measuring the voltage associated with the temperature gradient. We report advances in the design and fabrication of TE materials which improve cost-effectiveness and TE efficiency.
Analyzing a unique module of the General Social Survey, we test hypotheses that three religion dimensions — affiliation with specific religious traditions (belonging), service attendance (behaving), and religious orthodoxy (believing) are associated with compassionate feelings, and that these feelings carry over into support for government efforts to help the poor, blacks, and the sick. The religiously orthodox report more compassionate feelings toward others than do modernists and, partly because of this, are more supportive of government intervention to help the poor. Yet attending religious services frequently does not increase compassionate feelings and makes people less supportive of government efforts to help the poor. There are no differences among religious traditions in compassionate feelings, and the only difference on economic policy preferences is for Black Protestants to support government assistance to blacks. Compassionate feelings have comparable effects to political ideology and party identification on support for government assistance to the disadvantaged and misfortunate. We conclude that people of faith, variously defined, do not constitute a monolithic “Religious Right” and are potentially open to policy appeals from both political parties.
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have emerged as the causes of nosocomial infections in critically ill patients.
To characterize the incidence of these MDR bacteria over time in the military healthcare system, comparing isolates recovered from overseas combat casualties with isolates recovered from local military and civilian patients.
Retrospective electronic records review of culture and/or susceptibility testing results of patients admitted to a military level I trauma center in San Antonio, Texas, during the period from January 2001 through December 2008. Multidrug resistance was defined as the first isolated organism resistant to 3 or more classes of antimicrobial agents.
Over time, the percentage of MDR A. baumannii isolates increased from 4% to 55%, whereas the percentage of MDR P. aeruginosa isolates increased from 2% to 8%. Respiratory tract specimens had a higher percentage of MDR A. baumannii isolates (49%), compared with specimens obtained from blood (30%), wound sites (24%), or urine (19%). No difference in the percentages of MDR P. aeruginosa isolates was observed with regard to source of specimen. The percentage of MDR A. baumannii isolates recovered was higher among patients who had been deployed overseas (52%) than among local patients (20%). When isolates recovered from patients in the burn intensive care unit (53% of MDR A. baumannii isolates) were removed from analysis, the percentage of MDR A. baumannii isolates decreased from 38% to 30% while the percentage of MDR P. aeruginosa isolates remained unaffected.
The percentage of MDR A. baumannii isolates increased in this facility among combat casualties and among local patients, which indicates nosocomial transmission; however, there was no significant increase in the percentage of MDR P. aeruginosa isolates. Isolated changes in the MDR pathogens within a facility can occur. Possible interventions to limit the spread of these organisms could include implementing aggressive infection control practices, controlling antibiotic use, and using active culture surveillance.
Palliative care clinicians and researchers often seek information about patients from informants. This research examines the extent of agreement between information from patients and family caregivers who were asked to serve as collateral sources of information about the patient.
Sixty-six patients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers participated in the study. Two measurement contexts were examined: Direct observation of patients' cognitive performance (Mini-Mental State Examination) was compared with carers' subjective reports about patients' everyday cognition (Cognitive Decline subscale of the Psychogeriatric Assessment Scale), and subjective reports about patient depression were compared between patients and carers who completed parallel forms of the same scale (Geriatric Depression Scale and Geriatric Depression Scale–Collateral Source, respectively). The relationship between patient-completed and carer-completed measures was examined in four ways: the correlation between total scores in the sample, agreement about the prevalence of impaired functioning and of specific symptoms in the sample, agreement concerning whether particular patients showed impaired functioning, and agreement about the presence or absence of a specific symptom for a particular patient.
Although most measures of agreement showed that information provided by patients and carers was related, the magnitude of discrepancies was substantial.
Significance of results:
There was no empirical justification for substituting information from a collateral source for information provided by the patient for any of the measures of agreement for either cognition or depression. The use of information from collateral sources is most appropriate when information from the patient is likely to be incomplete or inaccurate, when insight into caregivers' needs or understanding is sought, and when using a multi-informant approach to assessment.