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The conclusion considers how women’s agency in the circulation of texts was related to their social, cultural and spiritual identities and to the communities to which they belonged. It shows how women’s agency in textual culture in Renaissance Italy has a great deal in common with that of women elsewhere in Europe.
Moving on to the production and the sale of books, the chapter first considers laywomen and nuns as scribes, showing how some convents became centres for the copying of manuscripts for their own use or sometimes for sale. It then studies the ways in which some laywomen were able to contribute to the running of their families’ printing and bookselling businesses, and it describes cases in which some religious orders promoted or even assisted in the printing of books.
The chapter focuses on the initial circulation of texts in written form. It asks how female authors promoted the publication of their own works in manuscript and print, showing how women copied these works or had them copied and how they gradually became more confident in entering the public world of print publication. It considers how women in the role of patrons promoted the circulation of manuscript and printed texts composed by others, mainly by men. It then shows to what extent and why women were chosen to play another kind of role in the print publication of texts, by acting as dedicatees for authors, editors and publishers.
This chapter looks at the last phase of the communications circuits, in which texts move from producers to readers or listeners. It studies the various means through which women of all social classes could encounter texts. It is most concerned with books as objects that women came to own, through gift-giving (especially in the case of Books of Hours), dowries and inheritance, by commissioning manuscripts, through purchases, and through borrowing from other members of their communities. It also considers the contexts in which women could hear texts performed in song or speech. The chapter ends with a case study of the acquisition of books by a prominent Renaissance consort, Isabella d’Este, Marchioness of Mantua.
In recent decades, book historians have become more aware of the social contexts in which books were made and used, and social and cultural historians have furthered the study of the lives and achievements of women during the Renaissance. This book aims to examine the interface between these two fields of study. It makes use of Robert Darnton’s communications circuit, envisaged for print culture, and develops it by applying the concept of the circulation of texts also to manuscript culture. These circuits provide the framework for the three chapters.
During the Italian Renaissance, laywomen and nuns could take part in every stage of the circulation of texts of many kinds, old and new, learned and popular. This first in-depth and integrated analysis of Italian women's involvement in the material textual culture of the period shows how they could publish their own works in manuscript and print and how they promoted the first publication of works composed by others, acting as patrons or dedicatees. It describes how they copied manuscripts and helped to make and sell printed books in collaboration with men, how they received books as gifts and borrowed or bought them, how they commissioned manuscripts for themselves and how they might listen to works in spoken or sung performance. Brian Richardson's richly documented study demonstrates the powerful social function of books in the Renaissance: texts-in-motion helped to shape women's lives and sustain their social and spiritual communities.
Reading—or at least the appearance of reading—is everywhere in To the Lighthouse. The essential power and multiform nature of the scene of reading are evident from the transformations played upon its first appearance in the text: Mrs Ramsay's reading a fairy tale to James. As Mr Ramsay strolls up and observes this tableau, he finds the image iconic and compelling; in short order, he moves over and stands in front of them, displaying his need of sympathy, jealous of the attention given to his son. James, in his turn, tries to use the book to divert the man it had just summoned: “By looking fixedly at the page, he hoped to make him move on; by pointing his finger at a word, he hoped to recall his mother's attention, which, he knew angrily, wavered instantly his father stopped” (37).
But the scene of reading has more power to attract than to repel. James’ stratagem fails, as he suspected it would; Mrs Ramsay ignores him to satisfy her husband's needs. The tropes used to depict this interaction are revealing: after listening to his wife's words of encouragement, Ramsay is described as being “filled with her words, as a child who drops off satisfied” (38). For Mrs Ramsay, this is a much more arduous task than anyone realizes: “the whole fabric fell in exhaustion upon itself, so that she had only strength enough to move her finger, in exquisite abandonment to exhaustion, along the page of Grimm's fairy story” (38).
And what is the story being read to James? It is a misogynistic fairy tale, “The Fisherman and his Wife,” which Jane Marcus has called a sexist parable of “woman's insatiable desire for power” (1987: 154). This odd choice of inner text has occasioned considerable speculation and contradictory responses in the critical literature; it is all the more curious since Woolf chose it to replace other, less offensive fairy tales (“The Three Dwarfs” and “The Three Bears”) in her earlier manuscript. Beth Rigel Daugherty views Mrs Ramsay as one who has been destroyed by the narratives of the patriarchy; her fate is that which Lily must struggle to avoid: “through her use of the fairy tale and the Angel of the house, Woolf shows the implication of patriarchal myths for women— they kill” (1991: 302).
The nucleation and growth of Al on 7 × 7 and
$\sqrt 3 \times \sqrt 3$
R30 Al reconstructed Si(111) that result in strain-free Al overgrown films grown with an atomically abrupt metamorphic interface are compared. The reconstructed surfaces and abrupt strain relaxations are verified using reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The topography of evolution is examined with atomic force microscopy. The growth of Al on both the surfaces exhibits 3D island growth, but the island evolution of growth is dramatically different. On the 7 × 7 surface, mounds formed are uniformly distributed across the substrate, and growth appears to proceed uniformly. Alternatively, on the
$\sqrt 3 \times \sqrt 3$
R30 surface, Al atoms exhibit a clear preference to form mounds near the step edges. During Al growth, mounds increase in size and number, expanding out from step edges until they cover the whole substrate. Consistent expression of a mounded nucleation and growth mode imparts a physical limitation to the achievable surface roughness that may impact the ultimate performance of layered devices such as Josephson junctions that are critical components of superconducting quantum circuits.