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This paper examines the stability of egocentric networks as reported over time using a novel touchscreen-based participant-aided sociogram. Past work has noted the instability of nominated network alters, with a large proportion leaving and reappearing between interview observations. To explain this instability of networks over time, researchers often look to structural embeddedness, namely the notion that alters are connected to other alters within egocentric networks. Recent research has also asked whether the interview situation itself may play a role in conditioning respondents to what might be the appropriate size and shape of a social network, and thereby which alters ought to be nominated or not. We report on change in these networks across three waves and assess whether this change appears to be the result of natural churn in the network or whether changes might be the result of factors in the interview itself, particularly anchoring and motivated underreporting. Our results indicate little change in average network size across waves, particularly for indirect tie nominations. Slight, significant changes were noted between waves one and two particularly among those with the largest networks. Almost no significant differences were observed between waves two and three, either in terms of network size, composition, or density. Data come from three waves of a Chicago-based panel study of young men who have sex with men.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs typically use days of therapy to assess antimicrobial use. However, this metric does not account for the antimicrobial spectrum of activity. We applied an antibiotic spectrum index to a population of very-low-birth-weight infants to assess its utility to evaluate the impact of antimicrobial stewardship interventions.
To evaluate the clinical impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on high-risk pediatric patients.
Retrospective cohort study.
Free-standing pediatric hospital.
This study included patients who received an ASP review between March 3, 2008, and March 2, 2017, and were considered high-risk, including patients receiving care by the neonatal intensive care (NICU), hematology/oncology (H/O), or pediatric intensive care (PICU) medical teams.
The ASP recommendations included stopping antibiotics; modifying antibiotic type, dose, or duration; or obtaining an infectious diseases consultation. The outcomes evaluated in all high-risk patients with ASP recommendations were (1) hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection, (2) mortality, and (3) 30-day readmission. Subanalyses were conducted to evaluate hospital length of stay (LOS) and tracheitis treatment failure. Multivariable generalized linear models were performed to examine the relationship between ASP recommendations and each outcome after adjusting for clinical service and indication for treatment.
The ASP made 2,088 recommendations, and 50% of these recommendations were to stop antibiotics. Recommendation agreement occurred in 70% of these cases. Agreement with an ASP recommendation was not associated with higher odds of mortality or hospital readmission. Patients with a single ASP review and agreed upon recommendation had a shorter median LOS (10.2 days vs 13.2 days; P < .05). The ASP recommendations were not associated with high rates of tracheitis treatment failure.
ASP recommendations do not result in worse clinical outcomes among high-risk pediatric patients. Most ASP recommendations are to stop or to narrow antimicrobial therapy. Further work is needed to enhance stewardship efforts in high-risk pediatric patients.
We retrospectively evaluated the effect of penicillin adverse drug reaction (ADR) labeling on surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. Cefazolin was administered in 86% of penicillin ADR-negative (−) and 28% penicillin ADR-positive (+) cases. Broad-spectrum antibiotic use was more common in ADR(+) cases and was more commonly associated with perioperative adverse drug events.
Prior evolutionary theory provided reason to suspect that measures of development and reproduction would be correlated with antisocial behaviours in human and non-human species. Behavioural genetics has revealed that most quantitative traits are heritable, suggesting that these phenotypic correlations may share genetic aetiologies. We use genome-wide association study data to estimate the genetic correlations between various measures of reproductive development (N = 52 776–318 863) and antisocial behaviour (N = 31 968). Our genetic correlation analyses demonstrate that alleles associated with higher reproductive output (number of children ever born, rg = 0.50, P = 0.0065) were positively correlated with alleles associated with antisocial behaviour, whereas alleles associated with more delayed reproductive onset (age at first birth, rg = −0.64, P = 0.0008) were negatively associated with alleles linked to antisocial behaviour. Ultimately, these findings coalesce with evolutionary theories suggesting that increased antisocial behaviours may partly represent a faster life history approach, which may be significantly calibrated by genes.
We observed pediatric S. aureus hospitalizations decreased 36% from 26.3 to 16.8 infections per 1,000 admissions from 2009 to 2016, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) decreasing by 52% and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus decreasing by 17%, among 39 pediatric hospitals. Similar decreases were observed for days of therapy of anti-MRSA antibiotics.
Modifiable factors associated with increased risk of cognitive decline include emotional (anxiety, depression), cognitive (low social and mental stimulation), and health factors (smoking, alcohol use, sedentary lifestyle, obesity). Older adults with anxiety and depression may be at heightened risk due to direct and indirect impacts of emotional distress on cognitive decline.
Randomized controlled trial
Community sample attending a university clinic. Participants: 27 participants (female = 20) aged over 65 years (M = 72.56, SD = 6.74) with an anxiety and/or mood disorder. Interventions: two cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions (face-to-face or low intensity) that targeted emotional, health, and cognitive risks for cognitive decline.
Participants completed diagnostic interviews; self-report measures of anxiety, depression, quality of life, and lifestyle factors at baseline; post-treatment; and 3-month follow-up.
Both interventions resulted in significant and sustained improvements in depression, anxiety, quality of life, and physical and social activity. At post-treatment, face-to-face CBT demonstrated significantly greater improvements in emotional symptoms, alcohol use, and memory (exercise approached significance). At 3-month follow-up, gains were maintained and there were significantly greater increases in mental activity for face-to-face CBT, with social activity approaching significance. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of CBT interventions to reduce emotional as well as lifestyle risk factors associated with cognitive decline in at-risk older participants. Large studies are needed to evaluate the long-term impact on cognitive decline. The trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (Trial Registration No. ACTRN12618000939291).
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: A brain-machine interface (BMI) is a device implanted into the brain of a paralyzed or injured patient to control an external assistive device, such as a cursor on a computer screen, a motorized wheelchair, or a robotic limb. We hypothesize we can utilize electrical stimulation of subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) electrodes as a method of generating the percepts of somatosensation such as vibration, temperature, or proprioception. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: There will be 10 subjects, who are informed, willing, and consented epilepsy patients undergoing initial surgery for placement of subdural ECoG electrodes in the brain for seizure monitoring. ECoG will be used as a platform for recording high-resolution local field potentials during real-touch behavioral tasks. In addition, ECoG will also be used to electrically stimulate the human cerebral cortex in order to map and understand how varying stimulation parameters produce percepts of sensation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: To determine how tactile and proprioceptive signals are integrated in S1, we will perform spectral analysis of the broadband local field potentials to look for increased power in specific frequency bands in the ECoG recordings while touching or moving the hand. To explore generating artificial sensation, the subject will be asked to perform a variety of tasks with and without the aid of stimulation. We anticipate the subject’s performance will be enhanced with the addition of artificial sensation. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Many patients might benefit from a BMI, such as those with stroke, amputation, spinal cord injury, or brain trauma. The current generation of BMI devices are guided by visual feedback alone. However, without somatosensory feedback, even the most basic limb movements are difficult to perform in a fluid and natural manner. The results from this project will be crucial to developing a closed loop motor/sensory BMI.
There is remarkably little documented information in the scientific literature on any of the 18 species of buttonquail as they are very difficult to observe in the wild. This lack of information has hampered informed conservation decision making. We undertook the first biome-wide survey for the fynbos endemic Hottentot Buttonquail Turnix hottentottus, using flush transect surveys covering 275 km. We used location data for sightings as well as from records reported by the bird-watching community and modelled distribution using MaxEnt. Encounters were restricted to the fynbos biome, and the top contributors to our prediction of suitable habitat were habitat transformation, slope and time since fire. We obtained a density estimate of 0.032 individuals per hectare which, across an estimated median range of 27,855 km2, provides a population estimate of 89,136 individuals. Given the extent of the range and the population estimate we suggest the IUCN Red List status could be ‘Vulnerable’, rather than ‘Endangered’. Agricultural and alien-vegetation encroachment means that the future of the species is certainly under threat and further studies are needed to inform conservation management.
Maternal vitamin D deficiency may increase risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but direct evidence is lacking.
To clarify the relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency and offspring risk of ASD with and without intellectual disability.
Using a register-based total population study (N=509 639), we calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIS) of ASD with and without intellectual disability in relation to lifetime diagnoses of maternal vitamin D deficiency. Although rare, such deficiency was associated with offspring risk of ASD with, but not without, intellectual disability (aORs 2.51, 95% CI 1.22–5.16 and 1.28, 0.68–2.42). Relationships were stronger in non-immigrant children.
If reflecting associations for prenatal hypovitaminosis, these findings imply gestational vitamin D substitution as a means of ASD prevention.
We present our recent revision of model constructions for the horizontal-branch (HB) morphology of globular clusters, which suggests the HB morphology is more sensitive to age compared to our earlier models. We also present our high precision CCD photometry for the classic second parameter pair M3 and M13. The relative age dating based on this photometry indicates that M13 is indeed older than M3 by 1.7 Gyr. This is consistent with the age difference predicted from our new models, which provides a further support that the HB morphology is a reliable age indicator in most population II stellar systems.
In very low birth weight infants, persistence of a patent ductus arteriosus results in morbidity and mortality. Therapies to close the ductus are effective, but clinical outcomes may depend on the accuracy of diagnosis and the timing of administration. The objective of the present study was to characterise the association between early echocardiography, therapy for patent ductus arteriosus, and outcomes in very low birth weight infants.
This retrospective cohort study used electronic health record data on inborn infants of gestational age ⩽28 weeks and birth weight <1500 g who were discharged after day of life 7 from 362 neonatal ICU from 1997 to 2013. The primary outcome was death between day of life 7 and discharge. Secondary outcomes included bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotising enterocolitis, and grade 3 or 4 intraventricular haemorrhage.
This study included a total of 48,551 infants with a median gestational age of 27 weeks (interquartile range 25, 28) and birth weight 870 g (706, 1050). Early echocardiography – that is, performed during days of life 2 to 6 – was performed in 15,971/48,551 (33%) infants, and patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed in 31,712/48,551 (65%). The diagnosis was more common in infants who had undergone early echocardiography (14,549/15,971 [91%] versus 17,163/32,580 [53%], p<0.001). In multivariable analysis, early echocardiography was not associated with reduced mortality (odds ratio 0.97, 95% CI 0.89–1.05). Results were similar in the subset of infants who received therapy for patent ductus arteriosus (odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.90–1.15).
Early echocardiography was associated with an increased diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus, but not with decreased mortality.
We analyzed antifungal and antiviral prescribing among high-risk children across freestanding children’s hospitals. Antifungal and antiviral days of therapy varied across hospitals. Benchmarking antifungal and antiviral use and developing antimicrobial stewardship strategies to optimize use of these high cost agents is needed.
Inappropriate use of antipsychotic medications to manage Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) continues despite revised guidelines and evidence for the associated risks and side effects. The aim of the Halting Antipsychotic Use in Long-Term care (HALT) project is to identify residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities on antipsychotic medications, and undertake an intervention to deprescribe (or cease) these medicines and improve non-pharmacological behavior management.
LTC facilities will be recruited across Sydney, Australia. Resident inclusion criteria will be aged over 60 years, on regular antipsychotic medication, and without a primary psychotic illness or very severe BPSD, as measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Data collection will take place one month and one week prior to commencement of deprescribing; and 3, 6 and 12 months later. During the period prior to deprescribing, training will be provided for care staff on how to reduce and manage BPSD using person-centered approaches, and general practitioners of participants will be provided academic detailing. The primary outcome measure will be reduction of regular antipsychotic medication without use of substitute psychotropic medications. Secondary outcome measures will be NPI total and domain scores, Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory scores and adverse events, including falls and hospitalizations.
While previous studies have described strategies to minimize inappropriate use of antipsychotic medications in people with dementia living in long-term care, sustainability and a culture of prescribing for BPSD in aged care remain challenges. The HALT project aims to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-disciplinary approach for deprescribing antipsychotics in this population.
The mechanical properties of organic electronic materials and interfaces play a central role in determining the manufacturability and reliability of flexible and stretchable organic electronic devices. The synergistic effects of mechanical stress and deformation, together with other operating parameters such as temperature and temperature cycling, and exposure to solar radiation, moisture, and other environmental species are particularly important for longer-term device stability. We review recent studies of basic mechanical properties such as adhesion and cohesion, stiffness, yield behavior, and ductility of organic semiconducting materials, and their connection to underlying molecular structure. We highlight thin-film metrologies to probe the mechanical behavior, including when subjected to simulated operational conditions. We also report on strategies for improving reliability through interface engineering and tailoring material chemistry and molecular structure. These studies provide insights into how these metrologies and metrics inform the development of materials and devices for improved reliability.
Mealtime interventions typically focus on institutionalised older adults, but we wanted to investigate whether they may also be effective among those living independently. Using a randomised controlled trial design, we assessed the effects of a novel mealtime intervention on self-efficacy, food enjoyment and energy intake. A total of 100 adults living alone aged over 60 years were randomised to the treatment or control conditions: all received a guidebook on nutrition and culinary skills. Treatment group participants received a weekly visit from a trained volunteer who prepared and shared a meal with them. Participants in the treatment group showed improvements relative to those in the control group at borderline significance (P=0·054) for self-efficacy and at significance for food enjoyment. Significant improvements were observed in female participants in the treatment but not in the control group in energy intake (although following corrections for multiple comparisons, only the effect on food enjoyment remained significant). These findings will inform the design of future complex interventions. For this type of intervention to be successful, more focus has to be placed on making interventions more personalised, potentially according to sex. Findings are important for nutritional sciences as they indicate that, in order to improve energy intake and food enjoyment among older adults, multimodal nutritional interventions including social components may be successful.
The characterization of late Holocene climates in northern Australia has, in the past, been based on local investigations. This examination of the chenier record of northern Australia indicates that there has been a statistically significant regional change in conditions between 1600–2800 years bp, possibly a period of relative aridity. Support for this conclusion may be found in the vegetation record from the Atherton Tableland where numerical comparisons of dryland fossil and modern pollen spectra suggest that rainfall may have been up to 50% higher during the period 7000 to 3000 bp.