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To investigate an outbreak of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)–producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and determine interventions to interrupt transmission.
Design, Setting, and Patients.
Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of NDM-producing CRE among patients at a Colorado acute care hospital.
Case patients had NDM-producing CRE isolated from clinical or rectal surveillance cultures (SCs) collected during the period January 1, 2012, through October 20, 2012. Case patients were identified through microbiology records and 6 rounds of SCs in hospital units where they had resided. CRE isolates were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for blaNDM. Medical records were reviewed for epidemiologic links; relatedness of isolates was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Infection control (IC) was assessed through staff interviews and direct observations.
Two patients were initially identified with NDM-producing CRE during July–August 2012. A third case patient, admitted in May, was identified through microbiology records review. SC identified 5 additional case patients. Patients had resided in 11 different units before identification. All isolates were highly related by PFGE. WGS suggested 3 clusters of CRE. Combining WGS with epidemiology identified 4 units as likely transmission sites. NDM-producing CRE positivity in certain patients was not explained by direct epidemiologic overlap, which suggests that undetected colonized patients were involved in transmission.
A 4-month outbreak of NDM-producing CRE occurred at a single hospital, highlighting the risk for spread of these organisms. Combined WGS and epidemiologic data suggested transmission primarily occurred on 4 units. Timely SC, combined with targeted IC measures, were likely responsible for controlling transmission.
To describe the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) carriage and acquisition among hospitalized patients in an area of CRE endemicity.
Cohort study with a nested case-control study.
Two acute care, academic hospitals in New York City.
All patients admitted to 7 study units, including intensive care, medical-surgical, and acute rehabilitation units.
Perianal samples were collected from patients at admission and weekly thereafter to detect asymptomatic gastrointestinal carriage of CRE. A nested case-control study was performed to identify factors associated with CRE acquisition. Case patients were those who acquired CRE during a single hospitalization. Control subjects had no microbiologic evidence of CRE and at least 1 negative surveillance sample. Clinical data were abstracted from the medical record.
The prevalence of CRE in the study population was 5.4% (306 of 5,676 patients), and 104 patients met the case definition of acquisition during a single hospital stay. Mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 11.5), pulmonary disease (OR, 5.2), days of antibiotic therapy (OR, 1.04), and CRE colonization pressure (OR, 1.15) were independently associated with CRE acquisition. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis identified 87% of tested Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates as sharing related patterns (greater than 78% similarity), which suggests clonal transmission within and between the study hospitals.
Critical illness and underlying medical conditions, CRE colonization pressure, and antimicrobial exposure are important risk factors for CRE acquisition. Adherence to infection control practices and antimicrobial stewardship appear to be critical components of a CRE control program.
To describe a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) outbreak and interventions to prevent transmission.
Design, Setting, and Patients.
Epidemiologic investigation of a CRE outbreak among patients at a long-term acute care hospital (LTACH).
Microbiology records at LTACH A from March 2009 through February 2011 were reviewed to identify CRE transmission cases and cases admitted with CRE. CRE bacteremia episodes were identified during March 2009–July 2011. Biweekly CRE prevalence surveys were conducted during July 2010–July 2011, and interventions to prevent transmission were implemented, including education and auditin? of staff and isolation and cohorting of CRE patients with dedicated nursing staff and shared medical equipment. Trends were evaluated using weighted linear or Poisson regression. CRE transmission cases were included in a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for acquisition. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect the blaKPC gene, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to assess the genetic relatedness of isolates.
Ninety-nine CRE transmission cases, 16 admission cases (from 7 acute care hospitals), and 29 CRE bacteremia episodes were identified. Significant reductions were observed in CRE prevalence (49% vs 8%), percentage of patients screened with newly detected CRE (44% vs 0%), and CRE bacteremia episodes (2.5 vs 0.0 per 1,000 patient-days). Cases were more likely to have received β-lactams, have diabetes, and require mechanical ventilation. All tested isolates were KPC-producing K. pneumoniae, and nearly all isolates were genetically related.
CRE transmission can be reduced in LTACHs through surveillance testing and targeted interventions. Sustainable reductions within and across healthcare facilities may require a regional public health approach.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33(10):984-992
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