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Trials were conducted in two experimental runs at the Purdue University Horticulture Greenhouses, West Lafayette, IN, to determine ‘Redefined Murray Mitcham’ peppermint tolerance to tiafenacil. Established peppermint in 20-cm-diameter polyethylene pots was subjected to a simulated harvest by removing aboveground biomass at the substrate surface; then, tiafenacil was applied at 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 g ai ha−1. Visible crop injury, height, and aboveground dry biomass data were subjected to regression analysis to generate predictive models. At 2 wk after treatment (WAT), peppermint injury increased from 63% to 86% and from 25% to 76% in Experimental Run 1 and 2, respectively, as tiafenacil rate increased from 25 to 200 g ha−1. At 4 WAT, injury increased from 0% to 63% and from 4% to 37% in Experimental Run 1 and 2, respectively, as tiafenacil rate increased from 25 to 200 g ha−1. By 7 WAT (both experimental runs), injury increased from 0% to 17% as tiafenacil rate increased from 25 to 200 g ha−1. At 4 WAT, height decreased from 23.0 to 8.6 cm and from 17.6 to 10.3 cm in Experimental Run 1 and 2, respectively, as tiafenacil rate increased from 0 to 200 g ha−1. At 7 WAT, height decreased from 28.1 to 21.4 cm as tiafenacil rate increased from 0 to 200 g ha−1. Aboveground dry weight of the nontreated check was 20.3 g pot−1 and decreased from 19.3 to 7.0 g pot−1 as tiafenacil rate increased from 25 to 200 g ha−1. Despite acute necrosis, injury from tiafenacil at lower rates was not persistent. The proposed 1X rate of tiafenacil for peppermint, 25 g ha−1, resulted in ≤4% injury 4 and 7 WAT and in only a 3% reduction in plant height and a 4.7% reduction in aboveground dry weight compared to the nontreated check.
There is zero tolerance for dicamba and dicamba metabolite residue in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit following exposure to dicamba. Field trials were conducted in 2020 and 2021 to determine the persistence of dicamba and metabolite (5-hydroxy dicamba and 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid [DCSA]) residue in processing tomato shoots and fruits. Dicamba was applied 49 d after transplanting at 0, 0.53, 5.3, and 53 g ae ha−1. Tomato plants were harvested 5, 10, 20, 40, and 61 d after treatment (DAT). No 5-hydroxy dicamba was recovered from any sample. In 2020, the DCSA metabolite was detected from tomato shoot tissue when dicamba was applied at the 53 g ha−1 rate at 0 (14 µg kg−1), 5 (3 µg kg−1), and 20 DAT (5 µg kg−1) and from tomato fruit tissue at 53 g ha−1 at 20 (2 µg kg−1) and 61 DAT (2 µg kg−1). In 2021, DCSA was not detected from tomato shoot or fruit tissues at any harvest date. By 5 DAT, dicamba was only detected from tomato shoot tissues treated with 53 g ha−1. At 0 DAT, dicamba residue was detectable only from tomato fruit on plants treated with 53 g ha−1. Tomato fruit dicamba residue from plants treated with 5.3 g ha−1 had a predicted peak of 19 µg kg−1 at 11.3 DAT. Tomato fruit dicamba residue from plants treated with 53 g ha−1 decreased from 164 to 8 µg kg−1 from 5 to 61 DAT. Furthermore, this study confirms that dicamba is detectable from tomato fruits at 61 DAT following exposure to 5.3 or 53 g ha−1 dicamba. Growers who suspect dicamba exposure should include tomato fruit tissue with their collected sample or sample tomato fruits separately.
All herbicides will move off-target to sensitive crops when not applied correctly. Therefore, low-dose applications of flumioxazin and metribuzin were evaluated in soybean at the unifoliate, V2, and V4 growth stages. Rates evaluated were 12.5%, 25%, and 50% of the labeled use rates of 72 and 316 g ai ha−1 of flumioxazin and metribuzin, respectively. Flumioxazin injury was characterized by necrosis and visible height and width reduction. Injury increased with rate 3 d after treatment (DAT), with unifoliate, V2, and V4 soybean injured 15% to 30%, 18% to 27%, and 5% to 8%, respectively. Unifoliate and V4 soybean were injured more than V4 soybean 3 to 14 DAT, but injury decreased to <5% by 42 DAT. Soybean yields in the flumioxazin study were 92% to 96% of the nontreated, resulting in a yield loss of 196 to 393 kg ha−1 and a revenue loss of 71 to 141 US$ ha−1. Metribuzin injury was primarily chlorosis with necrosis and a visible reduction in soybean height and width. Soybean at the V2 growth stage was injured 14% more than V4 soybean 3 DAT, regardless of metribuzin rate. Injury to V2 and V4 soybean was similar 14 DAT, with injury of 21% to 40% across rates. Soybean injury when treated at the V2 and V4 growth stages was 6% to 29% 42 DAT compared to unifoliate soybean at 0 to 17%. Soybean yields in the metribuzin study yields were 96% to 98% of the nontreated. However, a 2% to 4% reduction equates to a loss of 90 to 180 kg ha−1 and a revenue loss of 32 to 65 US$ ha−1. Unifoliate and V2 soybean are more sensitive to a low dose of flumioxazin POST, and V2 and V4 soybean are more sensitive to a low dose of metribuzin POST. Injury and the impact on soybean growth could potentially cause economic loss for a soybean producer.
Henbit is a winter annual weed that is not effectively controlled by spring-applied herbicide applications. Research was conducted to determine henbit’s emergence pattern and whether fall-applied residual herbicides would be effective for henbit control in the spring. Henbit emerges in Louisiana from late October through March, but emergence predominantly occurs in the last week of October through the first week of December. Applying paraquat plus flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, or rimsulfuron:thifensulfuron November 1 through December 15 provided better than 90% henbit control in March. Applying paraquat plus S-metolachlor on November 15 or December 1 provided 92% henbit control, which was similar to flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, and rimsulfuron:thifensulfuron. The addition of flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, or rimsulfuron:thifensulfuron to paraquat reduced the height of henbit plants by 4% to 22% of nontreated plants when applied November 1 through December 15. These studies indicate that crop producers can achieve control of henbit in March following November 1 through December 15 applications of paraquat plus flumioxazin or rimsulfuron:thifensulfuron; however, paraquat plus oxyfluorfen can be applied October 15 through December 15 to achieve similar control.
Field experiments were conducted in Louisiana and Mississippi from 2011 through 2013 to evaluate crop injury, weed control, and yield in field corn following pyroxasulfone applied PRE and POST. Pyroxasulfone PRE or POST did not injure corn at any evaluation. Barnyardgrass control was not improved with the addition of any POST treatment to pyroxasulfone alone or atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE; however, all POST treatments increased barnyardgrass control to at least 95% at all evaluations following atrazine PRE. All treatments that contained a PRE followed by POST application controlled browntop millet ≥90% at all evaluations. All POST treatments increased ivyleaf morningglory control to ≥92% following atrazine or pyroxasulfone alone PRE. However, control with atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE was similar or greater 28 d after POST than all treatments that received a POST application. In the absence of a POST treatment, pyroxasulfone or atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE controlled Palmer amaranth 93 to 96% at all evaluations, but atrazine alone PRE provided 84, 82, and 66% control 7, 14, and 28 d after POST, respectively. All programs that contained a PRE followed by POST herbicide treatment controlled Palmer amaranth >90% at all evaluations. Corn yield following all treatments except atrazine alone PRE and the nontreated were similar and ranged from 10990 to 12330 kg ha−1. This research demonstrated that pyroxasulfone can be a valuable tool for weed management in a corn weed management program.
Weed-free field experiments were conducted to evaluate soybean injury, growth, and yield following PRE or POST pyroxasulfone application. Soybean was injured 1 and 15% following pyroxasulfone PRE and POST application, respectively, 7 d after treatment (DAT). Injury following PRE and POST application was observed as delayed emergence and leaf necrosis and crinkling, respectively. Injury ranged from 0 to 6% following both application timings 14 and 28 DAT. Soybean was injured 5% or less following 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 g ha−1 of pyroxasulfone. Soybean plant population, height, and yield were not affected by pyroxasulfone application timing. Only 300 g ha−1 of pyroxasulfone reduced soybean plant population to 90% of the nontreated 30 d after PRE. Pyroxasulfone rate did not influence soybean heights and yield. Data indicates that pyroxasulfone can safely be applied to soybean without a detrimental effect on plant growth or yield.
Johnsongrass populations that are resistant to 5-enolpyruvyl-3-shikimate synthase (EPSPS)–, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)–, or acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides are increasingly common throughout the midsouth. Three trials were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 in Fayetteville, AR and Alexandria, LA to evaluate strategies with and without ALS- and ACCase inhibitors for management of rhizomatous johnsongrass in the absence of glyphosate. Fluometuron or fluometuron plus pyrithiobac applied PRE followed by (fb) EPOST, MPOST, and LAYBY tank mixtures containing multiple effective mechanisms of action (MOA) controlled johnsongrass at least 90%. Simplifying the program by removing a herbicide or eliminating an application timing reduced control, and increased vegetative and sexual reproduction of johnsongrass. To manage severe infestations or escapes glufosinate plus clethodim fb glufosinate plus clethodim or clethodim plus pyrithiobac fb clethodim) effectively controlled 15-cm johnsongrass. However, johnsongrass control was reduced when ALS and ACCase inhibitors were tank mixed, especially for the second POST application, compared to ACCase inhibitors alone. Effective herbicide programs are available to growers to control johnsongrass in the absence of glyphosate, but the use of PRE herbicides followed by multiple applications of POST herbicides is critical for successful management.
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