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Ural Federal University is one of the main and most effective centers for educating young astronomers in Russia. The traditional student scientific conferences “Physics of Space” have been successfully held annually in Kourovka Astronomical Observatory of the Ural Federal University for 50 years and have gained recognition not only in Russia. The conference initiated many educational initiatives both in the Ural region and, in general, in Russia. The astronomy education system implemented by UrFU and partners includes the following activities: 1) education and career guidance of schoolchildren in the Lyceum of UrFU, 2) activities to attract applicants, 3) training at the speciality, undergraduate, and graduate level, 4) participation in the student conferences “Physics of Space”, 5) postgraduate studies, 6) cooperation in the field of education. This activity ensures the attraction of promising youth to scientific research.
Background: Hospitalization data underestimate the occurrence of transient ischemic attack (TIA). As TIA is frequently diagnosed in primary care, methodologies for the accurate ascertainment of a TIA from physician claims data are required for surveillance and health systems planning in this population. The present study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of multiple algorithms for TIA from a longitudinal population-based physician billing database. Methods: Population-based administrative data from the province of British Columbia were used to identify the base population (1992–2007; N=102,492). Using discharge records for hospital admissions for acute ischemic stroke with a recent (<90 days) TIA as the reference standard, we performed receiver-operating characteristic analyses to calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall accuracy, and to compare area under the curve for each physician billing algorithm. To evaluate the impact of different case definitions on population-based TIA burden, we also estimated the annual TIA occurrence associated with each algorithm. Results: Physician billing algorithms showed low to moderate sensitivity, with the algorithm for two consecutive physician visits within 90 days showing the highest sensitivity at 37.7% (CI95%=37.4–38.1). All algorithms demonstrated high specificity and moderate to high overall accuracy, resulting in low positive predictive values (≤5%), low discriminability (0.53–0.57) and high false positive rates (1 – specificity). Population-based estimates of TIA occurrence were comparable to prior studies and declined over time. Conclusions: Physician billing data have insufficient sensitivity to identify TIAs but may be used in combination with hospital discharge data to improve the accuracy of estimating the population-based occurrence of TIAs.
This article aims to explore the microfoundations of political support under a nondemocratic regime by investigating the impact of a natural disaster on attitudes toward the government. The research exploits the enormous wildfires that occurred in rural Russia during the summer of 2010 as a natural experiment. The authors test the effects of fires with a survey of almost eight hundred respondents in seventy randomly selected villages. The study finds that in the burned villages there is higher support for the government at all levels. Most counterintuitively, the rise of support for authorities cannot be fully explained by the generous governmental aid. The authors interpret the results by the demonstration effect of the government's performance.
Nonadherence to prescribed medication is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as the increased use of health services. The main objective of our study was to assess the incidence of prescription-filling and medication adherence in patients discharged from the emergency department (ED).
This was a prospective, observational study carried out at a Canadian tertiary care ED with an annual census of 69 000. We enrolled a convenience sample of patients being discharged with a prescription. We queried a provincial prescription-dispensing database 2 weeks later to determine whether prescriptions had been filled. We used a standardized follow-up interview to assess adherence and whether or not the patient experienced an adverse drug-related event (ADRE) or an unplanned revisit to an ED or clinic.
Of the 301 patients who agreed to participate, follow-up was successful for 258 (85.7%). Fifty-one patients (19.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 15.4%–25.1%) failed to fill their discharge prescriptions and 104 (40.3%, 95% CI 34.5%–46.4%) did not adhere to 1 or more medications. Antibiotics were associated with a lower odds ratio (OR) of nonadherence (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.08–0.52). There was a trend toward increasing nonadherence in patients who reported an ADRE (OR 1.84, 95% CI 0.98–3.48) or had 2 or more medications coprescribed (OR 1.71, 95% CI 0.95–3.09). There was also a trend toward a higher risk of a revisit to an ED or clinic in nonadherent patients (OR 1.75, 95% CI 0.94–3.25).
Approximately 4 in 10 patients discharged from the ED did not adhere to his or her prescribed medication. Our results suggest that patients who are prescribed antibiotics are more likely to be adherent, and that further evaluation of the associations between nonadherence, ADREs, the coprescription of 2 or more medications and the use of health services is warranted.
Fluoride compounds with the tysonite (LaF3- type) crystal structure form an important class of materials which find diverse technological applications as fast ionic conductors. The results of investigations of the ionic conductivity process within tysonite structured R1-xMxF3-x single crystals (R=rare earths and M=alkali-rare earths) are presented using various techniques of electrical response spectroscopy. Influence of isomorphic substitutions of iso- and heterovalent cations on ion transport parameters was studied. By monitoring the composition of nonstoichiometric R1-xMxF3-x. crystals we can vary fluorine-ion conductivity within the range 10−7 - 10−4 S/cm at 293 K and 10−4 - 10−2 S/cm at 500 K. The studied nonstoichiometric crystals with the LaF3-structure are promising solid electrolytes which can be used in chemical sensors and fluorine generators.
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