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Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a rare complication of Kawasaki disease and appears in <0.1% of Kawasaki disease patients. We report a case of refractory Kawasaki disease complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation and giant coronary aneurysm. A 5-month-old boy presented with Kawasaki disease with coagulopathy. Although the coagulopathy improved after fresh-frozen plasma and antithrombin-III administration, the fever persisted despite two rounds of intravenous immunoglobulin, along with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy and infliximab administration. Despite all efforts to treatment, the patient had giant coronary aneurysms and died suddenly.
The occurrence of a relapse during abstinence is an important issue that must be addressed during treatment for drug addiction. We investigated the influence of drug exposure pattern on morphine-seeking behaviour following withdrawal. We also studied the role of the hippocampus in this process to confirm its involvement in drug relapse.
Male Sprague–Dawley rats that were trained to self-administer morphine (1.0 mg/kg) using 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 h daily sessions underwent withdrawal in their home cages and were re-exposed to the operant chamber to evaluate morphine-seeking behaviour. During the relapse session, rats were intravenously injected with morphine (0.25 mg/kg) or saline before re-exposure to the chamber. In the second experiment, rats were administered a microinjection of saline or cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 1 mM), a synaptic blocker, into the CA1 of the hippocampus prior to the relapse test.
In the first experiment, more morphine-seeking behaviour was observed in the 2 h group (animals trained to self-administer morphine during a 2 h daily session spread over 21 days) during the relapse session, despite all groups being exposed to similar amounts of morphine during the training period before withdrawal. In the second experiment, pretreatment with CoCl2 markedly reduced morphine-seeking behaviour in the 2 h group.
The present findings suggest that the exposure pattern influences the degree of relapse and that control of memorisation is important for prevention of relapse.
Using immunostaining methodology, we traced the axonal projection of FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2)-like immunoreactive (LI) medial neurosecretory cells (MNCs) and lateral neurosecretory cells (LNCs) from the brain into the ventral nerve cord (VNC) and retrocerebral complex in Bombyx mori (L.) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Of the seven pairs of FMRFamide-LI MNCs, one pair extended its axons from the brain pars intercerebralis into the VNC ipsilateral connective where they appeared to terminate. The axons of the remaining MNCs ran through decussation in the brain median region and contralateral nervi corporis cardiaci (NCC) I out of the brain, and eventually innervated the contralateral corpus cardiacum (CC). Axons from the single pair of FMRFamide-LI LNCs projected into the ipsilateral NCC II fused with NCC I without decussation in the brain, and finally terminated in the CC. These results suggest that transport of the FMRFamide-like neuropeptide from may be related to the modulation of functions such as gut contraction in MNCs terminating in the VNC, and regulation of production and/or secretion of specific hormones such as juvenile hormone in MNCs and LNCs terminating in the CC.
We investigated the pressure dependence of the inductive coupled plasma (ICP) oxidation on the electrical characteristics of the thin oxide films. Activation energies and electron temperatures with different pressures were estimated. To demonstrate the pressure effect on the plasma oxide quality, simple N type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) transistors were fabricated and investigated in a few electrical properties. At higher pressure than 200mTorr, plasma oxide has a slightly higher on-current and a lower interfacial trap density. The on-current gain seems to be related to the field mobility increase and the lower defective interface to the electron temperature during oxidation.
Monoclinic gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) nanowires were catalytically synthesized by electric arc discharge of GaN powders mixed with a small amount (less than 5 %) of transition metals under a pressure of 500 Torr (80 %-Ar + 20 %-O2). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images showed that the average diameter of the wires were about 30 nm and their lengths were as long as up to one hundred micrometer, resulting in extremely large aspect ratio. Fourier diffractogram was indicative of single crystalline nature of the β-Ga2O3 wire. HRTEM image also showed β-Ga2O3 with twin defects at the center of the wire which might play as nucleation seeds. Both X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and FT-Raman spectra of the wires identified the observed nanowires as monoclinic crystalline gallium oxides.
Multiaxial deformation of Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 metallic glass was investigated by instrumented indentation tests with a spherical indenter. Contrary to the elastic–rigid-plastic behavior of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), indentation pressure showed a significant increase with increasing indentation strain, and it was ascribed to a rapid transition of the plastic constraint factor (PCF). However, it was impossible to measure the PCF values from the indentation pressures in the Zr-based BMG because information on uniaxial flow stress was insufficient due to the limited flow strain of 2.2%. Here we developed a PCF assessment method using a relative residual depth hf/hmax, which was experimentally confirmed by adopting it to spherical indentations of a steel sample having well-known flow properties. Flow properties of the BMG were calculated using the new PCF assessment method, and the effects of the materials pileup and low strain indentations on PCF and flow properties were discussed.
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