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Before 2012, Commission 34 was identical to Division VI. The organization and executive officers of the Division and the Commission were the same. At the 2012 General Assembly (GA) in Beijing, the IAU reformed the divisional structure and the previous Division VI which Commission 34 was under was combined with Div VII to form Division H: Interstellar Matter and Local Universe. Ewine van Dishoeck was named by the IAU executive committee as the President of the new Division. Since the Commission structure is to be reformed at the GA of 2015, Commission 34 retains its original name “Interstellar Matter” and joined Commissions 33 and 37 (formally under Division VII) as commissions under the new Division H.
We present the results of near-infrared (NIR) imaging and spectroscopic observations of the Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). Applying the method of Principal Component Analysis to our broadband NIR spectra, we identify a total of 61 NIR emission knots of Cas A and classify them into three groups of distinct spectral characteristics: Helium-rich, Sulfur-rich, and Iron-rich groups. The first and second groups are of the circumstellar and supernova ejecta origin, respectively. The third group, which has enhanced iron emission, is of particular interests since it shows intermediate characteristics between the former two groups. We suggest that the Iron-rich group is knots of swept-up circumstellar medium around the contact discontinuity in Cas A and/or supernova ejecta from deep layers of its progenitor star which have recently encountered a reverse shock in the remnant.
We examine excess emission at high positive and negative velocities toward known Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) in the “Inner-Galaxy Arecibo L-band Feed Array (I-GALFA)” Hi 21-cm survey data. The I-GALFA survey covers ℓ = 32° to 77°, and has a velocity range of ±700 km s−1 with high angular and velocity resolutions (4′ and 0.18 km s−1, respectively) and good sensitivity (0.2 K). The excess emission which is thought to be part of a fast-expanding Hi shell of a SNR is detected from four among 39 SNRs in the I-GALFA area: W44, G54.4–0.3, W51C, and CTB 80. Although the Hi shells of the four SNRs were already reported in low-resolution studies, the first detection of both sides of an expanding Hi shell associated with W44 is very inspiring. We discuss physical properties of these four SNRs and their statistical nature.
Supernova remnants (SNRs) are strong thermal emitters of infrared radiation. The most prominent lines in the near-infrared spectra of SNRs are [Fe II] lines. The [Fe II] lines are from shocked dense atomic gases, so they trace SNRs in dense environments. After briefly reviewing the physics of the [Fe II] emission in SNR shocks, I describe the observational results which show that there are two groups of SNRs bright in [Fe II] emission: middle-aged SNRs interacting with molecular clouds and young core-collapse SNRs in dense circumstellar medium. The SNRs belonging to the former group are also bright in near-infrared H2 emission, indicating that both atomic and molecular shocks are pervasive in these SNRs. The SNRs belonging to the latter group have relatively small radii in general, implying that most of them are likely the remnants of SN IIL/b or SN IIn that had strong mass loss before the explosion. I also comment on the “[Fe II]-H2 reversal” in SNRs and on using the [Fe II]-line luminosity as an indicator of the supernova (SN) rate in galaxies. In the mid- and far-infrared regimes, thermal dust emission is dominant. The dust in SNRs can be heated either by collisions with gas species in a hot plasma or by radiation from a shock front. I discuss the characteristics of the infrared morphology of the SNRs interacting with molecular clouds and their dust heating processes. Finally, I give a brief summary of the detection of SN dust and crystalline silicate dust in SNRs.
We present the results 12CO J = 1–0 line observations of eleven Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) between l = 70° and 190° obtained using the Seoul Radio Astronomy Observatory (SRAO) 6-m radio telescope. We detected CO emission towards most of the remnants. In seven SNRs, molecular clouds show a good spatial relation with their radio morphology: G73.9+0.9, G84.2−0.8, G85.4+0.7, G85.9−0.6, G93.3+6.9 (DA530), 94.0+1.0 (3C 434.1), and G182.4+4.3. Two SNRs are particularly interesting. In G85.4+0.7, there is a filamentary molecular cloud aligned along the south-east boundary of the remnant. This cloud extends to the nearby Hii region G84.9+0.5. If the molecular cloud is associated with both the Hii region and the SNR, the distance to the SNR would be 5–7 kpc. In 3C 434.1, there is a large molecular cloud blocking the western half of the remnant where the radio continuum emission is faint. The cloud shows a very good spatial correlation with radio continuum features, which strongly suggests the physical association of the cloud with the SNR. This gives a distance of 3 kpc to the SNR. We performed 12CO J = 2–1 line observations of this cloud using Kölner Observatorium für Sub-Millimeter Astronomie (KOSMA) 3-m telescope and found a region where the 12CO J = 2–1/1–0 line ratio is high. We present a hydrodynamic model showing that 3C434.1 could have resulted from a SN explosion occurred just outside the boundary of a thin, molecular cloud.
We report the preliminary results for the detection of H2 and [Fe II] line features around the Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) from the UWISH2 and UWIFE surveys that cover the first galactic quadrant of 7°<l<65° and |b|<1.3°. By this time, we have found a total of 17 H2-emitting and 14 [Fe II]-emitting SNRs in the coverage, and more than a half of them are detected in both H2 and [Fe II] emissions, which implies that the environment of these SNRs might be complex and composed of multi-phase medium. In this paper, we present our identification strategy and some preliminary results including H2 and [Fe II] luminosity distributions.
Massive stars govern the evolution of galaxies by providing ionizing photons and energy as well as enriching heavy elements into interstellar medium; however, their formation is still poorly understood. Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are cold (< 25 K) and very dense (> 105 cm−3) interstellar clouds which are seen silhouette against the bright Galactic background in mid-IR. With very high column densities (∼ 1023–1025cm−2), IRDCs are believed to be the precursors to massive stars and star clusters (Simon et al. 2006).
We report a remarkable IRDC at (l, b) ∼ (53°.2, 0°.0) which shows a number of bright mid-IR stellar sources along the cloud that are likely young stellar objects (YSOs). There are also several H2 (at 2.122 μm) outflow features in the cloud revealed by UWISH2 (Ukirt Widefield Infrared Survey for H2, Froebrich et al. 2011), in particular where earlier evolutionary stage of YSOs are located. The IRDC was previously partly identified as three separate IRDCs in the MSXDC catalog (Simon et al. 2006), whereas we have found that a long, filamentary cloud extending ∼ 30 pc including these three IRDCs is very well coincident with a CO cloud at v ∼ 23.5 km/s (or at d ∼ 2 kpc) which is clearly distinct from the other velocity components. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the overall star formation activity in this IRDC (IRDC G53.2, hereafter).
We perform the PRF photometry of Spitzer MIPSGAL 24 μm data using MOPEX and build a catalog of YSOs by matching the detected 24 μm sources with published catalogs. The limiting magnitude in 24 μm is ∼ 7.8 mag, and YSO candidates which have counterparts in GLIMPSE I catalog are 354. The YSO candidates are classified using spectral index derived between 2 and 24 μm, following Greene et al. (1994). We also remove the field-star contamination using reference fields where there is no CO cloud; the fraction of each class after reference field analysis is 18, 22, 45, 10, and 5% for Class I, Flat, Class II, Class III, and sources which cannot be classified due to the lack of data. The spatial distribution that earlier classes (i.e., Class I and Flat) are concentrated where far-IR or millimeter emission is strong and larger fraction of Flat objects compared to other low-mass star forming regions (e.g., Evans et al. 2009 and Billot et al. 2010) may imply that the IRDC G53.2 is indeed an active star-forming region in rather early evolutionary stage. Further investigation of each YSO such as SED modeling will reveal detailed information on star formation activity in this intriguing IRDC.
Division VI, consisting of one Commission (Commission 34) and two Working Groups (Astrochemistry WG and Planetary Nebulae WG), has 972 members whose theoretical, observational, and experimental research interests cover a wide spectrum of activities associated with the study of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Universe. As such, the Division has close links with Division VIII, IX, and X. The ISM and stars, the two major visible components of a galaxy, are coupled to each other through star formation, stellar feedback, and gravitational potential; thus, the Division is also closely linked to Division VII.
The business meeting of Division VI was held on Monday 10 October 2009. Apologies had been received in advance from D Breitschwerdt, P Caselli, G Ferland, M Juvela, S Lizano, M Rozyczka, V Tóth, M Tsuboi, J Yang and B-C Koo.
The I-GALFA survey is mapping HI 21 cm emission in the inner parts of our Milky Way Galaxy using the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA). Examples of various H i features such as supershells and chimneys are shown.
We have conducted 12CO observations with the Nobeyama 45-m telescope in the area of Tycho's supernova remnant. These high-resolution (16″) data show that the molecular cloud surrounds the SNR along the northeastern boundary. We suggest that Tycho's SNR and the molecular cloud are located at comparable distances within the Perseus arm and that they are physically interacting. We also discuss the possible connection between the molecular cloud and the Balmer-dominated optical filaments and propose that the preshock gas may be accelerated within the cosmic-ray and/or fast neutral precursor.
We briefly summarize the survey of HI 21 cm emission lines to search for shocked atomic gas associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) in the southern sky. For G347.3–0.5, we discuss the distance to the SNR and the implications of the HI results.
We show some examples from a WWW-based catalog, containing Chandra archive data, that is now under construction. Many remnants show manifestations of internal neutron stars, which are of particular interest to this conference.
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