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Here, we argue that attackers in intergroup conflicts are also likely to hold strong identity fusion, anticipate threat from the out-groups, and retaliate by signaling preemptive aggressiveness, which may not be asymmetrically exclusive to defenders. We propose that the study of the intergroup and intragroup dynamics could highlight more specific, robust markers to differentiate types of defenders from attackers.
The authors developed a Behler–Parrinello-type neural network (NN) to improve the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) energy and force prediction. The Δ-machine learning approach was adopted and the NN was designed to predict the energy differences between the density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemical potential and DFTB for a given molecular structure. Most notably, the DFTB-NN method is capable of improving the energetics of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and torsional potentials without modifying the framework of DFTB itself. This improvement enables considerably larger simulations of complex chemical systems that currently could not easily been accomplished using DFT or higher level ab initio quantum chemistry methods alone.
Research was conducted from 2013 to 2015 across three sites in Mississippi to evaluate corn response to sublethal paraquat or fomesafen (105 and 35 g ai ha−1, respectively) applied PRE, or to corn at the V1, V3, V5, V7, or V9 growth stages. Fomesafen injury to corn at three d after treatment (DAT) ranged from 0% to 38%, and declined over time. Compared with the nontreated control (NTC), corn height 14 DAT was reduced approximately 15% due to fomesafen exposure at V5 or V7. Exposure at V1 or V7 resulted in 1,220 and 1,110 kg ha−1 yield losses, respectively, compared with the NTC, but yield losses were not observed at any other growth stage. Fomesafen exposure at any growth stage did not affect corn ear length or number of kernel rows relative to the NTC. Paraquat injury to corn ranged from 26% to 65%, depending on growth stage and evaluation interval. Corn exposure to paraquat at V3 or V5 consistently caused greater injury across evaluation intervals, compared with other growth stages. POST timings of paraquat exposure resulted in corn height reductions of 13% to 50%, except at V7, which was most likely due to rapid internode elongation at that stage. Likewise, yield loss occurred after all exposure times of paraquat except PRE, compared with the NTC. Corn yield was reduced 1,740 to 5,120 kg ha−1 compared with the NTC, generally worsening as exposure time was delayed. Paraquat exposure did not reduce corn ear length, compared with the NTC, at any growth stage. However, paraquat exposure at V3 or V5 was associated with reduction of kernel rows by 1.1 and 1.7, respectively, relative to the NTC. Paraquat and fomesafen applications near corn should be avoided if conditions are conducive for off-target movement, because significant injury and yield loss can result.
Revised tables of x-ray mass attenuation and absorption cross sections have been prepared for the elements with atomic numbers one to 94 at selected wavelengths of interest to spectroscopists, microprobe users, diffraction workers, etc. The tables are derived from an x-ray cross section compilation to be published during the summer of 1971. The new compilation is a revision of a previous work and provides photoelectric, coherent scattering, incoherent scattering, absorption component of incoherent scattering and total attenuation cross sections for 94 elements for the photon energy range 0.1 keV to 1 MeV (0.0124 Å to 124 Å). The cross sections for energies greater than 1 keV (12.4 Å) were determined from experimental attenuation data and theoretical scattering cross sections calculated using form factors and incoherent scattering functions based on a relativistic self consistent field method. For hydrogen, the photoelectric absorption cross sections were calculated exactly. Least squares procedures were used to interpolate and extrapolate for elements and photon energies where no experimental data were found. Cross sections for the energy range 0.1 keV to 1 keV (12.4 Å to 124 Å) were calculated using nonrelativistic, single electron, self-consistent field theory with Herman-Skillman bound state wavefunctions, A brief description is given of the assumptions and methods used in preparing the revised compilation, and estimated uncertainties in the cross section are reported. Examples illustrating agreement between tabulated values and experimental data are given and a comparison is made with values taken from earlier x-ray cross section compilations.
Animal rights and animal welfare issues have reached beyond national boundaries and are now the focus of a variety of international concerns. For example, the current controversy surrounding the sale of bear parts from animals in North America to Asian nations for use in traditional medicines involves the laws of the United States and Canada, the market for bear parts in Asia, and the regulations of trade in endangered species on an international level. Other international animal rights issues include the environmental threat to wildlife in the Antarctica, the importation to the U.S. of coats made from dog and cat pelts, and the impact of animal husbandry on the problem of world hunger.
Understanding control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth with multiple herbicide sites of action, including synthetic auxins, is crucial for growers to minimize GR Palmer amaranth interference with crops. Field studies in 2013 and 2014 and a greenhouse study in 2014 were conducted in Stoneville, MS, to evaluate POST control of GR Palmer amaranth with 2,4-D alone and in mixtures with glyphosate and/or glufosinate. In the greenhouse study, control of 5- and 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth was 87% with 2,4-D at 0.84 kg ae ha−1. Dry weight reduction of GR Palmer amaranth was ≥81% with 2,4-D at 0.84 kg ha−1. In field studies, mixtures of glufosinate at 0.59 kg ai ha−1 and 2,4-D at 0.56 or 1.12 kg ae ha−1 controlled 5- to 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth 87% at 28 d after treatment (DAT). Averaged across glyphosate treatments, glufosinate applied alone applied to 5- to 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth reduced dry weight at 28 DAT to 20 g m−2 from 82 g m−2 and was comparable with that following 2,4-D applied alone at 1.12 kg ae ha−1 and mixtures of glufosinate plus 2,4-D at 0.56 and 1.12 kg ae ha−1. Mixtures of 2,4-D plus glufosinate provided ≥92% control of 15- to 20-cm GR Palmer amaranth at 28 DAT. When applied to 15- to 20-cm plants, mixtures of 2,4-D plus glufosinate reduced GR Palmer amaranth density to ≤5 plants m−2 compared with 65 plants m−2 where no 2,4-D or glufosinate was applied. Glufosinate and 2,4-D are viable control options for 5- to 10-cm or 15- to 20-cm GR Palmer amaranth. However, 2,4-D did not improve GR Palmer amaranth control when added to any herbicide mixture except glyphosate and glufosinate applied to 15- to 20-cm plants at the 28 DAT evaluation.
What are the paths that lead to the state supreme court bench? If we can identify these paths, can we then determine that they produce distinctive patterns in a court3 decision making? Based on a study of 694 judges who sat on 16selected American state supreme courts between 1900 and 1970, this article finds that the appellate judiciary was drawn from a variety of legal and political backgrounds rather than from any single career line. The judges came from both non-elite and elite law schools. About half had no substantial lower court judicial experience. Over one-third had been public prosecutors, another third had held other elective political office, and only a small minority had practiced in multilawyer big-city law firms. The article reports changes over time in these and other judicial characteristics (such CIS age, turnover, political party affiliations) and describes interstate differences. Few significant statistical relationships are found, however, between the background characteristics of judges and selected characteristics of state supreme court opinions.
In the second poem of Propertius’ fourth book, the form-shifting deity Vertumnus claims that he is suited to any role that he is associated with because he can appear convincingly as a girl or a man: indue me Cois: fiam non dura puella; / meque uirum sumpta quis neget esse toga? (‘dress me in Coan silk, I shall be a gentle maiden: and who would say that I am not a man when I don the toga?’, 4.2.23–4). Later in Propertius 4.9, another gender ambiguous character, Hercules, while trying to gain entry into the shrine of the Bona Dea, boasts that he had woven and performed a handmaiden's service (4.9.47–50):
idem ego Sidonia feci seruilia palla
officia et Lydo pensa diurna colo;
mollis et hirsutum cinxit mihi fascia pectus,
et manibus duris apta puella fui.
I have also done the tasks of a slave-girl in a Sidonian gown
and worked at the daily burden of the Lydian distaff.
A soft breastband has surrounded my shaggy chest,
and with my hard hands I was a fitting girl.
Scholars have noted that the language used by Propertius to depict gender inversion in these episodes has profound implications for understanding the generic complexity of the poet's new, more aetiological, fourth book. DeBrohun points out that, when Hercules recalls the soft (mollis) breastband on his hairy (hirsutum) chest – a contrast further substantiated by his claim that he had become a puella with rough hands (manibus duris) – the hero ‘softens’ his appearance in terms that resonate strongly with the Augustan poets’ expression of the terminology of Callimachean poetics, thus allowing readers to interpret this scene as an act of generic realignment that symbolizes Book 4's attempt to accommodate both grand topics and erotic narratives.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Italian ryegrass is one of the most troublesome weeds in Mississippi row crop production. Fall-applied residual herbicide applications are recommended for control of GR Italian ryegrass. However, carryover of residual herbicides applied in fields for rice production can have a negative impact on rice performance. Field studies were conducted in Stoneville, MS, to determine the effects of fall-applied residual herbicides on rice growth and yield. Herbicide treatments included suggested use rates (1×) of clomazone at 840 g ai ha–1, pyroxasulfone 170 g ai ha–1, S-metolachlor 1,420 g ai ha–1, and trifluralin 1,680 g ai ha–1, and two times (2×) the suggested use rates in the fall before rice seeding. Pooled across application rate, pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin injured rice to an extent 28% to 36% greater than clomazone 14 d after emergence (DAE). Rice seedling density and height 14 DAE and rice maturity were negatively affected by all fall-applied herbicides except clomazone. Applications at 2× rates reduced rough rice yields in plots treated with pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin compared with clomazone. Pyroxasulfone applied at the 2× rate reduced rough rice yield 22% compared with the 1× rate. Rough rice yield was 90% or greater of the nontreated control in plots treated with either rate of S-metolachlor, and these were comparable with rough rice yields from plots treated with both rates of trifluralin and the 1× rate of pyroxasulfone. Early-season injury and reductions in seedling density and height 14 DAE, would preclude even 1× applications of pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin from being viable options for residual herbicide treatments targeting GR Italian ryegrass in the fall before rice seeding. Of the herbicides evaluated, only clomazone should be utilized as a fall-applied residual herbicide treatment targeting GR Italian ryegrass before seeding rice.
To investigate which populations of patients are considered ‘vulnerable’ across varying clinical sites, and to identify the barriers encountered by these patient populations limiting optimal health.
Vulnerable patient populations encounter diverse barriers that limit their ability to successfully navigate the health system, potentially resulting in poor health outcomes. Little current-day work has described types of barriers encountered by vulnerable patient populations across numerous clinical sites and settings, which is necessary to ensure health systems can begin to improve quality and disparities for all patient populations.
An inductive content analysis was performed based on field-site notes and digitally recorded telephone interviews with providers/leadership at clinics/programs related to patient- and clinic-needs from January 2014 through May 2015. Using thematic analysis with grounded theory techniques, authors identified categories and themes. In total, 30 diverse clinical sites/programs including inpatient- and outpatient-based clinics providing medicine and surgery-based services were assessed through both site visits and follow-up telephone interviews. Follow-up interviews were conducted with one individual in various positions within sites/programs, including physicians (n=15), registered nurses (n=8), clinic managers/coordinators (n=2), clinical program coordinator (n=1), and care coordinator (n=1); one participant represented three clinical sites.
In total, 30 sites/programs (n=30) received both a site visit and follow-up interview. Commonly reported vulnerable patient populations included those with multiple chronic conditions, lower socioeconomic status, patients in a specific stage in the continuum of care, and patients with over- and under-utilization of resources without a clear etiology. Themes related to barriers included systems barriers (eg, insufficiencies of care processes), clinic barriers (eg, lack of resources), patient-related barriers (eg, housing, transportation), and provider-related barriers (eg, inadequate time and knowledge).
These results provide a framework to identify systems- and clinic-related barriers that can be used in population health management strategies aimed at improving health disparities within clinically diverse sites.