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Seoul is the third most densely populated area in the world except for the city-state. However, a national disaster plan has not yet been established.
From September 2017, representatives of seven regional emergency medical centers in Seoul met monthly and decided to investigate basic data for the future establishment of surge capacity planning.
Staff, supply, space, and systems for surge capacity were surveyed in seven hospitals. The additional surveyed data were as follows: hospital incident command system and actual operational experience; performance of disaster drill; safety and security plan; estimation of surge capacity in normal operating conditions and extreme operating conditions; alternative therapeutic spaces; back-up plan to call non-duty medical staff; decontamination equipment; contingency plan for stuff shortage; etc.
All the hospitals reported they have hospital incident command systems and held disaster drills every year, however, the two hospitals (28.5%) had no real experience of hospital incident command system activation. Five hospitals (71.4%) did not have a safety and security plan. They replied they can treat average 7.7 emergency patients (Korean Triage and Acute scale (KTAS) ≤ 3), 10 non-emergent patients (KTAS>4), 0.9 surgical patients and 0.7 unstable patients simultaneously in normal operating conditions. In extreme operating conditions, they replied they can treat average 26.4 emergency patients (KTAS ≤ 3), 54.3 non-emergent patients (KTAS>4), 37 surgical patients and 2.3 unstable patients simultaneously. The two hospitals (28.5%) had no alternative therapeutic spaces, no back-up plan to call non-duty medical staff and no contingency plan for stuff shortage. Three hospitals (42.9%) did not have decontamination equipment.
The survey revealed the basic data for surge capacity planning in Seoul. Data from hospitals other than regional emergency medical centers should be collected for the completion of disaster plans.
It has not been well established whether dietary folate intake reduces the risk of diabetes development. We aimed to clarify the prospective association between dietary folate intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among 7333 Korean adults aged 40 years or older who were included in the Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. Dietary folate intake was estimated from all 106 food items listed on a FFQ, not including folate intake from supplements. Two different measurements of dietary folate intake were used: the baseline consumption and the average consumption from baseline until just before the end of follow-up. The association between folate intake and T2D risk was determined through a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator controlling for potential confounders. For 29 745 person years, 319 cases of diabetes were ascertained. In multivariable analyses, dietary folate intake was inversely associated with risk of T2D for women, not for men. For women, the incidence rate ratio of diabetes in the third tertile compared with the first tertile was 0·57 (95 % CI 0·38–0·87, Pfor trend=0·0085) in the baseline consumption model and 0·64 (95 % CI 0·43–0·95, Pfor trend=0·0244) in the average consumption model. These inverse associations was found in both normal fasting blood glucose group and impaired fasting glucose group among women. Among non-users of multinutrients and vitamin supplements, the significant inverse association remained. Thus, higher dietary intake of folate is prospectively associated with lower risk of diabetes for women.
The aim of this study is to develop predictive models to predict organ at risk (OAR) complication level, classification of OAR dose-volume and combination of this function with our in-house developed treatment decision support system.
Materials and methods
We analysed the support vector machine and decision tree algorithm for predicting OAR complication level and toxicity in order to integrate this function into our in-house radiation treatment planning decision support system. A total of 12 TomoTherapyTM treatment plans for prostate cancer were established, and a hundred modelled plans were generated to analyse the toxicity prediction for bladder and rectum.
The toxicity prediction algorithm analysis showed 91·0% accuracy in the training process. A scatter plot for bladder and rectum was obtained by 100 modelled plans and classification result derived. OAR complication level was analysed and risk factor for 25% bladder and 50% rectum was detected by decision tree. Therefore, it was shown that complication prediction of patients using big data-based clinical information is possible.
We verified the accuracy of the tested algorithm using prostate cancer cases. Side effects can be minimised by applying this predictive modelling algorithm with the planning decision support system for patient-specific radiotherapy planning.
This study aimed to investigate the influences of age, education, and gender on the two total scores (TS-I and TS-II) of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological assessment battery (CERAD-NP) and to provide normative information based on an analysis for a large number of elderly persons with a wide range of educational levels.
In the study, 1,987 community-dwelling healthy volunteers (620 males and 1,367 females; 50–90 years of age; and zero to 25 years of education) were included. People with serious neurological, medical, and psychiatric disorders (including dementia) were excluded. All participants underwent the CERAD-NP assessment. TS-I was generated by summing raw scores from the CERAD-NP subtests, excluding Mini-Mental State Examination and Constructional Praxis (CP) recall subtests. TS-II was calculated by adding CP recall score to TS-I.
Both TS-I and TS-II were significantly influenced by demographic variables. Education accounted for the greatest proportion of score variance. Interaction effect between age and gender was found. Based on the results obtained, normative data of the CERAD-NP total scores were stratified by age (six overlapping tables), education (four strata), and gender.
The normative information will be very useful for better interpretation of the CERAD-NP total scores in various clinical and research settings and for comparing individuals’ performance of the battery across countries.
Mutation breeding techniques have been used to induce new genetic variations and improve agronomic traits in soybean. In Korea, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has unique radiation facilities to induce plant mutations and has been conducting soybean mutation breeding programmes since the mid-1960s. Until now, the KAERI has developed five soybean mutant cultivars exhibiting early maturity, high yield and seed-coat colour change. In this paper, we review these five mutant cultivars in terms of how to successfully induce unique agronomic characteristics through mutation breeding programmes. A number of induced mutants exhibiting null lipoxygenase enzymes, altered protein patterns or Kunitz trypsin inhibitor activity could serve as genetic resources for the genetic analysis of target genes, and one mutant population has been developed for a reverse genetic study.
Blackberry is a fruiting berry species with very high nutrient contents. With the recent increasing consumer demand for blackberries, new sources of germplasm and breeding techniques are required to improve blackberry production. This study was carried out to evaluate the genetic diversity (GD) and relationship among 55 blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) mutants derived from γ-ray treatment (52 lines) and N-methyl-N′-nitrosourea (MNU) treatment (three lines) using an inter-simple sequence repeat marker. A total of 18 bands were amplified with an average of 3.6 bands per primer. Among them, eight bands were identified to be polymorphic with a rate of 44.4%. In addition, the GD information content values were highest in the 60 Gy treatment population and the GD values were higher in the γ-ray treatment populations than in the MNU treatment population. According to a cluster analysis, all the mutant lines can be classified into five categories, and the genetic distance was greatest between the 80 Gy-irradiated population and other populations. These results indicate that mutant lines have high GD and can be effectively utilized for improving blackberry breeding.
In this study, we demonstrate blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a dual emitting layer (EML) configuration consisting of fluorescent and phosphorescent emitting materials. We investigated the influence of dopants on the electrical and optical characteristics of devices when controlling the fluorescent dopant concentration. The current density and luminance of device B doped with 12wt% BCzVBi was 141.6 mA/cm2 and 6582 cd/m2 at 10V, respectively. In addition, a maximum luminous efficiency of 8.11 cd/A, was achieved from device B. The corresponding Commission Internationale de l’E´ clairage (CIExy) coordinates of device D doped with 5wt% BCzVBi were (0.143, 0.255) at 6V.
The effects of SF6 and NF3 gas plasma treatments, and succesive rapid thermal anneal (RTA) treatment for the recovery of modified silicon surface due to CHF3/C2F6 plasma have been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). XPS analyses have revealed that NF3 and SF6 plasma treatments are effective for the removal of residue layer. SIMS results show that penetrated impurities in the contaminated silicon substrate reduce through the additional RTA treatment. The effects of NF3, SF6 plasmas, and additional RTA treatments for the recovery of reactive ion etched silicon surface has been also studied by measuring the electrical performance of the silicon devices.
A novel route to organic-inorganic composites was described based on biomineralization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels. The 3-dimensional hydrogels were synthesized by radical crosslinking polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol fumarate) (PEGF) in the presence of ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate (EGMP) as an apatite-nuclating monomer, acrylamide (AAm) as a composition-modulating comonomer, and potassium persulfate (PPS) as a radical initiator. We used the urea-mediated solution precipitation technique for biomineralization of hydrogels. The apatite grown on the surface and interior of the hydrogel was similar to biological apatites in the composition and crystalline structure. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the calcium phosphate crystalline platelets on hydrogels are preferentially aligned along the crystallographic c-axis direction. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis showed that the Ca/P molar ratio of apatites grown on the hydrogel template was found to be 1.60, which is identical to that of natural bones. In vitro cell experiments showed that the cell adhesion/proliferation on the mineralized hydrogel was more pronounced than on the pure polymer hydrogel.
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