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The Weibel instability and the induced magnetic field are of great importance for both astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. Because of the stochasticity of this magnetic field, its main wavelength and mean strength, which are key characteristics of the Weibel instability, are still unobtainable experimentally. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the autocorrelation tensor shows that in proton radiography of the Weibel-instability-induced magnetic field, the proton flux density on the detection plane can be related to the energy spectrum of the magnetic field. It allows us to extract the main wavelength and mean strength of the two-dimensionally isotropic and stochastic magnetic field directly from proton radiography for the first time. Numerical calculations are conducted to verify our theory and show good consistency between pre-set values and the results extracted from proton radiography.
To examine urban–rural disparity in childhood stunting, wasting and malnutrition at national and subnational levels in Chinese primary-school children in 2010 and 2014.
Data were obtained from two nationwide cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2010 and 2014. Malnutrition was classified using the Chinese national ‘Screening Standard for Malnutrition of Children’.
All twenty-seven mainland provinces and four municipalities of mainland China.
Children aged 7–12 years (n 215 214; 107 741 in 2010 and 107 473 in 2014) from thirty-one provinces.
Stunting, wasting and malnutrition prevalence were 1·9, 12·3 and 13·7 % in 2010, but decreased to 1·0, 9·4 and 10·2 % in 2014, respectively. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and malnutrition in both urban and rural children was higher in western provinces, while lower in eastern provinces. Although the prevalence of wasting and malnutrition was higher in rural children than their urban counterparts, the urban–rural disparity in both wasting and malnutrition decreased from 2010 to 2014 (prevalence OR: wasting, 1·35 to 1·16; malnutrition, 1·50 to 1·27). A reversal occurred in 2014 in several eastern provinces where the prevalence of wasting and malnutrition in urban children surpassed their rural peers. The urban–rural disparity was larger in western provinces than eastern provinces.
The shrinking urban–rural disparity and the reversal in wasting and malnutrition suggest that the malnutrition situation has improved during the post-crisis period, especially in the western provinces. Region-specific policies and interventions can be useful to sustainably mitigate malnutrition in Chinese children, especially in rural areas and the western provinces.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
Although previous studies have considered the antecedents and outcomes of absorptive capacity, much remains to be learned on this subject. Firms need to absorb breadth and depth of knowledge and form absorptive capacities that are contingent on various social capitals to improve innovation and performance. The purpose of this study is to explore the antecedents and outcomes of the breadth and depth of absorptive capacity from the perspective of social capital theory. Based on a sample of 218 Chinese firms, empirical results suggest that weak tie sources and knowledge breadth can enhance the breadth of absorptive capacity, and that strong tie sources and knowledge depth can strengthen the depth of absorptive capacity. The results also suggest that the breadth of absorptive capacity positively impacts the depth of absorptive capacity, and that both breadth and depth of absorptive capacity are positively related to innovation performance.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
We report new field observations, zircon U–Pb ages and geochemical data for the discrete members of the Zhaheba ophiolite complex in northeastern Junggar of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) with the aim to understand the accretion process of the eastern Junggar terrane. The zircon age data reveal that the cumulates of the Zhaheba ophiolite crystallized at ~485 Ma while the volcanic sequences erupted at ~400 Ma. Thus, the volcanic sequences are not members of the Zhaheba ophiolite. Chromian spinels from the serpentinite have comparable elemental compositions to those of spinels from MORB-type ophiolites. Similarly, the rift affinity of clinopyroxene and positive zircon εHf(t) (13–20) and mantle δ18O (+5.37‰) values of the cumulates imply that the cumulates crystallized from primitive magmas derived from a depleted mantle source. Elemental and Nd isotopic compositions indicate that the basalts in the Zhaheba area were derived from partial melting of a mantle wedge metasomatized by adakitic melts and/or subduction-related fluids. The data presented in this contribution, together with previous studies, indicate that the Zhaheba–Almantai and Kelameili ophiolites were MORB-type, which implies that there were at least two mid-ocean ridges during Ordovician to early Devonian times in the Junggar Ocean. In the earlier stage, intra-oceanic subduction led to the formation of the intra-oceanic arc, and then the Kelameili ophiolite accreted to an intra-oceanic accretionary wedge. In the later stage, the Zhaheba–Almantai ophiolite accreted to the accretionary wedge along the southern margin of the Iritish suture zone during the roll-back of the subduction zone from north to south.
The Ag3PO4/C3N4 composites with improved photocatalytic activity were prepared by a facile in situ deposition of Ag3PO4 particles on the surface of C3N4 sheets and characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. The photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) over the Ag3PO4/C3N4 composites was investigated and optimized, indicating that the optimal amount of Ag3PO4 in the composites was 90 wt%. The remarkably improved photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4/C3N4 composites could be attributed to the effective separation of photogenerated charge carriers. The photoelectrochemical measurements confirmed that the charge separation efficiency was improved for the formation of composites. Moreover, the tests of radical scavengers demonstrated that h+ and ·O2− were the main active species for the degradation of RhB.
P-type Cu1.8+xSe (x = 0, 0.16, 0.20) compounds were synthesized by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering technique. A 100% enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient was achieved in the whole temperature interval for x = 0.16 and x = 0.20 bulks compared with that of the x = 0 bulk. The thermal conductivity was all below 1.6 W m−1 K−1 in the whole temperature interval for x = 0.16 and x = 0.20 bulks, showing a pronounced reduction compared with that of the x = 0 bulk. The lowest thermal conductivity 0.69 W m−1 K−1 was achieved in the x = 0.16 sample at 773 K, whereby a maximum ZT value of 1.23 was obtained, revealing that optimizing Cu content in Cu1.8+xSe system is an effective method to improve the thermoelectric (TE) merit and indicating a great potential for TE application along with their nontoxicity and low cost.
Gold–silver (Au–Ag) bimetal dispersed SiO2 composite films were fabricated via a chemical solution approach combining sol–gel with a spin-coating process, and they were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra. TEM image indicated that Ag and/or Au nanoparticles (NPs) had a spherical structure with large size distributions. The XPS results demonstrated that the presence of both Ag and Au NPs in the composite film is in each metal state. The optical absorption spectra of the composite film further confirmed the formation of nanosized Au and Ag particles, given by the two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks. Unlike other Au–Ag composite films, these two SPR peaks had almost the same intensity, which is rarely obtained by a chemical approach. Compared to optical absorption spectra calculated by the modified Mie theory, the location and intensity of SPR peaks had a little difference, which could be attributed to large size distributions of Ag and Au bimetal NPs in the composite film along with the experimental process. In addition, the intensity of both SPR peaks was content-related.
TiO2@C core–shell nanostructures with various crystal structures of TiO2-B, anatase, and rutile were successfully synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process and postheat treatments. As-synthesized precursor hydrogen titanate@carbonaceous nanoribbons transformed into TiO2-B@C nanoribbons at 400 °C and further transformed into anatase and rutile TiO2@C nanoribbons at 700 and 800 °C, respectively. The morphology of nanoribbons can be retained up to 800 °C. The transformation temperature (800 °C) from anatase to rutile phase is lower than that of TiO2 nanofibers without carbon layers and anatase TiO2@C nanoparticles. These results show that the carbon shell plays important roles in promoting the phase transition from anatase to rutile phase and protecting the nanoribbon-like morphology. The formation mechanism of the TiO2@C core–shell nanostructures with various crystal structures was discussed.
In 2008 January the 24th Chinese expedition team successfully deployed the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) to Dome A, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau. CSTAR consists of four 14.5cm optical telescopes, each with a different filter (g, r, i and open) and has a 4.5°×4.5° field of view (FOV). Based on the CSTAR data, initial statistics of astronomical observational site quality and light curves of variable objects were obtained. To reach higher photometric quality, we are continuing to work to overcome the effects of uneven cirrus cloud cirrus, optical “ghosts” and intra-pixel sensitivity. The snow surface stability is also tested for further astronomical observational instrument and for glaciology studies.
Geochemical and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic data are presented for volcanic rocks from Zougouyouchaco (30.5 Ma) and Dogai Coring (39.7 Ma) of the southern and middle Qiangtang block in northern Tibet. The volcanic rocks are high-K calc-alkaline trachyandesites and dacites, with SiO2 contents ranging from 58.5 to 67.1 wt % The rocks are enriched in light REE (LREE) and contain high Sr (649 to 986 ppm) and relatively low Yb (0.8 to 1.2 ppm) and Y (9.5 to 16.6 ppm) contents, resulting in high La/Yb (29–58) and Sr/Y (43–92) ratios, as well as relatively high MgO contents and Mg no., similar to the compositions of adakites formed by slab melting in subduction zones. However, the adakitic rocks in the Qiangtang block are characterized by relatively low εNd(t) values (−3.8 to −5.0) and highly radiogenic Sr ((87Sr/86Sr)i=0.706–0.708), which are inconsistent with an origin by slab melting. The geochemistry and tectonics indicate that the adakitic volcanic rocks were most likely derived from partial melting of delaminated lower continental crust. As the pristine adakitic melts rose, they interacted with the surrounding mantle peridotite, elevating their MgO values and Mg numbers.
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