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It is of practical significance to develop a constitutive model which is able to predict the thermomechanical behaviors of the shape memory effect occurring in a shape memory polymer (SMP) accurately. The mechanism of shape memory effect of SMP is explained based on the assumption that SMP is composed by two phases, reversible phase and stationary phase. Especially the different flow elements are respectively added to the reversible phase and stationary phase in order to express the plastic behavior of SMP. There are two springs in series, one dashpot and one flow element in the reversible phase. There are two springs in parallel, one dashpot and one flow element in the stationary phase. A constitutive equation is developed to express the thermo-mechanical behaviors of shape memory effect in the SMP based on viscous-elastic mechanics and plastic theory. An internal variable, frozen ratio, is defined to follow the shape memory process in SMP, and the material properties are described as the functions of frozen ratio based on phase transition theorem. The developed constitutive model, which includes above constitutive equation and material parameter functions, is used to numerically simulate the thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMP under various load cycles. Results show that the developed constitutive model can not only predict the shape memory process of SMP accurately, but also express the rate-dependent behaviors of SMP effectively.
In this work, hierarchical mesoporous Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF microspheres have been prepared by hydrothermal, sulfurization, and subsequent calcination process. The effect of different sulfurization time on the morphology and capacitance of composites was tested. The high electrochemical performance of (Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF) composite was obtained when the sulfurization time was 3 h (Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF-3h), where a specific capacitance of 627.7 F/g at 0.25 A/g and excellent rate capability of about 97.8% capacitance retention at 2 A/g after 4000 cycles were achieved. Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor fabricated by (Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF-3h) composite and activated carbon (AC) as the positive and the negative electrodes, respectively, showed a high energy density of 75.96 W h/kg at a power density of 362.49 W/kg with a remarkable cycle stability performance of 91.2% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles. This incredible electrochemical behavior illustrates that the hierarchical mesoporous Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/N-3h microsphere electrodes are promising electrode materials for application in high-performance supercapacitors.
In traditional Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) algorithms based on Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF-SLAM), the uncertainty of state estimation will increase rapidly with the development of the exploration process and the increase of map area. Likewise, the computational complexity of the EKF-SLAM is proportional to the square of the number of feature points contained in the state variables in a single filtering process. A new SLAM algorithm combining the local submaps and the body-fixed coordinates of the rover is presented in this paper. The algorithm can reduce the computational complexity and enhance computational speed in consideration of the processing capability of the onboard computer. Due to the introduction of local submaps, the algorithm represented in this paper is able to reduce the number of feature points contained in the state variables in each single filtering process. Therefore, the algorithm could reduce the computational complexity and improve the computational speed. In addition, rover body-fixed SLAM could improve the navigation accuracy of a rover and decrease the cumulative linearization error by coordinates transformation during the update process, which is shown in the simulation results.
Heavy metal contamination in the paddy soils of China is a serious concern because of its health risk through transfer in food chains. A field experiment was conducted in 2014–2015 to investigate the long-term effects of different biochar amendments on cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) immobilisation in a contaminated paddy field in southern China. Two types of biochar, a rice-straw-derived biochar (RB) and a coconut-by-product-derived biochar (CB), were amended separately to determine their impacts on rice yield and their efficacy in reducing Cd and As in rice. The two-year field experiment showed that biochar amendments significantly improved the rice yields and that CB is superior to RB, especially in the first growth season. Using a large amount of biochar amendment (22.5tha–1) significantly increased soil pH and total organic carbon, and concomitantly decreased the Cd content in rice grains over the four growth seasons, regardless of biochar type and application rate. Arsenic levels in rice were similar to the control, and results from this study suggest that there was a sustainable effect of biochar on Cd sequestration in soil and reduction of Cd accumulation in rice for at least two years. Biochar amendment in soil could be considered as a sustainable, reliable and cost-effective option to remediate heavy metal contamination in paddy fields for long periods.
We study numerically the dynamics of an insoluble surfactant-laden droplet in a simple shear flow taking surface viscosity into account. The rheology of drop surface is modelled via a Boussinesq–Scriven constitutive law with both surface tension and surface viscosity depending strongly on the surface concentration of the surfactant. Our results show that the surface viscosity exhibits non-trivial effects on the surfactant transport on the deforming drop surface. Specifically, both dilatational and shear surface viscosity tend to eliminate the non-uniformity of surfactant concentration over the drop surface. However, their underlying mechanisms are entirely different; that is, the shear surface viscosity inhibits local convection due to its suppression on drop surface motion, while the dilatational surface viscosity inhibits local dilution due to its suppression on local surface dilatation. By comparing with previous studies of droplets with surface viscosity but with no surfactant transport, we find that the coupling between surface viscosity and surfactant transport induces non-negligible deviations in the dynamics of the whole droplet. More particularly, we demonstrate that the dependence of surface viscosity on local surfactant concentration has remarkable influences on the drop deformation. Besides, we analyse the full three-dimensional shape of surfactant-laden droplets in simple shear flow and observe that the drop shape can be approximated as an ellipsoid. More importantly, this ellipsoidal shape can be described by a standard ellipsoidal equation with only one unknown owing to the finding of an unexpected relationship among the drop’s three principal axes. Moreover, this relationship remains the same for both clean and surfactant-laden droplets with or without surface viscosity.
Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
We report a new pulsed chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) process to deposit nickel (Ni) and nickel carbide (Ni3Cx) thin films, using bis(1,4-di-tert-butyl-1,3-diazabutadienyl)nickel(II) precursor and either H2 gas or H2 plasma as the coreactant, at a temperature from 140 to 250 °C. All the PCVD films are fairly pure with low levels of N and O impurities. The films deposited with H2 gas at ≤200 °C are faced centered cubic-phase Ni metal films with low C content; but at ≥220 °C, another phase of rhombohedral Ni3C is formed and the C content increases. However, when H2 plasma is used, the films are always in rhombohedral Ni3C phase for the entire temperature range.
Previous studies on capsule dynamics in shear flow have dealt with Newtonian fluids, while the effect of fluid viscoelasticity remains an unresolved fundamental question. In this paper, we report a numerical investigation of the dynamics of capsules enclosing a viscoelastic fluid and which are freely suspended in a Newtonian fluid under simple shear. Systematic simulations are performed at small but non-zero Reynolds numbers (i.e.
) using a three-dimensional front-tracking finite-difference model, in which the fluid viscoelasticity is introduced via the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. We demonstrate that the internal fluid viscoelasticity presents significant effects on the deformation behaviour of initially spherical capsules, including transient evolution and equilibrium values of their deformation and orientation. Particularly, the capsule deformation decreases slightly with the Deborah number De increasing from 0 to
. In contrast, with De increasing within high levels, i.e.
, the capsule deformation increases continuously and eventually approaches the Newtonian limit having a viscosity the same as the Newtonian part of the viscoelastic capsule. By analysing the viscous stress, pressure and viscoelastic stress acting on the capsule membrane, we reveal that the mechanism underlying the effects of the internal fluid viscoelasticity on the capsule deformation is the alterations in the distribution of the viscoelastic stress at low De and its magnitude at high De, respectively. Furthermore, we find some new features in the dynamics of initially non-spherical capsules induced by the internal fluid viscoelasticity. Particularly, the transition from tumbling to swinging of oblate capsules can be triggered at very high viscosity ratios by increasing De alone. Besides, the critical viscosity ratio for the tumbling-to-swinging transition is remarkably enlarged with De increasing at relatively high levels, i.e.
, while it shows little change at low De, i.e. below
Abundant insect fossils have been recorded from the Lower Cretaceous of the Jiuquan Basin, but very few odonatans have been recorded. In this paper, a new damsel-dragonfly, Cretastenophlebia jiuquanensis sp. nov., is described from the Lower Cretaceous Zhonggou Formation in the Hanxiagou outcrop, Jiuquan Basin, northwestern China. This is the second species of the genus Cretastenophlebia Fleck et al., 2003. Cretastenophlebia jiuquanensis sp. nov. differs from Cretastenophlebia mongolica Fleck et al., 2003 in the presence of a broad discoidal triangle, a basally straight IR1 and less cells along the posterior wing margin between IR2 and RP2. Cretastenophlebia has been previously reported from the Lower Cretaceous of Bon-Tsagaan, central Mongolia. The new discovery expands the record of Cretastenophlebia to the Jiuquan Basin in Albian.
Since 2010, Jankowski’s Bunting Emberiza jankowskii has been listed as ‘Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, because no comprehensive surveys had been conducted, it was not known whether undiscovered populations existed elsewhere, so the population status of the species could not be assessed accurately. The aim of this study was to assess the breeding distribution and population size of Jankowski’s Bunting in China. Fifty sites in Inner Mongolia, and Jilin, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Hebei Provinces were surveyed to locate suitable habitat and breeding populations of Jankowski’s Bunting. The surveyed sites included historical breeding distribution areas, wintering sites, and regions adjacent to historical breeding distribution areas. We confirmed that Jankowski’s Bunting has disappeared from most of its former breeding distributions, with the exceptions of Dagang, Xiergen and Tumiji. Additionally, 13 new breeding sites were discovered in Inner Mongolia. All currently known populations breed in Mongolian steppe-vegetation zones, with shrubs dominated by the natural Siberian apricot Prunus sibirica, indicating that this type of habitat is crucial for the survival of the species. Based on remote sensing, the suitable breeding habitat for Jankowski’s Bunting is estimated to be approximately 280 km2. The population size of Jankowski’s Bunting could range between 9,800 and 12,500 individuals, which is much higher than the numbers estimated in previous reports that were based on partial surveys. The suitable habitat remaining in Inner Mongolia would highly benefit from the implementation of the National Key Public Forest Protection Project. The population size of Jankowski’s Bunting is larger than previously estimated, but it is still threatened by habitat degradation and fragmentation, and our survey results reinforce the need for more research. The status of Jankowski’s Bunting in China still meets the IUCN criteria B2ab for an ‘Endangered’ species.
Multistage magmatic thermal events occurred in the Yardoi Dome and contain important information on the tectonomagmatic processes. The dome has played a crucial role in understanding the collisional evolution of the Tethyan Himalayan. We present new geochronological and geochemical data for muscovite-granite exposed in the Liemai area, Eastern Tethyan Himalayan Belt. Liemai muscovite-granite is strongly peraluminous, with A/CNK values characterized by evolved geochemical composition with high contents of SiO2-enriched large-ion lithophile elements, and is depleted of high-field-strength elements. These geochemical features indicate that granites possibly derived from partial melting of metasedimentary rocks and plagioclase fractional crystallization probably played a critical role in production of peraluminous granitic melts. Zircon U–Pb dating from muscovite-granite yielded ages of approximately 48.5 ± 1.1 Ma, representing its crystallization ages. This age is the oldest age of Tethyan Himalayan leucogranite from the Yardoi Dome and adjacent areas. However, the inherited zircon cores have ages of 135.7–3339.2 Ma. The εHf(t) values of all zircons vary from –6.4 to –2.3 and have varying Hf-isotope crustal model ages of 731–839 Ma. The geochemical and isotopic compositions indicate that magma of the Liemai granite can most likely be interpreted as products of the break-off related to thermal perturbation along the break-off window associated with the subduction of Neo-Tethyan slab. These magmas were derived mainly from the anatexis of ancient crustal materials under contraction and thickening conditions due to subduction of the Indian continent beneath southeastern Tibet.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
Zeolite–zeolite composite composed of alumina-rich hierarchically porous ZSM-5 cores and high-silicon MFI shells was prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis procedure, in which a commercial ZSM-5 zeolite with a SiO2/Al2O3 of 36 was treated by an alkaline solution and then used as a supporter for epitaxial growth of a polycrystalline Silicalite-1 zeolite shell (denoted as MMZsa). Acid sites associated with framework Al on exterior surfaces of ZSM-5 zeolite cores are therefore passivated in different degrees by the epitaxial MFI zeolite shell. The structural, crystalline, and textural properties of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), N2 adsorption-desorption, in situ IR spectra of pyridine and NH3-TPD. Aluminum species were observed to transfer from the alumina-rich cores to the high-silica shells. The adjustable thickness and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of the shell offer the as-synthesized composite a potential and high-efficiency catalyst for methanol conversion into gasoline and diesel. As compared with the commercial ZSM-5 zeolite, the composite catalyst exhibits excellent catalytic performances with a longer catalytic life as well as a higher conversion and a slightly higher yield of diesel oil.
A new species of the Lower Jurassic genus Dorsettia Whalley, 1985 is described from the Lower Jurassic Badaowan Formation of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China, as Dorsettia sinica new species. It provides additional morphological characters for this genus and is the earliest Jurassic dragonfly in China after the end-Triassic extinction. The occurrence of Dorsettia in England and northwestern China indicates that the end-Triassic extinction probably did not have a drastic influence on damsel-dragonflies, or that the dispersal of damsel-dragonflies was relatively quick during the earliest Jurassic.
The deformation of a compound capsule (an elastic capsule with a smaller capsule inside) in simple shear flow is studied by using three-dimensional numerical simulations based on a front tracking method. The inner and outer capsules are concentric and initially spherical. Skalak et al.’s constitutive law is employed for the mechanics of both the inner and outer membranes. Our results concerning the deformation of homogeneous capsules (i.e. capsules without the inner capsules) are quantitatively in agreement with the predictions of previous numerical simulations and perturbation theories. Compared to homogeneous capsules, compound capsules exhibit smaller deformation. The deformations of both the inner and outer capsules are significantly affected by the capillary numbers of the inner and outer membranes and the volume ratio of the inner to the outer capsule. When the inner capsule is small, it presents smaller deformation than the outer capsule. However, when the inner capsule is sufficiently large, it can present larger deformation than the outer capsule, even if the inner membrane has much lower capillary number than the outer membrane. The underlying mechanisms are discussed: (i) the inner capsule is deformed by rotational flow with lower rate of strain rather than by simple shear flow that deforms the outer capsule, and thus the inner capsule exhibits smaller deformation; and (ii) when the inner and outer membranes are sufficiently close (i.e. the inner capsule is sufficiently large), the hydrodynamic interaction between the two membranes becomes significant, which is found to inhibit the deformation of the outer capsule but to promote the deformation of the inner capsule.
A number of prospective cohort studies have investigated the associations between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and the risk of hypertension, CHD and stroke, but revealed mixed results. In the present study, we aimed to perform a dose–response meta-analysis of these prospective studies to clarify these associations. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed and Embase databases up to 5 May 2014. Random- or fixed-effects models were used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI for the highest compared with the lowest category of SSB consumption, and to conduct a dose–response analysis. A total of six prospective studies (240 726 participants and 80 411 incident cases of hypertension) from four publications on hypertension were identified. A total of four prospective studies (194 664 participants and 7396 incident cases of CHD) from four publications on CHD were identified. A total of four prospective studies (259 176 participants and 10 011 incident cases of stroke) from four publications on stroke were identified. The summary RR for incident hypertension was 1·08 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·12) for every additional one serving/d increase in SSB consumption. The summary RR for incident CHD was 1·17 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·24) for every serving/d increase in SSB consumption. There was no significant association between SSB consumption and total stroke (summary RR 1·06, 95 % CI 0·97, 1·15) for every serving/d increase in SSB consumption. The present meta-analysis suggested that a higher consumption of SSB was associated with a higher risk of hypertension and CHD, but not with a higher risk of stroke.
We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governing equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated. The flow behaviour is summarized in a diagram with five distinct dynamical regimes: a nonlinear diffusion regime, a transition regime, a travelling wave regime, an equal-viscosity regime, and a rarefaction regime.
A model for predicting the austenite grain growth during a common heating process including continuous and isothermal heating processes in medium carbon alloy steel 42CrMo was developed. The isothermal austenite grain growth kinetics were studied with conditions involving soaking time and soaking temperature. The time exponent n in the model was obtained considering the influence of the initial grain size rather than simply utilizing Beck’s equation. The results showed that the value of the time exponent n is 3.55 ± 0.30 when the temperature is above 1000 °C, while the value is 8.33 when the temperature is below 1000 °C. When the temperature is below 1000 °C, the pinning effect of carbides contributes to the higher value of the time exponent. Based on the isothermal model and the rule of additivity, a model for predicting the grain growth occurring during continuous heating was proposed. A reasonable agreement between the calculations and experimental measurements of grain size was obtained. According to the model, the effect of the initial austenite grain size on the final austenite grain size during induction quenching was analyzed. The initial austenite grain size has a significant effect on the final austenite grain size. In order to obtain a refined quenched microstructure, it is necessary to refine the microstructure at room temperature.
In this work, mechanical stability, thermodynamic and elastic properties of rhodium (Rh), rhodium monohydride (RhH), and the newly discovered rhodium dihydride (RhH2) under high temperature and pressure are studied by ab initio method together with quasiharmonic Debye model. Mechanical stability test indicates that RhH2 is no longer mechanically stable when pressure is higher than 22.7 GPa, which is quite less than the dynamically stable pressure (90 GPa). The heat capacity at constant volume (Cv) of Rh, RhH, or RhH2 increases proportional to T3 at low temperature, and tends to Dulong–Petit limit (about 241.67, 478.47, and 706.15 J/(kg·K), respectively). The thermal expansion coefficient (α) of Rh, RhH, and RhH2 increases acutely when temperature is not more than 300 K. And then, the increase of α slows down. The α reduces with pressure transiently. H atom's entering in fcc-Rh lattice would greatly change the electron density distribution, which would cause obvious difference in thermodynamic and elastic properties between Rh, RhH, and RhH2.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering measurements were applied to study the correlation between the microstructure and physical properties of the GaN films grown by light radiation heating metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LRH-MOCVD), using GaN buffer layer on sapphire substrates. When the density of the threading dislocation (TD) increases about one order of magnitude, the yellow luminescence (YL) intensity is strengthened from negligible to two orders of magnitude higher than the band edge emission intensity. The full width of half maximum (FWHM) of the GaN (0002) peak of the XRD rocking curve was widened from 11 min to 15 min, and in Raman spectra, the width of E2 mode is broadened from 5 cm−1 to 7 cm−1. A “zippers” structure at the interface of GaN/sapphire was observed by high-resolution electron microscope (HREM). Furthermore the origins of TD and relationship between physical properties and microstructures combining the growth conditions are discussed.