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Using frequency-modulated continuous wave radar data from the 32nd Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition in 2015/16, subsurface profiles were obtained along an East Antarctic inland traverse from Zhongshan station to Dome A, and four distinct regions were selected to analyze the spatiotemporal variability in historical surface mass balance (SMB). Based on depth, density, and age data from ice cores along the traverse, the radar data were calibrated to yield average SMB data. The zone 49–195 km from the coast has the highest SMB (235 kg m−2 a−1). The 780–892 km zone was most affected by the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age, and the SMB during ad 1454–1836 (71 kg m−2 a−1) was only one-quarter of that in the 20th century. The SMB in the 1080–1157 km zone fluctuates the most, possibly due to erosion or irregular deposition of snow by katabatic winds in low SMB areas with surface elevation fluctuations. Dome A (1157–1236 km) has the lowest SMB (29 kg m−2 a−1) and did not decrease during Little Ice Age. Understanding the spatiotemporal variability of SMB in a larger space can help us understand the complex climate history of Antarctica.
Coupled with the social practice of female hypergamy, the male surplus within the never-married population means that today's Chinese marriage market is extremely tight in particular for men from a rural background and the least privileged socio-economic categories. Drawing on quantitative data from a survey conducted in 2014–2015, this article sheds light on the situation of single men who are past prime marriage age in three rural districts of Shaanxi particularly affected by this phenomenon. It compares single men's characteristics to those of their married counterparts and offers insights into the heterogeneity of single men with the aim of challenging some commonly accepted assumptions about bachelorhood in rural China. Results suggest a strong internalization of the various characteristics, centred on being able to offer social mobility to a potential wife, that a man is expected to have to be attractive to women in a context where women have more choice in mate selection. We conclude that mate selection is highly marked by class, social norms, social interactions, health, generation and age, and requires the mobilization of certain amounts of individual, social and economic resources. Unwanted bachelorhood would thus be better understood using an intersectional approach rather than mainly in numeric terms.
A coaxial-output rolled strip pulse-forming line (RSPFL) with a dry structure is researched for the purpose of miniaturization and all-solid state of pulse-forming lines (PFL). The coaxial-output RSPFL consists of a coaxial-output electrode (COE) and a rolled strip line (RSL). The COE is characterized by quasi-coaxial structure, making the output pulse propagate along the axial direction with a small output inductance. The RSL is rolled on the COE, whose transmission characteristics are analyzed theoretically. It shows that the RSL can be regarded as a planar strip line when the rolling radius of the strip line is larger than 60 times of the thickness of the insulation dielectric layer of RSL. CST modeling was carried out to simulate the discharging characteristic of the coaxial-output RSPFL. It shows that the coaxial-output RSPFL can deliver a discharging pulse with a rise time <6 ns when the impedance of the RSL matches that of the COE, which confirms the theoretical analysis. A prototype of the coaxial-output RSPFL was developed. A 49-kV discharging pulse on a matched load was achieved when it was charged to 100 kV. The discharging waveform has a pulse width of 32 ns, with a rise time of 6 ns, which is consistent with the simulation waveform. An energy-storage density of 1.9 J/L was realized in the coaxial-output RSPFL. By the method of multi-stage connection in series, a much higher output voltage is convenient to be obtained.
More than 200 molecular clouds were newly found distributed beyond the Outer arm in the extreme outer Galaxy (EOG) region by MWISP. Those MCs roughly following the HI′s distribution well delineate the outermost spiral structure (the Outer Scutum-Centaurus arm) and warp of our Galaxy. Besides, those MCs show different σv-Radius relation and exhibit higher value of αvir than MCs in the inner Galaxy.
Mesoporous titania films are prepared via the polymer-template assisted sol-gel synthesis at low temperatures, using the titania precursor ethylene glycol-modified titanate (EGMT) and the diblock copolymer polystyrene-block-polyethyleneoxide (PS-b-PEO). UV-irradiation is chosen as a low temperature technique to remove the polymer template and thereby to obtain titania sponge-like nanostructures at processing temperatures below 100 °C. After different UV irradiation times, ranging for 0 h to 24 h, the surface and inner morphologies of the titania films are studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS), respectively. The evolution of the band gap energies is investigated using ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy. The findings reveal that 12 h UV-treatment is sufficient to remove the polymer template from the titania/PS-b-PEO composite films with a thickness of 80 nm, and the determined bad gap energies indicate an incomplete crystallization of the titania nanostructures.
The effects of W, Re, Cr, and Mo on microstructural stability, such as the morphology of γ′ phase and the topologically close-packed (TCP) phase precipitation are systematically investigated in eleven kinds of Ni-based single crystal superalloys containing certain amounts of Co, Al, and Ta. After heat treatment, all the designed alloys show different sizes of γ′ phases with typical cuboidal morphology occupying 75% of the total volume. With increasing Re content, the size of γ′ decreases obviously, while the size of γ′ decreases slightly with increasing Cr and Mo contents. Increasing W does not affect the size of γ′. As a result of thermal exposure at 1000 °C for 1000 h, some acicular, rod-like, and blocky TCP phases are precipitated in most alloys. It is noted that Mo and Re can strongly promote the precipitation of TCP phase, but W has no obvious effect on TCP phase precipitation. In addition, transmission electron microscope analysis indicates that these TCP phases are σ phase, μ phase, and R phase.
Schizophrenia (SZ) is suggested to be a complex polygenetic disorder with high heritability. Genome-wide association studies have found that the rs1635, rs11038167, and rs10489202 polymorphisms are associated with SZ in Han Chinese. However, results of validation studies are inconsistent. This study aimed to test the association between the NKAPL rs1635, TSPAN18 rs11038167, and MPC2 rs10489202 polymorphisms and SZ in a Chinese population.
This study contained 700 unrelated SZ patients (300 Zhuang and 400 Han) and 700 gender- and age-matched controls (300 Zhuang and 400 Han). The polymorphisms in TSPAN18 (rs11038167), NKAPL (rs1635), and MPC2 (rs10489202) were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY method. Statistical analyses were performed with PLINK program and SPSS l6.0 for Windows. STATA11.1 was used for meta-analysis.
No statistically significant difference was found in different allele and genotype frequencies of rs1635, rs11038167, and rs10489202 between SZ cases and controls of Zhuang and Han ethnicities and the total samples (all p>0.05). Further meta-analysis suggested that single-nucleotide polymorphism rs10489202 was significantly associated with SZ in a Han Chinese population (pOR=0.002).
Our case–control study failed to validate the significant association of NKAPL rs1635, TSPAN18 rs11038167, and MPC2 rs10489202 polymorphisms with SZ susceptibility in the southern Zhuang or Han Chinese population. However, meta-analysis showed a significant association between MPC2 variant rs10489202 and SZ susceptibility in Han Chinese.
Abundant insect fossils have been recorded from the Lower Cretaceous of the Jiuquan Basin, but very few odonatans have been recorded. In this paper, a new damsel-dragonfly, Cretastenophlebia jiuquanensis sp. nov., is described from the Lower Cretaceous Zhonggou Formation in the Hanxiagou outcrop, Jiuquan Basin, northwestern China. This is the second species of the genus Cretastenophlebia Fleck et al., 2003. Cretastenophlebia jiuquanensis sp. nov. differs from Cretastenophlebia mongolica Fleck et al., 2003 in the presence of a broad discoidal triangle, a basally straight IR1 and less cells along the posterior wing margin between IR2 and RP2. Cretastenophlebia has been previously reported from the Lower Cretaceous of Bon-Tsagaan, central Mongolia. The new discovery expands the record of Cretastenophlebia to the Jiuquan Basin in Albian.
A new species of the Lower Jurassic genus Dorsettia Whalley, 1985 is described from the Lower Jurassic Badaowan Formation of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China, as Dorsettia sinica new species. It provides additional morphological characters for this genus and is the earliest Jurassic dragonfly in China after the end-Triassic extinction. The occurrence of Dorsettia in England and northwestern China indicates that the end-Triassic extinction probably did not have a drastic influence on damsel-dragonflies, or that the dispersal of damsel-dragonflies was relatively quick during the earliest Jurassic.
The effect of Co on element segregation and microstructure is investigated in the third generation Ni-based single crystal superalloys with 4, 8.5, and 11.5 wt% Co addition. The results show that the increase of Co content leads to a severe element segregation in as-cast microstructure. After heat treatment, the size of γ′ phase is slightly reduced with Co content increase. During the thermal exposure, the γ′ phase coarsens gradually but its coarsening rate decreases with increasing Co content. In addition, some acicular and blocky topologically close-packed (TCP) phases are precipitated in 4% Co and 8.5% Co alloys. However, no TCP phase can be found in 11.5% Co alloy. Finally, it may be concluded that although a higher Co content is harmful for the element segregation, it is beneficial to maintain the cuboidal morphology of γ′ phase, decrease its coarsening rate, and impede the precipitation of TCP phase.
Enhancement of heat transport across a fluid layer is of fundamental interest as well as great technological importance. For decades, Rayleigh–Bénard convection has been a paradigm for the study of convective heat transport, and how to improve its overall heat-transfer efficiency is still an open question. Here, we report an experimental and numerical study that reveals a novel mechanism that leads to much enhanced heat transport. When vertical partitions are inserted into a convection cell with thin gaps left open between the partition walls and the cooling/heating plates, it is found that the convective flow becomes self-organized and more coherent, leading to an unprecedented heat-transport enhancement. In particular, our experiments show that with six partition walls inserted, the heat flux can be increased by approximately 30 %. Numerical simulations show a remarkable heat-flux enhancement of up to 2.3 times (with 28 partition walls) that without any partitions.
NRGN is one of the most promising candidate genes for schizophrenia based on function and position. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the genetic association of this polymorphism with schizophrenia in the Zhuang and Han populations of south China.
Subjects and methods
A total of 282 patients (188 Han and 94 Zhuang) and 282 healthy subjects (188 Han and 94 Zhuang) were recruited. Of these, 246 schizophrenia patients underwent an assessment of psychotic symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). A TaqMan genotyping assay method was used to determine the genotypes.
We did not find a significant association of rs12807809 polymorphism with schizophrenia in the total pooled samples, or in the separate ethnic groups. However, in Han schizophrenia patients, quantitative data analyses showed that the CC genotype of the rs12807809 polymorphism was associated with PANSS aggression subscale score and activation subscale score. Furthermore, carriers of the C allele of rs12807809 polymorphism among Han schizophrenia patients had higher scores of general, activation, depression, aggression, and global symptoms than the T allele carriers.
In conclusion rs12807809 polymorphism may not contribute to the risk of schizophrenia but influence the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia in the Han population.
Morphological evolution and phase transformation of metastable intermediate precipitates are critical to their mechanical properties for the non-isothermal processing. During the non-isothermal precipitation, the formation of the new phases usually couples with structural evolution. Traditional structural characterization has limitation to resolve comprehensive changes simultaneously. In this study, we report direct observation, precipitation sequence, and the details of concurrent morphological and structural changes of various intermediate precipitates during non-isothermal heating in the Al–Cu systems with different pretreatments. The structural heterogeneity during the non-isothermal precipitation processes is resolved into coexistence of two different precipitate phases and quantitatively studied in terms of the phase transition and the morphological evolution. This paper presents the in situ small- and wide-angle synchrotron x-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) to refine and to identify the mixed structural information during multiple precipitation stages. The WAXS results show that the precipitation sequence is θ″ → (θ″ + θ′) → θ′ → (θ′ + θ) → θ upon heating. Due to the fact of the specifically oriented SAXS intensity, the evolution of the aforementioned phase transformation is resolved by the refinement of the SAXS intensity integrated over the selected area. These methods reveal multiscale information that is not trivial comparing to the traditional characterization methods.
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a common severe psychiatric disorder and a complex polygenic inherited disease that has not yet been fully interpreted. Heredity was proven to play an important role in the development of SZ. The association between the NOTCH4 gene rs3131296 polymorphism and SZ was reported to reach significance at the genome-wide level; therefore, it is necessary to replicate this association in other different populations.
To evaluate the association of the NOTCH4 gene rs3131296 polymorphism with the risk for SZ, and to explore whether a significant association could be replicated in different ethnic groups of China, we conducted this case–control study on 282 SZ cases (188 Han and 94 Zhuang) and 282 controls (188 Han and 94 Zhuang) among the Chinese Zhuang and Han populations.
The results showed no statistically significant difference in the genotype or allele frequencies of the NOTCH4 gene variant rs3131296 between SZ patients and healthy controls in either the Zhuang or Han samples (p > 0.05). In addition, no significant difference was found in genotype or allele frequencies of the NOTCH4 gene variant rs3131296 between cases and controls in the combined samples including Zhuang and Han samples.
Our study failed to replicate the significant association between the NOTCH4 gene rs3131296 polymorphism and the risk for SZ.
A method to design the composite insulation structures in pulsed power systems is proposed in this paper. The theoretical bases for this method include the Weibull statistical distribution and the empirical insulation formula. A uniform formula to describe the reliability (R) for different insulation media such as solid, liquid, gas, vacuum, and vacuum surface is derived. The dependence curves of the normalized applied field on R are also obtained. These curves show that the normalized applied field decreases rapidly as R increases but the declining rates corresponding to different insulation media are different. In addition, if R is required to be higher than a given level, the normalized applied field should be smaller than a certain value. In practical design, the common range of the applied fields for different insulation media should be chosen to meet a global reliability requirement. In the end, the proposed method is demonstrated with a specific coaxial high-voltage vacuum insulator.
Previous studies have suggested that the daidzein metabolite equol rather than daidzein itself contributes to the beneficial effect of soya foods in the prevention of CVD. The aim of the present study is to examine the proportion of equol excretion in Chinese adults and compare plasma lipids and carotid artery intima–media thickness (IMT) between equol excretors and non-excretors, and to evaluate the effect of soya isoflavone intakes on serum lipids and IMT in either equol excretors or non-excretors. Subjects (n 572; women n 362, men n 210) were recruited for the present study. An overnight urine sample was provided by each subject on their usual diet to quantify urinary concentrations of daidzein and equol. Far-wall IMT was determined by B-mode ultrasound in the right carotid at two sites, carotid bulb (CB-IMT) and common carotid artery (CCA-IMT), and fasting serum lipids were measured. Habitual dietary intakes were estimated with a FFQ, and soya isoflavone intake derived from the FFQ was assessed. Of the 572 subjects, the proportion of equol excretors on their usual diet was 25·0 % (n 143). Compared with non-excretors, equol excretors showed significantly lower serum TAG ( − 38·2 (95 % CI − 70·4, − 5·9) %, P = 0·012) and CCA-IMT ( − 4·9 (95 % CI − 9·7, − 0·3) %, P = 0·033). Equol excretors with higher daily isoflavone intakes ( − 5·4 mg/d) had significantly lower IMT ( − 16·2 %, P = 0·035) and tended to have higher HDL-cholesterol (P = 0·055) than did those with lower daily isoflavone intakes (1·5 mg/d), while no association was observed between soya isoflavone intakes and serum lipids or IMT in non-excretors. In conclusion, the benefits of soya isoflavones in preventing CVD may be apparent among equol excretors only.
A detailed history of volcanism covering the last 2840 years is reconstructed from the top 100.42 m of a 109.91 m ice core from Dome A (DA2005 ice core), East Antarctica. Using two known volcanic stratigraphic markers, the mean accumulation rate during the period AD 1260-1964 is found to be 23.2 mmw.e. a-1, consistent with the previously reported accumulation rate at Dome A. This mean accumulation rate is used to date the entire core. Volcanic eruptions in the period 840 BC-AD1998 are detected as outstanding sulphate events. Seventy-eight eruptions are identified, with a mean of 2.7 eruptions per century. Comparisons with previous Antarctic ice-core volcanic records are made to assess the quality of this new DA2005 record. In terms of dates for volcanic events, the DA2005 record is in good agreement with previous records in the second millennium ad (ad 1000-1998). A series of volcanic signatures found in both the DA2005 record and several other Antarctic ice-core records in the first millennium ad (ad 1-1000) appear to validate the DA2005 record during this time period. For the older periods, direct comparisons are difficult between the DA2005 record and other Antarctic ice-core records due to the lack of well-dated stratigraphic horizons.
In this work, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the linear thermal transport in suspended graphene and the nonlinear thermal transport phenomena in graphene nanoribbons (GNR). We use spectral energy density analysis to quantitatively address the relative importance of different types of phonon in thermal transport in suspended graphene. Negative differential thermal conductance (NDTC) and thermal rectification in graphene nanoribbons have been studied using nonequilibrium molecular dyanmics simulations. Ballistic transport regime, sufficient temperature nonlinearity and asymmetry are found to be necessary conditions for the onset of these behaviors.