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In this work, hierarchical mesoporous Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF microspheres have been prepared by hydrothermal, sulfurization, and subsequent calcination process. The effect of different sulfurization time on the morphology and capacitance of composites was tested. The high electrochemical performance of (Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF) composite was obtained when the sulfurization time was 3 h (Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF-3h), where a specific capacitance of 627.7 F/g at 0.25 A/g and excellent rate capability of about 97.8% capacitance retention at 2 A/g after 4000 cycles were achieved. Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor fabricated by (Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF-3h) composite and activated carbon (AC) as the positive and the negative electrodes, respectively, showed a high energy density of 75.96 W h/kg at a power density of 362.49 W/kg with a remarkable cycle stability performance of 91.2% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles. This incredible electrochemical behavior illustrates that the hierarchical mesoporous Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/N-3h microsphere electrodes are promising electrode materials for application in high-performance supercapacitors.
Process parameters (laser power and scanning speed) for H13 steel specimens produced by selective laser melting (SLM) are optimized, and microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties are investigated. The optimum process parameters are a laser power of 170 W and a scanning speed of 400 mm/s according to the maximum relative density of 99.2%. The microstructure consists of cellular grains and columnar crystal, which are composed of lath martensite and retained austenite, and there are no carbides or other second-phase particles present. The size of cellular grains is 1 μm. Compared with the common processed (forged and heat-treated) H13, SLM H13 has similar microhardness (561 HV) and tensile strength (1909 MPa) values. However, the elongation (12.4%) is a factor of ∼3 times higher and the impact energy (14.4 J) of the SLM specimen is somewhat lower. The relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties is discussed. Fine grains and no second-phase precipitation determine the strength and plasticity of SLM samples.
In inertial confinement fusion experiments that involve short-laser pulses such as fast ignition (FI), diagnosis of neutrons is usually very challenging because high-intensity γ rays generated by short-laser pulses would mask the much weaker neutron signal. In this paper, fast-response scintillators with low afterglow and gated microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are combined to build neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers for such experiments. Direct-drive implosion experiments of deuterium-gas-filled capsules were performed at the Shenguang-II Upgrade (SG-II-UP) laser facility to study the compressed fuel areal density (〈ρR〉) and evaluate the performance of such nTOF diagnostics. Two newly developed quenched liquid scintillator detectors and a gated ultrafast plastic scintillator detector were used to measure the secondary DT neutrons and primary DD neutrons, respectively. The secondary neutron signals were clearly discriminated from the γ rays from (n, γ) reactions, and the compressed fuel areal density obtained with the yield-ratio method agrees well with the simulations. Additionally, a small scintillator decay tail and a clear DD neutron signal were observed in an integrated FI experiment as a result of the low afterglow of the oxygen-quenched liquid scintillator.
In this paper, a triple-wideband bandpass filter (BPF) with controllable bandwidths based on two multi-mode stub-loaded resonators (MMSLRs) and a triple-mode resonator is presented. The MMSLR is loaded with two identical folded open-ended stubs and a T-shaped stub. Each passband of the tri-band BPF is formed by four resonant modes, which provide sufficient bandwidths to meet various application requirement. By adjusting the lengths of open-ended stubs, three passband bandwidths can be controlled individually. The center frequencies of the triple-wideband BPF are allocated at 2.7, 3.67, and 5.44 GHz, with the 3 dB fractional bandwidths (FBWs) of 20.1, 14.7, and 26.3%. Among the three passbands, the highest one covers the 5 G WiFi band (5.15–5.85 GHz). The measured results of the proposed filter exhibit excellent agreement with simulated results.
Randomised controlled trials comparing low- v. high-fat diets on cardiometabolic risk factors in people with overweight or obesity have shown inconsistent results, which may be due to the mixed metabolic status of people with excess adiposity. The role of dietary fat manipulation in modifying cardiometabolic indicators in people with overweight or obese without metabolic disturbance is unclear. Thus, meta-analysis was conducted to compare low- v. high-fat diets on cardiometabolic indicators in people who are overweight or obese without metabolic disturbance in the present study. Databases were searched until October 2016. The pooled effects of outcomes with heterogeneity were calculated with a random-effects model, heterogeneities were analysed by subgroup and meta-regression. As a result, twenty studies with 2106 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were lower following low-fat diets compared with high-fat diets: weighted mean difference (WMD) was −7·05 mg/dl (−0·18 mmol/l; 95 % CI −11·30, −2·80; P=0·001) and −4·41 mg/dl (−0·11 mmol/l; 95 % CI −7·81, −1·00; P=0·011), respectively. Conversely, significant higher level of TAG (WMD: 11·68 mg/dl (0·13 mmol/l), 95 % CI 5·90, 17·45; P<0·001) and lower level of HDL-cholesterol (WMD: −2·57 mg/dl (−0·07 mmol/l); 95 % CI −3·85, −1·28; P<0·001) were found following low-fat diets compared with high-fat diets. In conclusion, dietary fat manipulation has a significant influence on blood lipid levels in people with overweight or obesity without metabolic disturbances.
In order to improve understanding of spatial and temporal variations of stable isotopes in atmospheric precipitation, snow cover and glacier meltwater in different regions of China, samples were collected for isotopic analysis in four areas: Yulong mountain, Yunnan Himalaya (temperate-glacier area); Samdain Kangsang mountain, Nyainqêntanglha Shan (subpolar-glacier area); the headwater area of the Ürümqi river, Tien Shan (subpolar-glacier area); and Muztag mountain, Pamirs (polar-glacier area). Sampling was undertaken in both summer and winter between 2000 and 2003. The δ18O values show a ‘temperature–altitude effect’ in new winter snow on Yulong mountain, reflecting the condensation and fractionation processes associated with the winter monsoon, but a different, more complex pattern in residual snow deposited during the summer monsoon; this old snow is influenced by the ‘precipitation amount effect’, solar radiation and evaporation, and the water content of the snowpack. The summer precipitation at Samdain Kangsang mountain is associated with the summer monsoon. There is a marked precipitation amount effect during the long passage of the southwest/India monsoon from the distant moisture source to Samdain Kangsang mountain, and the summer precipitation is strongly depleted of the heavy isotope. Above 6000 m, the high radiation flux causes much evaporation from the snow surface. The associated 1 8O enrichment of the snow is reflected in a ‘reverse altitude effect’. The δ18O values in the summer snowpack of the Tien Shan and Muztag mountain decrease with increasing altitude and decreasing air temperature, indicating a temperature–altitude effect. Post-depositional processes cause isotopic changes during the transformation of snow/firn/ice to meltwater; the effects are much stronger at temperate than at polar glaciers. Moreover, changes in the isotopic signal at both temperate and polar glaciers can result from evaporation, sublimation, ablation and drifting.
A miniaturized substrate-integrated coaxial line (SICL) bandpass filter with improved upper stopband using asymmetrical spiral stub-loaded resonators is presented in this paper. Owing to the space-filling feature of the spiral structure, the size of the proposed filter is significantly reduced. A theoretical analysis is carried out to examine the resonance property of the proposed resonator. It is found that the frequency ratios of the second and third harmonics to the fundamental frequency can be extended to 2.86 and 4.4. Benefiting from the circuit structure and SICL technology, the designed filter has a small size, wide stopband, low crosstalk, and high-density integration ability. The measured results show that the proposed filter, with dimensions of 0.051λ0 × 0.044λ0, operates at 1.056 GHz and the 20-dB rejection band is extended to 3.94f0.
To evaluate the effects of different anthropogenic activities on zooplankton and the pelagic ecosystem, we conducted seasonal cruises in 2010 to assess spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of Xiangshan Bay, a subtropical semi-enclosed bay in China. The evaluation included five different areas: a kelp farm, an oyster farm, a fish farm, the thermal discharge area of a power plant, and an artificial reef, and we aimed to identify whether anthropogenic activities dominated spatial variation in the mesozooplankton communities. The results demonstrated clear spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of the studied areas, dominantly driven by natural hydrographic properties, except in the area near the thermal discharge outlet of the power station. In the outlet area, thermal shock caused by the discharge influenced the mesozooplankton community by decreasing abundance and biomass throughout the four seasons, even causing a shift in the dominant species near the outlet during summer from Acartia pacifica to eurythermal and warm water taxa. Unique features of the mesozooplankton community in the oyster farm may be due to the combined effects of oyster culture and the natural environment in the branch harbour. However, kelp and fish culture, and the construction of an artificial reef did not exert any obvious influence on the mesozooplankton communities up to 2010, probably because of the small scale of the aquaculture and a time lag in the rehabilitation effects of the artificial reef. Thus, our results suggested that the dominant factors influencing spatial variations of mesozooplankton communities in Xiangshan Bay were still the natural hydrographic properties, but the thermal discharge was an anthropogenic activity that changed the pelagic ecosystem, and should be supervised.
In this article, we extend the notion of FP-injective modules to that of Cartan–Eilenberg complexes. We show that a complex
is Cartan–Eilenberg FP-injective if and only if
are complexes consisting of FP-injective modules over right coherent rings. As an application, coherent rings are characterized in various ways, using Cartan–Eilenberg FP-injective and Cartan–Eilenberg flat complexes.
Flavonoids may play an important role in the protective effects of vegetables, fruits and tea against colorectal cancer. However, associations between flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent, and a few studies have evaluated the effect of flavonoids from different dietary sources separately. This study aimed to evaluate associations of flavonoids intake from different dietary sources with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. From July 2010 to December 2015, 1632 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1632 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated FFQ was used to estimate dietary flavonoids intake. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to calculate the OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk after adjusting for various confounders. No significant association was found between total flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk, with an adjusted OR of 1·06 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·32) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. Anthocyanidins, flavanones and flavones intakes from total diet were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted OR for the highest quartile were 0·80 (95 % CI 0·64, 1·00) for anthocyanidins, 0·28 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·36) for flavanones and 0·54 (95 % CI 0·43, 0·67) for flavones. All subclasses of flavonoids from vegetables and fruits were inversely associated with colorectal cancer. However, no significant association was found between tea flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk. These data indicate that specific flavonoids, specifically flavonoids from vegetables and fruits, may be linked with the reduced risk of colorectal cancer.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
We performed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating and wiggle-matching of 2 wood samples from charred trunks of trees (samples A and B) collected from an ignimbrite deposit on the northeastern slope of the Baitoushan Volcano on the border of China and North Korea. The obtained calendar years for the eruption are cal AD 945–960 for sample A and cal AD 859–884 and cal AD 935–963 for sample B in the 2-σ range. These results are unable to determine the precise eruption age. The reason for the difference in reported ages may be due to volcanic gas emission prior to the huge eruption.
Motivated by applications in areas such as cloud computing and information technology services, we consider GI/GI/1 queueing systems under workloads (arrival and service processes) that vary according to one discrete time scale and under controls (server capacity) that vary according to another discrete time scale. We take a stochastic optimal control approach and formulate the corresponding optimal dynamic control problem as a stochastic dynamic program. Under general assumptions for the queueing system, we derive structural properties for the optimal dynamic control policy, establishing that the optimal policy can be obtained through a sequence of convex programs. We also derive fluid and diffusion approximations for the problem and propose analytical and computational approaches in these settings. Computational experiments demonstrate the benefits of our theoretical results over standard heuristics.
Previous epidemiological studies have revealed the anti-cancer effect of dietary circulating carotenoids. However, the protective role of specific individual circulating carotenoids has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether serum carotenoids, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, could lower the risk for breast cancer among Chinese women. A total of 521 women with breast cancer and age-matched controls (5-year interval) were selected from three teaching hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were measured using HPLC. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate OR and 95 % CI using quartiles defined in the control subjects. Significant inverse associations were observed between serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. The multivariate OR for the highest quartile of serum concentration compared with the lowest quartile were 0·44 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·65) for α-carotene, 0·27 (95 % CI 0·18, 0·40) for β-carotene, 0·41 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·61) for lycopene and 0·26 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·38) for lutein/zeaxanthin. However, no significant association was found between serum β-cryptoxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. Stratified analysis by menopausal status and oestrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) showed that serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women and among all subtypes of ER or PR status. The results suggest a protective role of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, but not β-cryptoxanthin, in breast cancer risk.
Wideband dipole antennas are proposed using the multi-mode resonance concept. By symmetrically introducing one-pair or two-pair of stubs at the nulls of current distribution of the second odd-order mode, two radiation modes are excited in a single, center-fed dipole resonator. Using these stubs, the second odd-order mode gradually moves down to its first counterpart, resulting to achieve a wideband radiation with two resonances. Prototype antennas are then fabricated to experimentally validate the design approach. Compared with a reference dipole with a bandwidth of 17%, the proposed dipole's bandwidth can be effectively increased to 49.7%.