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Oxidative stress is closely related to metabolic disorders, which can lead to various diseases. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a central regulator of oxidative stress. Sodium butyrate (NaB) has been shown to alleviate oxidative stress and insulin resistance, yet how Nrf2 is involved in the action of NaB remains unclear. In the present study, rats were rendered obese by feeding a high-fat diet for 9 weeks. NaB (300 mg/kg), which was gavaged every 2 d for 7 weeks, significantly alleviated high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Additionally, the insulin signalling pathway in the liver was activated by NaB, associated with significant activation of Nrf2, superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Furthermore, hepatic up-regulation of Nrf2 in NaB-treated rats was associated with reduced protein content of histone deacetylase 1 and increased histone H3 acetyl K9 (H3K9Ac) modification on the Nrf2 promoter. The actions of NaB were completely abolished when Nrf2 was knocked down in vitro. Taken together, NaB acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor to up-regulate Nrf2 expression with enhanced H3K9Ac modification on its promoter. NaB-induced Nrf2 activation stimulates transcription of downstream antioxidant enzymes, thus contributing to the amelioration of high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance.
To assess helical tomotherapy (TOMO) current clinical application and practice in mainland China.
Materials and methods:
Data were collected for all TOMO units clinically operational in mainland China by 30 April 2016, including (a) the distribution of installation and staffing levels; (b) types of cancers treated; (c) utilisation efficiency; (d) quality assurance; (e) maintenance; (f) optional features; and (g) satisfaction levels. The data were collected as a census and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively.
As of 30 April 2016, 23 TOMO units were used clinically by 22 hospitals in mainland China. In the same period, 22,558 cancer patients were treated. For TOMO units with more than a year of clinical utilisation, a median of 378 cases were treated annually per machine. The median daily operation was 10·5 hours, and treatment headcount was 38·3 patients. The median service outage rate was 2·6%, and the most common cause was malfunction of the multi-leaf collimator. In terms of overall satisfaction levels, 3 hospitals were very satisfied, 16 were satisfied and 3 considered their satisfaction level as average.
The overall operation of TOMO is good, but there are some problems due to running at full capacity, lack of clinical efficacy research and insufficient quality assurance regulations.
Invasive smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel) eradication is important for the health of many coastal ecosystems. An integrated regime of continuous submergence after clear mowing, with three interval levels between mowing and submergence (5, 10, and 15 d) and three submergence depths (20, 30, and 50 cm), was implemented in cofferdams enclosing invader populations along a Chinese coast. In July of the following year, after the roots of mowed S. alterniflora had been submerged for 12 mo, some ramets grew under the regime with an interval of 15 d and the regime with a submergence depth of 20 cm, but no ramets occurred under the regimes with submergence depths of 30 or 50 cm and intervals of 5 or 10 d. Four crab species were documented: Helice tridens tientsinensis Rathbun, Sesarma dehaani H. Milne-Edwards, Ocypode stimpsoni Ortmann, and Chiromantes haematocheir de Haan. Biomass and abundance values of crab species in the cofferdams were similar to those in the mudflats but different from those in smooth cordgrass populations. Thus, the treatment of submergence after mowing, which was implemented in the cofferdams, can control S. alterniflora and provide a mudflat-like habitat that promotes crab recovery if this treatment uses the proper combination of submergence depth and interval between mowing and submergence.
We report a new pulsed chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) process to deposit nickel (Ni) and nickel carbide (Ni3Cx) thin films, using bis(1,4-di-tert-butyl-1,3-diazabutadienyl)nickel(II) precursor and either H2 gas or H2 plasma as the coreactant, at a temperature from 140 to 250 °C. All the PCVD films are fairly pure with low levels of N and O impurities. The films deposited with H2 gas at ≤200 °C are faced centered cubic-phase Ni metal films with low C content; but at ≥220 °C, another phase of rhombohedral Ni3C is formed and the C content increases. However, when H2 plasma is used, the films are always in rhombohedral Ni3C phase for the entire temperature range.
A new minimally invasive surgical (MIS) robot consisting of a spherical remote center motion (RCM) mechanism with modular design is proposed. A multi-objective dimensional synthesis model is presented to obtain the excellent performance indices. There are four objectives: a global kinematic index, a compactness index, a global comprehensive stiffness index, and a global dynamic index. Other indices characterizing the design requirement, such as workspace, mechanical parameter, and mass, are chosen as constraints. A new decoupled mechanism is raised to solve the coupled motion between the linear platform and the four degrees of freedom (DoF) of surgical instrument as a result of post-driving motors. Another new mechanical decoupled method is proposed to eliminate the coupled motion between the wrist and the forceps, enhance the dexterity of surgical instrument, and improve the independence of each motor. Then, a 7-DoF MIS robotic prototype based on optimization results has been built up. Experiment results validate the effectiveness of the two mechanical decoupled methods. The position change of the RCM point, accuracy, and repeatability of the MIS robot meet the requirements of MIS. Successful animal experiments validate the effectiveness of the novel MIS robot.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of the low-protein diets (LPD) supplemented with ketoacids (LPD+KA) in KKAy mice, an early type 2 DN model. KKAy mice were treated with normal protein diet (NPD), LPD or LPD+KA from 12 to 24 weeks of age. A period of 12-week treatment with LPD significantly reduced albuminuria as compared with that observed after NPD treatment. Treatment with LPD+KA further reduced albuminuria as compared with that observed with LPD treatment alone. Moreover, LPD treatment reduced mesangial expansion, thickness of glomerular basement membrane and the severity of the podocyte foot process effacement in KKAy mice; these effects were more pronounced in KKAy mice treated with LPD+KA. Both LPD and LPD+KA treatments slightly reduced total body weight, but had no significant effect on kidney weight and blood glucose concentrations when compared with NPD-treated KKAy mice. LPD treatment slightly attenuated oxidative stress in kidneys as compared with that observed in NPD-treated KKAy mice; however, LPD+KA treatment remarkably ameliorated oxidative stress in diabetic kidneys as shown by decreased malondialdehyde concentrations, protein carbonylation, nitrotyrosine expression and increased superoxide dismutase expression. Nutritional therapy using LPD+KA confers additional renal benefits as compared with those of LPD treatment alone in early type 2 DN through inhibition of oxidative stress.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
The NiAl matrix composite coatings containing silver and molybdenum were prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying and their tribological properties were investigated in details from 25 to 900 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman, scanning election microscopy (SEM) and transmission election microscopy (TEM) were used to analyze the composition and microstructure of composite coatings. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results shown that molybdenum and silver were exist in single-phase, but not alloyed in composite coatings. The addition of silver could effectively improve the tribological properties of composite coatings at the wide range of temperature. The silver, nickel and molybdenum could occur the tribo-chemical reaction and form silver molybdates and nickel molybdates lubricating films inside the wear track of composite coatings at high temperature. The friction process promoted the formation of the silver molybdates. The silver molybdates, nickel molybdates and NiO were the main components in composite coatings at high temperature, which could effectively improve tribological properties of composite coatings.
To determine the prevalence of high weight at different characteristics, understand the perceptions and behaviours towards high body weight, and determine potential influencing factors of body weight misperception among high-weight adults in Jilin Province.
A cross-sectional survey with complex sampling design was conducted. We described the prevalence and perception of high body weight.
Northeast China in 2012.
Adults (n 20 552) aged 18–79 years.
Of overweight individuals, 37·4 % considered themselves as ‘normal weight’, 4·8 % reported themselves as being ‘very thin’ and only 53·1 % were aware of their own weight being ‘overweight’. About 1·8 % of both male and female obese individuals perceived themselves as ‘very thin’. Only 29·1 % of obese people thought of themselves as ‘too fat’. Nearly 30·0 % of centrally obese men and women perceived that their waist circumference was about right and they were of ‘normal weight’; 5·7 % of the centrally obese even perceived themselves as being ‘very thin’. Only 51·8 and 12·5 % of centrally obese individuals reported themselves to be ‘overweight’ or ‘too fat’. Body weight misperception was more common in rural residents (OR; 95 % CI: 1·340; 1·191, 1·509). The prevalence of body weight misperception increased with age (middle age: 1·826; 1·605, 2·078; old people: 3·101; 2·648, 3·632) and declined with increased education level (junior middle school: 0·628; 0·545, 0·723; senior middle school: 0·498; 0·426, 0·583; undergraduate and above: 0·395; 0·320, 0·487).
Body weight misperception was common among adults from Jilin Province.
The objective of this study was to build a database to collect infectious disease information at the scene of a disaster through the use of 128 epidemiological questionnaires and 47 types of options, with rapid acquisition of information regarding infectious disease and rapid questionnaire customization at the scene of disaster relief by use of a personal digital assistant (PDA).
SQL Server 2005 (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) was used to create the option database for the infectious disease investigation, to develop a client application for the PDA, and to deploy the application on the server side. The users accessed the server for data collection and questionnaire customization with the PDA.
A database with a set of comprehensive options was created and an application system was developed for the Android operating system (Google Inc, Mountain View, CA). On this basis, an infectious disease information collection system was built for use at the scene of disaster relief. The creation of an infectious disease information collection system and rapid questionnaire customization through the use of a PDA was achieved.
This system integrated computer technology and mobile communication technology to develop an infectious disease information collection system and to allow for rapid questionnaire customization at the scene of disaster relief. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:668–673)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHCY; total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) concentration >15 μmol/l) and its major determinants in healthy Chinese northerners. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in Shaanxi Province, China. The study sample included 2645 participants (1042 men and 1603 women) aged >20 years. Demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors were assessed via questionnaire interviews and physical examination. Plasma levels of homocysteine and folate and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism were determined according to standard methods. The prevalence of HHCY was 67·7 % (81·4 % in men and 58·8 % in women). The geometric mean of tHcy concentration was 19·1 μmol/l. The OR of HHCY were 0·44 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·57) for women v. men; 1·95 (95 % CI 1·41, 2·70), 1·41 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·88) and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·89) for participants with smoking and alcohol drinking cessation and improved physical activity levels, respectively; 0·25 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·38), 0·33 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·49) and 0·56 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·88) for participants with an education level of elementary school, secondary school and university v. illiterate, respectively; 1·41 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·75) and 3·05 (95 % CI 2·35, 3·97) for participants with CT and TT v. CC genotype at MTHFR 677C → T polymorphism, respectively. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of HHCY is considerably high in Chinese northerners, especially in TT subjects, suggesting that implementation of tHcy-lowering strategies, such as lifestyle changes, is necessary.
Cooperative Localisation (CL) technology is required in some situations for Multiple Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (MUUVs) missions. During the CL process, the Relative Localisation Information (RLI) of the master UUV is transmitted to slave UUVs via acoustic communication. In the underwater environment, the RLI is subject to a random time delay. Considering the time delay characteristic of the RLI during the acoustic communication, a Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) method with a Delayed Extended Kalman Filter (DEKF)-based arrival cost update law is presented in this paper to obtain an accurate and reliable estimation of present location. Additionally, an effective computation method for the MHE method is employed, in which the “Lower Upper” (LU) factorization is used to compute the solution of the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) system. At the end of this paper, simulation results are presented to prove the superiority and practicality of the proposed MHE algorithm.
In situ transmission electron microscopy was performed on the electromigration in platinum (Pt) nanowires (14 nm thick, 200 nm wide, and 300 nm long) with and without feedback control. Using the feedback control mode, symmetric electrodes are obtained and the gap usually forms at the center of the Pt nanowire. Without feedback control, asymmetric electrodes are formed, and the gap can occur at any position along the wire. The three-dimensional gap geometries of the electrodes in the Pt nanowire were determined using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy; the thickness of the nanowire is reduced from 14 nm to only a few atoms at the edge with a gap of about 5–10 nm.
Red skin disease seriously limits the production and quality of Panax ginseng (ginseng) in the Changbai Mountains of Northeast China, which is the main origin of ginseng. To cultivate ginseng, the albic and humus horizons of albic luvisols are artificially mixed to produce ginseng bed soils. To clarify the relationship between red skin disease and soil characteristics, red skin disease indices were calculated from six plots located on a ginseng farm. Ginseng roots were analysed for aluminium (Al) content. Soils from the ginseng beds were sampled at three depths for the evaluation of physico-chemical parameters. Al fractionation from the soil solid fraction was analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Ginseng plants exhibiting larger red skin areas accumulated higher concentrations of Al in the epidermis and in the fibrous roots. Ginseng bed soils in the six plots were acidic with pHH2O values ranging from 4.0 to 5.0. Plots exhibiting higher red skin disease indices also had higher bulk densities, moisture contents and nitrate concentrations. They also contained higher concentrations of exchangeable Al, NaOH-extracted Al and ammonium oxalate-oxalic-extracted Al in the bed soils. The Al saturation and molar ratio of base cations to Al were above 20% and below 10, respectively, in the two plots with the highest disease indices. Compact soils with higher moisture, nitrate concentrations and active Al species may increase the incidence of ginseng red skin disease.
This paper investigates task allocation for multiple robots by applying the game theory-based negotiation approach. Based on the initial task allocation using a contract net-based approach, a new method to select the negotiation robots and construct the negotiation set is proposed by employing the utility functions. A negotiation mechanism suitable for the decentralized task allocation is also presented. Then, a game theory-based negotiation strategy is proposed to achieve the Pareto-optimal solution for the task reallocation. Extensive simulation results are provided to show that the task allocation solutions after the negotiation are better than the initial contract net-based allocation. In addition, experimental results are further presented to show the effectiveness of the approach presented.
Several divergent sympatry mtDNA lineages have been described in redlip mullet Liza haematocheilus, and this high inter-lineage divergence raises questions about the taxonomic status of L. haematocheilus lineages in the north-western Pacific. In this study, the amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was employed to examine genetic structure of L. haematocheilus and estimate the level of independence of the different mtDNA lineages in the north-western Pacific. A total of 186 bands were amplified from 91 individuals among 8 populations by 4 primer combinations and the percentage of polymorphic bands was 91.74%. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean tree based on Nei genetic distance revealed two clusters (North Clade and South Clade). Molecular variance analysis and pairwise FST supported the separation of north and south populations of L. haematocheilus in the north-western Pacific. The incongruence between nuclear groups and mitochondrial lineages suggests the three distinct lineages do not represent cryptic species and the presence of divergent mitochondrial lineages in the same sample is a result of secondary contact after an extended period of isolation. The Pleistocene isolation and biological characteristics of species may be responsible for the genetic differentiation of L. haematocheilus.
The migration mechanism and the minimum energy path of vacancies, interstitials, and an interstitial–vacancy pair in zinc oxide have been studied by the dimer method. The in-plane and out-of-plane migrations of zinc and oxygen vacancies are anisotropic. The kick-out mechanism is energetically preferred to zinc and oxygen interstitials that can easily migrate through the ZnO crystal lattice. In addition, the migration process of an interstitial–vacancy pair as a complex of an octahedral oxygen interstitial and a zinc vacancy is dominated by an oxygen interstitial/zinc vacancy successive migration. The energy barriers indicate that the existence of oxygen interstitial in the defect pair can promote the mobility of zinc vacancy, whereas the migration of oxygen interstitial is slowed down due to the presence of zinc vacancy. In the end, we show a possible migration path of the interstitial–vacancy pair that can be dissociated through a set of displacement movements.
The evaluation of Beidou system time is one of the important tasks in constructing and developing the Beidou satellite navigation system. The evaluation methods based on two-way satellite time and frequency transfer method (TWSTFT) and GPS common-view method are proposed in this paper. Tests and performance evaluation of the Beidou time system (BDT) were conducted. Results show that BDT is stable and reliable. The BDT frequency deviation, Allan deviations and clock offsets, relative to UTC (NTSC), are 10e-14, 10e-15 and less than 30 ns respectively.
The different effects of ethanol on insulin sensitivity may be due to complex reasons. Here, we focus on the various daily ethanol consumption frequencies in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet and explore the possible mechanism mediated by adiponectin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A total of thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed a HF diet and were randomly divided into three groups: those that received tap water (C); those that received ethanol via a gastric tube twice per d (E1); those that received free access to ethanol for drinking (E2). The total daily ethanol dosage in groups E1 and E2 were the same (5 g/kg per d). At the end of 18 weeks, insulin sensitivity was evaluated. Adiponectin AMPK and GLUT4 levels were determined. We found that the different administration frequencies led to markedly different plasma ethanol concentrations and there were intimate relationships between plasma ethanol concentration and insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance was markedly improved in group E1, whereas only a slight improvement was observed in group E2. Accordingly, adiponectin, phosphorylated AMPK and GLUT4 levels were significantly increased in group E1. Based on these findings, we propose that ethanol concentration might be the major influencing factor mediating the effect of ethanol on insulin sensitivity. At a total daily dosage of 5 g/kg per d, twice daily administration of ethanol was more beneficial than continuous drinking. The protective effect of ethanol might be mediated by increased adiponectin levels, which subsequently improve the activation of AMPKα and GLUT4 expression in adipose tissue.